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Purchased by the 
Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy Church History Fund. 


Section !^..^-^C-^ 



















This ediiuni of Scoi's DiscovERlE avis/s/s 
of 2jo copies only. — E. S. 


The Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 

W. Aldis Wright, LL.D., Cambridge. 

Fabyan Amery, Esq., Ashburton. 

J. E. Bailey, Esq., Stratford, Manchester. 

W. W. Baynes, Esq., London. 

Ernest Blacker, Esq., Midsomer Norton. 

D, Brodie, Esq., Canterbury. 

A. H. BULLEN, Esq., West Hampstead. 

Miss BURSILL, London. 

J. Patterson Cassells, M.D., Glasgow. 

Prof. Chrystal, Edinburgh. 

Sir Andrew Clark, Bart., M.D., LL.D., etc., London. 

The Lord Chief Justice Coleridge, London. 

C. W. Shirley Deakin, Esq., Allahabad. 

K. Deighton, Esq., Agra. 

Edw. Denham, Esq., New Bedford, U.S.A. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, Knowsley Hall. 

The Duke of Devonshire, Devonshire House. 

R. Dill, M.D,, Brighton. 

Dr. J. Matthews Duncan, A.M., F.R.S., etc., London. 

Mrs. D. P. Evans, Clifton, Bristol. 

P. F. Sparke Evans, Esq., Clifton, Bristol. 

Prof. John Ferguson, Glasgow. 

Alex. Forsyth, M.D., Greenwich. 

Francis F. Fox, J. P., Chipping Sodbury, Bristol. 

Prof. T. R. Fraser, M.D., Edinburgh. 

H. H. FURNESS, Esq., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

James Gairdner, Esq., London. 

Prof. W. T. Gairdner, M.D., LL.D., Glasgow, 

Edm. Goldsmid, F.S.A. (Scot.), Edinburgh. 

The Rev. A. B. Grosart, D.D., LL.D., Blackburn. 

C. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, Esq., F.R.S., etc., Brighton. 

Henry Hucks Gibbs, Esq., London. 

The Rev. W. A. HARRISON, South Lambeth. 

W. A. Hammond, Esq., New York. 

C. M. Ingleby, Esq., LL.D., Essex. 

Sir Wm. Jenner, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., etc., London. 

W. Oscar Jennings, M.D., Paris. 

Day. a. King, M.B., London. 

F. de M. Leathes, Esq., London, 

Library, British Museum. 

Exeter College, Oxford, 

Harvard Coll., Cambridge, U.S.A. 

Royal Institution, London. 


McGill University, Montreal. 

National, of Ireland. 

Society of Antiquaries, Scotland. 

St. Andrew's University, Aberdeen, 

Free, Sydney. 

Louis Leisler, Esq., Frankfort-on-the-Main. 
The Marquis of Lothian, Newbattle Abbey. 
Dove MacColman, M.D., Argyleshire. 
Prof Douglas Maclagan, M.D., Edinburgh. 
J. D. Marwick, Esq., LL.D., Glasgow. 
Prof David Masson, Edinburgh. 
John Morison, Esq., Glasgow. 
Prof H. MORLEY, LL.D., London. 

Sir JAS. Paget, Bart., F.R.S., LL.D., etc., London. 

Cornelius Payne, Esq., Kemp Town, Brighton. 

Miss E. Phipson, London. 

The Earl of Powis, Berkeley Square. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Rosebery, Dalmeney Castle. 

Jos. Carne Ross, M.D., Penzance. 

The Rev. E. E. Baylee Salisbury, B.D., Horncastle. 

Alex. Stewart, M.D., Pendleton, Manchester. 

W. G. Stone, Esq., Walditch, Bridport. 

Lawson Tait, F.R.C.S., Birmingham. 

Samuel Timmins, Esq., F.S.A., Arley, Coventry. 

D. Hack Tuke, M.D., LL.D., London. 

G. H. White, Esq., Torquay. 

Walter G. Whittingham, Esq., London. 

W. Wilson, Esq., Berwick-on-Tweed. 

A. J. Young, Esq., Edinburgh. 


(To tf)p iHnnor? 














'"T^HIS reprint is not a facsimile of the edition of 1584, for that was 
in black letter, and its page smaller and of quarto size. Being 
also for modern readers, and for use, the / of the original has become, 
where necessary, the j of the second edition ; the u and v have been 
altered according to modern usage, that is, generally interchanged ; 
while the short s replaces theyl Such modernisations render it more 
readable by the historical and philosophical student, by the man of 
science, and by the psychological physician, willing to learn all that 
may instruct himself and benefit others. Neither would this reprint 
have been undertaken, unless the work itself had appeared to my 
friend and fellow-student, W. T. Gairdner, M.D., LL.D., Professor 
of Medicine in the University of Glagow, — and led by him — to myself 
and others, worthy on the above-mentioned grounds, of being repro- 
duced, and as being both in matter and style a valuable English 

While, however, it is not a facsimile, yet, excepting such variations 
as are above noticed, and allowing for the few and trifling errors from 
which no copy can expect to be free, not even a photographic one, as 
experts in these matters well know, this will, I believe, be found a 
correct reprint. Every proof has been thrice, and sometimes oftener, 
read over with the original by myself, and these efforts have been 
well supplemented by the intelligence and care of its printers. 
Even the word-errors of the original, where not in its list of 
errata, have been retained, though the true or conjectural readings 
have been given in the margin, or in two or three instances in 
the Notings at the end. Except also in two instances, where 
for necessity's sake alterations have been introduced within [ ]s, 
and the original given in the margin, the old punctuation has been 
retained, it being, as a rule, very good, while any slight slips are 

2>iji Preface. 

readily observed, and do not affect the sense. For such other differ- 
ences as are due to the black letter, and for others like these, I would 
refer the print-studying reader to the Introduction. 

In the biographical portion of this Introduction, besides a supposi- 
tion or two of my own, which from his writings seem to me highly 
probable, there have been given notices of his pedigree, age, and 
marriages, matters hitherto unknown or misstated, and for which I 
would at once record my indebtedness to Edmund Ward Oliver, Esq. 
This gentleman having taken an interest in investigating these ques- 
tions, and being a perfect stranger to me, wrote and offered the results 
of his inquiries so soon as he had learnt that I was engaged with this 
reprint, and has since most obligingly answered the various questions 
that I have had occasion to put to him. A copy of Scot's Will has 
been also for the first time published, and some Notes and a Glossary 
added. Were I to have imitated the learned editors of former days, 
I should have added, not some, but exhaustive notes on every point, 
gathered from every known and unknown source ; but I have con- 
fined myself to explanation, or to making a few remarks on the 
text, giving also the author's agreement with, or obligations to Wier, 
so far as I knew them, and Shakespeare's and Middleton's obligations 
to himself ; my reason for not entering into greater details being 
that I am no student of the pseudo-science of witchcraft, but a student 
only of what is useful, and true, and good. 

It would be unseemly, especially after mentioning Mr. Oliver's 
name, were I to close this without acknowledging the kind assistance 
of my well-known friend, James Gairdner, Esq., of the Public Record 
Office ; of my Shakespearian friends, W. Aldis Wright, LL.D., and 
P. A. Daniel, Esq. ; of that given me by the Very Reverend Father 
W. H, Eyre, lately Superior of Stonyhurst; by Mrs. Amelia Green; as 
also by Prof. W. W. Skeat, and Dr. J. A. H. Murray, in my Glossary; 
though all were, and personally are, strangers; as are Miss Kath. P. 
Woolrych, Oare Vicarage, Kent, and Miss Ayscough, of Brabourne 
Vicarage ; and especially that given me by my other Shakespearian 
friends, the Rev. W. H. Harrison, of St. Anne's, South Lambeth, and 
W\ G. Stone, Esq. My best thanks are also due to Mr. J. J. Jervis 
for the use, for the printer, of a partially incomplete copy of the first 

Preface. i% 

edition ; to the University of Glasgow for the loan, for my own use, 
for the greater part of a year, of another copy of this first edition ; 
and for the use for the same period of a copy of the third edition 
to my Alma Mater of Edinburgh, endeared to me by the teachings, 
remembrances, and kindnesses of Sir William Hamilton, Allan 
Thomson, Christison, Traill, Jamieson, that most sagacious of 
surgeons and teachers, Syme, and the ever-to-be-revered physician 
and man, W. Pulteney Alison. 

Br. Nicholson. 


The pagings, as usual., are those of the first edition. 

P. 20, heading, ch. ii, '■^ inqtiistor^\ read '■'inquisitors". 
P. 92, 1. 5, 6, "Ulyffes" {bis\ read "Ulysses". 
P. 169, 1. 9, "obsevation", read "observation". 

P. 192, 1. 3. "taiav'\ read "«(TTja;/". 

P. 334, 1. 2, from end, "three," read "three ;" 
P. 347, 1. 6, from end, " left it", read " left in", 
P. 522, 1. 6, from end, ''Silyllce", read "Sibylla". 



EXCEPT that they add the names of some who have opposed his 
views, or some such trifling matters, all the writers of biographi- 
cal notices of Scot have drawn their information from the account 
given of him in Wood's AtJietice Oxoti. Nor, indeed, until lately, un- 
less original search had been made, were other sources available. 
Hence I, in the first place, give his words verbatim from the edition 
of 1691. 

" Reynolde Scot, a younger Son of Sir /ohn Scot of Scots-hall^ 
near to Smeeth in Kent, by his Wife, Daughter of Reynolde Pimp of 
Pimps-court Knight, was born in that County, and at about 17 years 
of age was sent to Oxon, particularly, as it seems, to Hart hall, where 
several of his Country-men and name studied in the latter end of K. 
Hen. 8. and in the Reign oi Ed. 6. &^c. Afterwards he retired to his 
native Country without the honour of a degree, and settled at Sineetli, 
where he found great incouragement in his studies from his kinsman 
Sir Thos. Scot. About which time taking to him a Wife, he gave 
himself up solely to solid reading, to the perusing of obscure authors 
that had by the generality of Scholars been neglected, and at times 
of leisure to husbandry and gardening, as it may partly appear from 
these books following. 

"A perfect platform of a Hop-garden, and necessary instructions for 
the making and maintenance thereof, with notes and rules for refor- 
mation of all abuses, &c. Lond. 1576. qu. the 2. edit, as it seems. 

"The discovery of Witchcraft; wherein the leud dealing of Witches, 
and Witchmongers is notably detected, the knavery of Conjurers, 
the impiety of Inchantors, the folly of Southsayers, &c. With many 
other things are opened, which have long been hidden, howbeit very 
necessary to be known. Lond. 1584. qu. in 16 books. 

"Discourse upon Devils and Spirits. — In this, and the former, both 
printed together, it plainly appears that the author was very well 
versed in many choice books, and that his search into them was so 
profound, that nothing slip'd his Pen that might make for his purpose. 
Further also in the said Discovery and Discourse., though he holds 
that Witches are not such that were in his time and before, commonly 
executed for Witches ; or that Witches were, or are not ; yet they, 
which were written for the instruction of all Judges and Justices of 
that age, (being the first of that nature that were published in the 
Mother tongue,) did for a time make great impressions in the Magis- 

Inti'-oduction. xi 

tracy and Clergy, tho afterwards condemned by James King of 
Scots (the same who succeeded Ou. Elisabeth in the Monarchy of 
England) in his Preface to Dcemonology, printed under his Name at 
Edinburgh in 1597. cju. and by several others since, among whom 
was Rich. Bernard of Batcomb, in his Epist. Ded. before his 
Guide to Grand Jury-men., &c. Lond. 1627. in oct. What else our 
author Scot hath written, I cannot yet tell, nor anything else of him, 
only but that he dyed in Sept. or Oct. in fifteen hundred ninety and 
nine, and was buried among his Ancestors in the Church at Smeeth 

" In the time of the said Reynold Scot and before, have been con- 
versant among the Muses in Hart hall, the Sackviles of Sussex, the 
Colepepers of Kent and Sussex, the Sedlies of Kent, and the Scots 
before mentioned, with others of inferiour note of the said Counties." 

Notes added in Bliss's Reprint. 

" 7. The learned author in his Discovery is as vehement against 
Popery as against witchcraft, and quite indecent in his abuse of the 
saints of the Romish church." — Cole. [His indecency being for the 
most part a narrative of, and obvious reflections on, their indecency. 
And this I say understanding the sense in which he uses the word.] 

" 8. See a full account of this curious book, as Mr. Oldys calls it, in 
his British Librarian, p. 213. All the copies of the first edit. 1584, 
that could be found were burnt by order of K. James I. an author on 
the other side of the question." — Vid. Hist. Dictionary, sub voce " Scot". 

["Reginaldus Scotus, Afiglus, tractatum de Incantamentis scrip- 
sit, in quo plerasque traditiones de Magia Melancholia;, & morbis 
variis, aut artibus histrionicis adscribit."] " Hunc in Anglia publica 
auctoritate combustum, sibi autem nunquam fuisse visum refert 
Thomasius de crimine magiae § 3." — Vide [j. v.] Vogt., Cat. Libr. rar., 
p. 6(7 [1713]- 

" Liber in folio scriptus Anglica lingua a Reginaldo Scoto in quo 
plurima occurrunt contra magiaa existentiam argumenta. Est ille 
etiam in Belgicam linguam conversus : sed plenior editio est ultima 
Anglica." — Morhof., ii, 459. 

[Then a short note on the three editions.] 

In 1874 there were privately ^rmitd, Afe?norials oj the Scot Family., 
by Jas. Renat Scott, Esq., and from them I extract the following tables: 

Rich. Scott=f=Mary Whetenhall. 

Reginald Richard ancestor oj the Edvvard=j=May, d. of [2 d.] 
author. Scotts of Shrewsbury I JohnWar- 

and elseiuhere. \ ren. 

. j 
A quo the Scotts of Glemsford Suffolk and afterwards of 
Ohio and Massachusetts in America. 

xii Introduction. * 

Reg. Scott, b, 1541, =Alice Cobbe, d. of Th. Cobbe of Cobbes 

mar. 11 Oct. 1568, 
died Oct. 1599. 

Place, Aldington, Kent. 

Collyar=Marie. Elizabeth=Sackville Tumor of Tablehurst, 


But as the first part of the ancestry given in this book is not sup- 
ported by anything beyond possibility and legend, so this latter 
portion is incorrect in various particulars. Instead, however, of 
taking each inaccuracy item by item, it will be simpler to give a 
consecutive account of such facts as to his ancestry, and as to 
Reginald Scott himself, as can be proved by documentary evidence 
or rendered probable by deductions therefrom. 

John Philipot, Rouge Dragon and Somerset Herald, who died in 
1645, set forth the pleasant and picturesque, but slightly supported 
origin of the family. I say pleasant, because the Scotts in the times 
of EHzabeth, James, and Charles, were a family of large possessions, 
wealth, and influence, influence so great that it is said that Elizabeth 
refused the request made by Lord Buckhurst, or the Earl of Leicester, 
that Sir Thomas Scott should be ennobled, saying that he had already 
more influence in Kent than she had. She seems also to have had from 
this, or from some other reason, a personal dislike to them, for in her 
Progress in 1573, she having passed three days at his father-in-law's. 
Sir John Baker, of Sissinghurst Castle, declined to visit Scotts-hall, 
saying she wished to proceed to her own house, though on her way 
thither she had to pass Sir Thomas's gates. In his Villare Canti- 
anum, p. 313, Philipot has these words : *^ Scotts-hall, which is now 
and hath been for divers Descents the Inheritance of eminent Gentle- 
men of that Sirname, whom I dare aver upon probable Grounds 
were originally called BaliolL William Balioll, second brother to 
Alexander de Balioll, frequently writ his Name William de Balioll 
le Scot^ and it is probable, that upon the Tragedy of JoJm, Earl of 
At ho II, who was made prisoner hy Edward the first, and barbarously 
executed, in the year 1307. (whilst he endeavoured more nobly than 
successfully to defend the gasping Liberty of Scotland against the 
Eruption of that Prince ;) this Family to decline the Fury of that 
Monarch, who was a man of violent passions, altered the name of 

Introduction. xiii 

Balioll to that of their Extraction and Country, and assumed for the 
future the Name of Scot. That the Sirname of this Family was 
originally Balioll^ I farther upon these Reasons assert. First, the 
ancient Arms of Balioll Colledge in Oxford, which was founded by 
John Balioll, and dedicated to St. Katharine was a Katherin-Wheele, 
being still part of the paternal Coat of this Family. Secondly, David 
de Strabogie-i who was Son and Heir to the unfortunate Earl above- 
said, astonished with an Example of so much Terror, altered his name 
from Balioll to Strabogie, which was a Signory which accrued to him 
the Right of his Wife, who was Daughter and Heir io John Cof/tin, Earl 
of Badzenoth and Strabogie, and by this Name King Edward the 
second, omitting that of Balioll restored Chilham- castle to him for 
Life, in the fifteenth year of his reign. Thirdly, the Earls oi Buccletigh, 
and the Barons of Burley in Scotland, who derive themselves origin- 
ally from Balioll, are known at this instant by no other Sirname, but 
Scot, and bear with some inconsiderable Difference, those very Arms 
which are at present the paternal Coat of the Family of Scots-hall." 

This tradition excluded, we find that Sir William Scot of Braberne, 
now Brabourne, in Kent, is the first of whom we have historical 
mention. He was knighted in 1336, when the Black Prince was 
created Duke of Cornwall, and died in 1350 : a brass to his memory, 
being in Weever's time (1631), the first of the memorials of the Scot 
family in Brabourne church. According to Philipot, this Sir William 
was the same with Sir William Scot, then Chief Justice of England ; 
but if Mr. Foss be right in stating that this latter died in 1346, the 
year of the Black Death, this view cannot be upheld. 

Another Sir William, apparently a grandson of the above, acquired 
through his mother the manor of Combe in Brabourne, and through 
his first wife and her relations — modes of increase in which the 
family seem to have been fortunate — that of Orlestone, as well as 
other places; and in 1420 he built Scotshall, in the manor of Hall in 
Smeeth, and was in 1428 sheriff of the county, and in 1430 knight of 
the shire in parliament. He died 1433. Scotshall, from time to 
time enlarged or rebuilt, and especially so by Sir Edward Scot, in 
the reign of Charles I, became the family seat for twelve generations. 
Evelyn, under date August 2, 1663, records his visit to it (soon after 
the young knight's marriage), and calls it "a right noble seate, 

xiv Introduction. 

uniformely built, with a handsome gallery. It stands in a park well 
stor'd, the land fat and good. We were exceedingly feasted by the 
young knight, and in his pretty chapell heard an excellent sermon by 
his chaplaine." It was sold, with the remaining possessions of the 
family, at the close of the last century, and destroyed in 1808. Some 
undulations in a field on the north side of the road from Ashford to 
Hythe, about half a mile to the east of Smeeth church, alone mark 
its site. 

The son of this second Sir William, named Sir John, being con- 
nected with the Woodvilles, and therefore with the wife of Edward IV, 
and being a staunch Yorkist, and apparently a man of intelligence, 
was employed in special embassies to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, 
especially in 1467, when he went to treat of the marriage of the king's 
sister with the duke. He had also various other and more substantial 
favours conferred upon him from time to time, from 1461 onwards, 
including that of Chilham Castle for life, as somewhat oddly, and 
I think wrongly, noted in the extract from Philipot. He died in 1485, 
and probably intestate, as no will is recorded. 

To him succeeded his son, the third Sir William in this account, 
and he dying in 1524, was succeeded by his son, a second Sir John. 
This last, by his marriage with Anne, daughter of Reginald Pympe, 
had three sons, and died on the 7th October 1533. The eldest, 
William, followed his father on the 5th June 1536, and leaving no 
offspring, his next brother, Sir Reginald, took his place. Of the third 
brother, Richard, the father of our Reginald, I shall speak presently. 
Meanwhile, returning to the main line, I would say that Sir Reginald, 
dying on the i6th October 1554, was succeeded by his son, Sir 
Thomas, the "cousin" to whom Reginald was much indebted, and 
one of the four to whom he dedicated his Witchcraft. He was, in 
his day, a man of note, intelligence, and action. Finding his estate 
in debt, he yet kept one hundred at his table, was most hospitable, 
and died owing nothing, though, of course, to provide for the 
younger of his very numerous progeny, various portions of his estate 
were by his will sold after his death. He was deputy-lieutenant of 
his county, sheriff of Kent in 1576, knight of the shire for the 
Parliaments of 13 and 28 Elizabeth, chief of the Kentish forces at 
Northbourne Downs, where they were assembled to repel any landing 

Introduction. xv 

from the Armnda ; and it may be added, as showing his promptness, 
readiness, and decision, that 4,000 of these were there, equipped for the 
field, the day after he received his orders from the Privy Council. 
He was one of the Commissioners to report on the advisability of 
improving the breed of horses in this country, and either before or 
after this, is said to have published a book on the subject. He was a 
Commissioner for draining and improving Romney Marsh, and after- 
wards Superintendent of the improvements of Dover harbour. Various 
letters to and from him in reference to Dover harbour, as well as to the 
Kentish forces, are to be found in the State Calendars. Having been 
the parent of seventeen children by his first wife, Emmeline Kempe, a 
relative by maternal descent, he died on the 30th December 1594, and 
Ashford parish offered to pay the expenses of his funeral if only they 
were allowed to bury him in their church. Most of these facts are 
noted in the following verses, which I give, chiefly because there are 
some probabilities that they were by Reginald. A copy of them seems 
to have been found among the family papers, in his handwriting. 
That he made some of the verse translations given in his Witchcraft 
is extremely probable, from the want in these cases of marginal 
references to the translator's name; hence a second probability. The 
verses themselves render it likely that they were one of those 
memorial elegies then affixed tiri ra^oi/ by affectionate friends and 
relatives, and not what we now call an epitaph ; and the third verse 
clearly shows that they were written at least some little time after Sir 
Thomas's decease, and therefore were not improbably written to be 
affixed to the handsome tomb erected over his remains. Hence a third 
probability ; but beyond the accumulated force of these we cannot go. 

Epitaph on Sir Thomas Scott, as given in the " Memorials of the 
Scott Family", and also in Pick's " Collectio7t of Curious Pieces 
in the World", vol. 3. 

Here lyes Sir Thomas Scott by name ; 

Uh happie Kempe that bore him ! 
Sir Raynold, with four knights of fame, 

Lyv'd lyneally before him. 

His wieves were Baker, Heyman, Beere ; 

His love to them unfayned. 
He lyved nyne and fiftie yeare, 
And seventeen soules he gayned. 

xvi Inti^odiiction. 

His first wief bore them every one ; 

The world might not have myst her !* 
She was a very paragon 

The Lady Buckherst's syster. 

His widow lyves in sober sort, 
No matron more discreeter ; 

She still reteiynes a good report, 
And is a great housekeeper. 

He (being called to special place) 
Did what might best behove him. 

The Queen of England gave him grace, 
The King of Heav'n did love him. 

His men and tenants wail'd the daye, 
His Kinne and countrie+ cryed ; 

Both young and old in Kent may saye, 
Woe worth the day he dyed. 

He made his porter shut his gate 
To sycophants and briebors, 

And ope it v/ide to great estates. 
And also to his neighbours. 

His House was rightly termed Hall 
Whose bred and beefe was redie ; 

It was a very hospitall 

And refuge for the needie. 

From whence he never stept aside. 
In winter nor in summer ; 

In Christmas time he did provide 
Good cheer for every comer. 

When any service shold be doun, 
He lyked not to lyngar ; 

The rich would ride, the poor wold runn, 
If he held up his fingar. 

He kept tall men, he rydd great hors. 
He did write most finely ; 

He used fewe words, but cold discours 
Both wysely and dyvinely. 

His lyving meane,t his charges greate. 
His daughters well bestowed ; 

Although that he were left in debt. 
In fine he nothing owed. 

* Though a paragon, she lived, he would say, a quiet, retired life, obedient 
and loving to her husband. 

+ " Countrie", seems not unlikely to be used here, as in the Discoverie not 
unfrequently, and twice in Wood's notice just given, and, as then, for county. 

X "Meane", that is, moderate, midway between the very rich and the poor. 

Introduction. xvii 

But dyed in rich and happie state, 

Beloved of man and woman 
And (what is yeate much more than that) 

He was envied* of no man. 

In justice he did much excell, 

In law he never wrangled : 
He loved rellygion wondrous well, 

But he was not new-fangled. 

Let Romney Marsh and Dover saye ; 

Ask Norborne camp at leyseur ; 
If he were woont to make delaye 

To doe his countrie pleasure. 

But Ashford's proffer passeth all — 

It was both rare and gentle ; 
They would have pay'd his funerall 

T' have toomb'd him in their temple. 

Before returning to Richard and Reginald, we may conclude this 
short notice of their ancestors by mentioning the very probable cir- 
cumstance that the former were, by the female line, descendants of 
John Gower, the poet, as explained in the following table : 

Sir John Pashell=f=Elizabeth, d. of Richard Wydeville, sister of Earl 
I Rivers, aunt of Edward IV's wife. 

John Pashell,— !. Ludovic (Lowys), d. of Th. Gower, ob. circa 1458. 
ob. circa 1472. | 

I i 

William, Elizabeth, or Isabel,=|=Reg. Pympe. 

ob. fl«/^ 1485, J./. ob. ««/<? 1485. I 

Anne=Sir John Scot, father of Richard Scot. 

The Pashells, or Pashleys, were descended from Sir Edmund de 
Passelege, a Baron of the Exchequer, who purchased a manor in 
Smeeth in 1319 ; he died 1327. The family resided at Iden, Sussex ; 
and the house there, and the manor in Smeeth, devolved on the 
Scots, Anne Pympe being her father's only child. It is true that John 
Gower, the poet, does not mention any children in his extant will, 
but he was probably seventy-eight when he died ; and, what is 
more to the purpose, his published will was probably only his testa- 
ment, the will or declaration of uses of the land being commonly at 

* "Envied", most probably in its then frequent sense of hated. 

c c 

xviii Introduction. 

that time a separate instrument. Th. Gower, of Clapham, given above 
as the father of Lowys, was probably the son or grandson of John 
Gower (see Sir Harris Nicolas in T/ie Ret?-osp. Rev., 2 Sen, ii, 103-17). 
Also Gower the poet is known to have had property in Southwark; and 
Th. Gower, of Clapham, refers in his will (1458) to his tenement called 
The Falcon, in Southwark, near the hospital ; and in Manning and 
Bray's Surrey, iii, 623, there is noticed a deed of conveyance dated 
22nd November 1506, of part of the site of St. Thomas's Hospital, in 
Southwark, made by John Scot, of Iden, and Anne his wife, daughter 
and heir of John Pashley, who was cousin and heir of John Gower. 
It may be added as curious that Sir Robert Gower, who is believed 
to have been uncle to the poet, was buried in Brabourne church in 
1349 ; his monument, now destroyed, being noticed in Weever. 

On p. 500, Scot speaks of " his kinseman M. Deering", Edw. Bering 
the divine, a writer on theological subjects and chaplain to her 
Majesty; but in what way they were kin I have been unable to dis- 

Returning now to Reginald's father, Richard, the youngest of the 
three sons of that Sir John who died in 1533, we find that he married 
Mary, daughter of Geo. Whetenall, whose father was sheriff of Kent 
in 1527, and whose family had lived for three centuries at Hextall's 
Place, near Maidstone. She survived her husband ; and being re- 
married to Fulke Onslow, Clerk of the Parliaments, died before him, 
8th October 1582, and was buried, as he afterwards was, in Hatfield 
church, Herts, where a brass to their memory is fixed in the north 
wall of the chancel. Of Richard himself nothing more is known. 
He probably died young, and certainly before December 1554, his 
death being mentioned in the will of his brother Sir Reginald, who died 
on the 1 6th of that month. In this will, failing his own issue — a lapse 
which did not occur — he left his real estate " unto Rainolde Scotte, 

* My mother being a Bering, a daughter of the Thomas that was drowned 
in the West Indies, when trying to reach his vessel H.M.S. Circe, induces 
me to add, through the courtesy of Sir Edw. C. Bering, that a portrait of 
this worthy is still to be seen at Surrenden Bering, and that a family tradition 
has it, that preaching before her Majesty, he had the boldness to tell her, "that 
she had no more controul over her passions than an untamed heifer." He 
was speedily unfrocked, and is said to have emigrated to America, where an 
Edw. Bering is at this moment the head of that branch, and a laVge land- 
owner in Maine. 

Introduction. xix 

son and heire of my brother Richard Scotte, dec^", and Rainolde's 
issue failing, it was devised to a more distant branch. Hence, con- 
trary to the table given on page xi, from "The Memorials", " Rainolde" 
was either the only son of Richard, or the only son then living. The 
same conclusion follows from the Inquis. post mortem of Lady 
Wynifred Rainsfoord, taken the 20th March 1575/6, where Sir Thomas 
Scot and his brothers are said to be co-heirs with Reynold of the lands 
held by her in gavelkind, the sons having one moiety, and Reynold 
the other. 

This Inquisition also gives Reynold's then age as thirty-eight or 
more, the words " et amplius" being, as was, usually at least, done in 
these documents, attached to all the other ages mentioned. Hence 
he was born in or before 1538 (not in 1541), and as, according to 
Wood, he entered Hart Hall, Oxford, when about seventeen, he 
entered it circa 1555 ; the intention that he should do so having been 
probably entertained by Sir Reginald, his uncle, who died i6th 
December 1554, and his expenses borne by his cousin, Sir Thomas. 
I say probably, because we have seen that, failing his own issue, he 
was named by Sir Reginald as the next heir to the estate, and also 
because we know nothing of the circumstances in which his widowed 
mother was left, nor as yet of the date at which she was re-married 
to Onslow. 

On the nth of October he married Jane— not, as stated in "The 
Memorials", Alice — Cobbe, the daughter of an old yeoman family 
long resident at Cobbe's Place, in the adjoining parish of Aldington. 
The entry in the Registers of Brabourne is — 

. " M* Reignold Scott and Jane Cobbe 
were maryed the xi* of October 1658." 

The only issue of this marriage, the only issue (that at least survived) 
of both his marriages — for the IMaria in the table of "The Memorials" 
was the daugher of his second wife by her first husband— was Eliza- 
beth, afterwards married to Sackville Turnor ; and the only issue of 
that marriage, prior at least to Reynold's death in 1599, was Cicely. 
Elizabeth's birth must have been in or before 1574, for in the Inquis. 

* To this upper portion of the "M" is added a character which may make 
it " Mr." or " Married"; but I have not myself yet seen the entry. 

XX Introduction. 

post mortem of Reg. Scot generosus in 1602, she is said to be " 28 et 
amplius". The Holy Maid of Kent (mentioned by Scot, p. 26) was 
servant to one of her maternal progenitors, probably to her grand- 

In this year, 1574, was also published the first issue of his brain, 
his tractate on The Hopfie-Garden, the first work, I believe, in which 
not only was the culture of the hop in England advocated, both as 
having been successfully tried by him, and as against its importation 
from Peppering, in Flanders, where its mode of culture, etc., was en- 
deavoured to be kept secret ; but the whole subject of its growth, 
culture, drying, and preservation was gone into in a practical manner, 
and further explained by woodcuts. And here it may be worth noting 
that in this year Reynold was necessarily absent so far from London 
that the publisher inserted this apologetic note : " Forasmuch as M. 
Scot could not be present at the printing of this his Booke, whereby 
I might have used his advise in the correction of the same, and especi- 
allie of the Figures and Portratures conteyned therein, whereof he 
delivered unto me such notes as I being unskilfull in the matter, could 
not so thoroughly conceyve, nor so perfectly expresse as ... . the 
Author, or you .... the Reader might in all poyntes be satisfied 
[etc., etc.]." In the second edition, however, in 1576, it was : "Now 
newly corrected and augmented," the augmentations increasing the 
book from fifty-three pages, exclusive of the epilogue, to sixty, and 
the corrections including one added and one emended engraving. 
As a matter of curiosity, and as showing that neither the publisher 
nor the author expected a second edition, it may be added that though 
only two years had elapsed, some at least of the wood engravings 
required to be re- cut in almost exact facsimile. A third edition was 
issued in 1578, and from these we can date the commencement of the 
hop harvests in Kent. 

In 1575 he succeeded to one moiety of such part of Lady Winifred 
Rainsford's estate as was held in gavelkind. Possibly, indeed, we may 
place his enjoyment of it earlier, for Lady Rainsford was declared 
insane ; and to this, by the way, I am not disinclined to attribute 
Reynold's prolonged absence from London in 1572, the attendance 
of some one of the family being required, and he, being older than 
the sons of Sir Thomas, and of a junior branch, and a man of busi- 

Introduction. xxi 

ness, having been chosen or requested to go. And I think we may 
place his loss of that estate between this date and that of 1584, the 
date of the publication of the Witchcraft. At least, in this Discoverie 
occur two passages which, taken together, seem to point to this. In his 
dedication to Sir Th. Scot he says: A vi, " My foot being [not, having 
been] under your table, my hand in your dish, or rather in your pursse" 
— and, A viii : " If they will allow men knowledge and give them no 
leave to use it, men were much better be without it than have it ; 
.... it is, as . . . . to put a candle under a bushell : or as to have 
a ship, and to let hir lie alwaies in the docke : which thing how 
profitable it is, I can saie somewhat by experience." Though it may 
be said that Reynold was a man of business, and, as appears from 
his writings, a man of decision and of unusual intelligence, still 
circumstances may combine to bring disaster as a shipowner on such 
a one, and more especially if he be new to the business. That he did 
in some way lose his " moiety" is shown by the words of his will, for, 
speaking of his second wife, he says, "whome yf I had not matched 
w'h all I had not dyed worth one groate." Not, improbably, I think, 
it was to the time of his first marriage, or to his widovvership, or to 
both, that Wood more especially refers when he speaks of his giving 
himself up to solid reading, etc. 

When his first wife died and when he re-married is as yet unknown 
to us. But this latter could hardly have taken place until the latter 
end, at earliest, of 1584, since in that year he, as already quoted, de- 
scribes himself as, "having his foot under your [Sir Th. Scot's] table", 
etc., or in other words, as being a dependant not worth one groat. Nor 
do we know more of this second wife beyond these slight particulars 
that we gather from Reynold's will : that her Christian name was 
Alice — given in " The Memorials" instead of Jane, to Cobbe, the first 
wife- — that she was a widow with a daughter by her former husband ; 
and that she had some land, either in her own right or derived from 
her former husband. That she was a widow at the time of her re- 
marriage is shown by Reynold's bequest of "six poundes thirteene 
shillings foure pence to my daughter in Lawe Marie Collyar for ap- 
parell [? mourning] desiring that her mother's hand be not anie thinge 
the shorter towards her in that respect." Whether Collyar were this 
daughter's maiden name, and therefore the name of her mother's first 

xxii Intyoduction. 

husband, or whether it were the name of her own husband, is doubt- 
ful, though from the words just quoted I rather incline to this second 
supposition, and that the husband was not a man of much means. 
With regard to what I have said as to the mother's possession of pro- 
perty, it has been suggested to me by one of good judgment, and a 
solicitor, that Reynold's expression as to not dying worth a groat was 
merely an excuse for leaving the bulk of his property to his wife ; as 
also that these concluding words of the will, and the resistance of pro- 
bate to it made by Elizabeth, his daughter by his first wife, indicate 
the existence of family differences, probably attributable to this second 
marriage having been entered into with one of a social rank inferior 
to his own. I cannot, however, deduce this latter supposition from 
anything we know, neither can I thus interpret the last words of his 
will, nor believe him guilty of such a perversion of the truth. Read- 
ing his will attentively, I think we find that Scot, with his usual fine 
sense of justice, gives all the lands in "Aldington, Ruckinge, and 
Sellinge", which had become his by his marriage with Alice, " to her 
and to her [not to his] heires", while he only gives his lands in Rom- 
ney Marsh and his lease of Brabourne Rectory to her for her life, 
and then the lease at least, which had come to him "from his Cozen 
Charles", to his daughter Elizabeth. Reading the last words of his 
will verbatim, I think it consistent with justice to hold, that though he 
may have obtained these lands in Romney Marsh through the use of 
what had been his wife's former property, but was during his marriage 
his own, he was entitled to leave them to his wife only for her life, 
they then proceeding not, as did the others, to her heirs, but to his. 
I strongly suspect, also, that his casual omission of any directions 
as to whom these Romney Marsh lands were to go after her death 
was the real cause of the probate of the will being resisted by his 
daughter Elizabeth, so as to definitely raise this point. 

Reserving all notice of his Witchcraft till I speak of it under its 
bibliography, I would say that we know little more of his life. The 
Rev. Jos. Hunter, in his Chorus Vattim^ states that he was "a Collector 
of subsidies to Q. Elizabeth in 15..., for the county of Kent." Urged 
to inquiry by this, my friend, Jas. Gairdner, Esq., kindly examined 
for me the Exchequer documents in the Public Record Offices, and it 
appears from them that he was collector of subsidies for the lathe of 

Introduction. xxiii 

Shepway in the years 28 and 29 of Elizabeth (1586-87). It may be 
added that, as appears from a previous document, i^^^i in the same 
class of papers, that Sir Reynold Scot and other Commissioners for the 
collection in the lathe of Shepway, of the first payment of the subsidy 
granted by the Parliament, 37 Henry VIII, had appointed a high 
Collector. Thus we learn the mode of his appointment ; and on look- 
ing through the lists we find that many such were "generosi", though 
the payment was but small. For Scot, forty shillings was deducted 
from the incomings ; and this not as a percentage, but as salary. 

From the same documents we find that he is twice designated 
"armiger", a word agreeing with his 1584 title-page, "by Reginald 
Scot, Esquire", though in the editions of his Hoppe Garden his name 
alone is given. This was for myself an important find; but it will 
suffice here to say that it confirms Hunter's supposition that this 
esquireship was due to his having been made a justice of the peace, 
though as to the date it can only as yet be said that this dignity was 
probably granted between 1578 and 1584. 

In an Accompt of Sir Th. Heattage^ knight, Treasttrer at Warr, 
in the Public Record Offices, and printed by J. Renat Scott in the 
Arch. Canti.j vol. xi, p. 388, we find the following entries : 

"S'- Thomas Scott knighte Collonel generall of the footemen in 
Kent for his Entertainment at xiij^ iiijd pr diem for xxij dayesbegonne 
the xxix'h of Julye and endinge the xix of Auguste the summe of 

xiiijii xiijs iiijd." 

" Reinalde Scotte Trench mayster for his Enterteinment at iiijs 
pr diem, and due to him for the same tyme iiijii viijs." 

" S"" Thomas Scott knighte for Thenterteynem' of Ixiij Wachemen 
& Carders appointed to watche & warde at Dongenesse for xxij dayes 
begonne [etc., as above] at viij the pece p'' diem xlvi'' iiij^.'' 

From the Muster-roll taken on the 25th Jan. 1587-8, and now in the 
possession of Mr. Oliver, it appears that the county had then furnished 
8,201 footmen and 711 horsemen, and that Sir Thomas was captain of 
the 309 trained foot raised in the lathe of Shepway, with four hundreds 
of the lathe of Scraye and Romney Marsh. Hence his office as Colonel- 
General was not given him — indeed, this is shown by the Accompt — 
until the men had been assembled in camp on the 29th July. In like 

x.riv Introduction. 

manner the Muster-roll gives Sir Jas. Hales as Captain of the 
Lances ; but in the pay list Th. Scott (a son of Sir Thomas) is 
Captain both of the Light Horse and Lances. With regard to 
"Reinalde", who, under the name of Reginald, appears in the Muster- 
roll as one of the thirteen captains over 1,499 untrained foot, Mr. J. 
Renat Scott, in a note, states that he was a son of Sir Thomas Scott ; 
but though sons of Sir Thomas were also captains, this assertion is a 
guess, unsupported by any known evidence. 

He made his will on the ) 5th September 1599, and died twenty-four 
days thereafter, on the 9th October. Some say that he was either 
taken ill at Smeeth or died there, probably misinterpreting the words 
of his will ; some also say that he was buried there ; while some think 
that he was buried by the side of and close to Sir Thomas Scott's tomb 
in Brabourne church; but all these, like the supposition of Philipot in 
his Kent Notes, Harl. MS. 3917, fol. 78a, that he erected that tomb, 
are mere guessings, and as such we leave them. 

To the few particulars thus gathered together we are obliged, with 
the exception of two small points, one probable, and the other, I 
think, certain, to confine ourselves. The first or probable point is, 
that as his name appears five times as a witness to family business 
documents between 1566 and 1594, his signature appearing in this 
last year in Sir Thomas's will, he must have kept up familiar inter- 
course with the latter, and was not improbably, in some measure at 
least, his man of business, and possibly his steward. The second 
point, which also goes to confirm this first one, as also to confirm 
the belief that he was made a justice of the peace, as being a person 
whose attainments, if not his position, would render him useful in 
such a post, is one to which I was independently led by his writings, 
and which is, I find, borne out by almost contemporary testimony. 

He who in his Hoppe Garden showed such practical thought and 
foresight, and in his Witchcraft such independence of thought, was 
not a man, especially when married and a father, to live in dependence 
on a cousin. The wording, as well as the tone of his writings, agree 
with this. We find in them traces of legal study, a habit of putting 
things, as it were, in a forensic form, and noteworthy and not unfrequent 
references to legal axioms or dicta, quoted generally in their original 
Latin. The Dedication before his Hoppe Garden, and the first before 

Introduction. xxv 

his Witchcraft, are to men of high legal rank, judges, in fact, to whom 
he acknowledges his obligations. Referring the reader to these, and 
to the ambiguous sentence in the latter commencing " Finally" (sig. 
A ii), I would also give the words in the latter, where he says, A.\\ 
"But I protest the contrarie, and by these presents I renounce all 
protection"; and in the former the legal phraseology is carried on 
throughout in — "and be it also knowne to all men by these presentes 
that your acceptance hereof shall not be any wyse prejudiciall unto 
you, for I delyver it as an Obligation, wherein I acknowledge my selfe 
to stande further bounde unto you, without that, that I meane to re- 
ceyve your courtesie herein, as a release of my further duties which I 
owe," A. iii. v. And in B. v. : " neither reproove me because by these 
presents I give notice thereof." So also he would seem to have been an 
attendant at the assizes ; and if we look to the story, told at page 5, of 
Marg. Simons, we find that he was not only present at the trial, but 
busied himself actively in the matter, talking to the vicar, the accuser, 
about it, advertising the poor woman as to a certain accusation, he 
" being desirous to heare what she could saiefor hir selfe", and inquir- 
ing into the truth of her explanation by the relation of divers honest 
men of that parish. In like manner, his Will is written " w* myne owne 
hande" twenty-five days before his death ; and, on inquiring from a 
lawyer, I find that it is drawn up in due legal form, and by one who 
had had a legal training. Lastly, Thomas Ady, M.A., in A Candle in 
the Dark, 1656, alias, A Perfect Discovery of Witches, 1661, a book, 
like Scot's, against the reality of witchcraft, distinctly tells us, p. 87, 
that Scot "was a student in the laws and learned in the Roman Laws", 
the latter being exactly what such a man would be if he had turned 
towards the law as a profession. These considerations appear to me 
conclusive, even though it be added as an argument per contra that 
his name has not been found among the rolls of the Temple, Inner 
or Middle, or in those of Lincoln's or Gray's Inn. 

And in taking leave of this portion of my subject, I cannot but 
reiterate the obligations both the reader and the literary world gene- 
rally are under to Mr. Edmund Ward Oliver. The suppositions as 
to the cause of Scot's loss of his moiety of the estates of Lady Winni- 
fred Rainsford — not, it is believed, a large sum — and as to his law- 
studentship, based as they are on facts stated by Scot or derived from 


XXVI Introduction. 

his writings, and those of Th. -Ady, are my own ; while in one or two 
instances I have put forth opinions not quite in accord with that 
gentleman's. But nearly all the biographical facts regarding Scot 
himself and his marriages, in contradistinction to the supposed facts 
hitherto set forth, are due to the intelligent research of Mr. Oliver, 
and are not unfrequently stated in his own words. 

The following table will bring into one view the pedigree of Reginald 
Scot given in the previous pages : 

[The 2nd] Sir William Scott,* d. 1433.= 

Sir John Scott, d. 1485.= 


Sir William Scott, d. 1524.=;= 

Sir John Scott, d. 7 Oct. 1 533.=i=Anne, d. of Reginald Pympe. 

! I I 

Wm. Scott, Sir Reginald Scott, Richd. Scott.=rMary Whete- 

d. i-. ^. 5 June d. 16 Dec. 1554. 

1536. I 


Sir Th. Scot, (i) Jane Cobbe.— Reginald Scott.=(2) Alice [Collyar.^]. 
d. 30 Dec. 1594. I 

Elizabeth.=f=Sackville Turner. 


* It is noteworthy that, notwithstanding the memorial inscription to the first 
Fir William, Reginald, or whoever was the author of the verses to Sir Thomas, 
only traces the pedigree to this fourth knight after Sir Reginald. Either then 
the first Sir William was then accounted somewhat mythical, or not being a 
knight of fame, he was not recognised as the same with Sir William Scott, 
the Chief Justice of England. 

Iiitroductioji. xxvii 


Extracted from the copy, not the orit^mal, in the Principal Ref;^istry 
of the Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division of the High 
Court of fustice. 

S In the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

In the Name of God Amen. I Raynolde Scott in the Countie of 
Kent gent beinge of the Parish of Smeth Uoe make and ordaine 
and w"' myne owne hande doe write this my Last will and Testament 
on Saturdaye the fyfteenth of September Anno Dili a thousand fyve 
hundred nyntie nyne and in the fortie one yeare of the raigne of o"" 
soveraigne Ladie Oueene Elizabeth Fyrst 1 bequeath my Sowle to 
Almightie god and my body to be buryed as yt shall seeme good to 
Alice my wiefe whome I make and ordaine to be myne onely 
Executrix Item I bequeath to mysayde wief All my goods and chattells 
plate housholde stuffe Juelles and Chaynes with all my leases and 
goods moveable and vnmoveable savinge such as I shall by this my 
Will other Wise dispose of Item I (for the trust I repose in M""- 
Edwarde Hall of Ashforde and of my neighbou"^ Raynolde Keale of 
Smeeth in countie aforesaide doe make them two the overseers to 
this my Last will and gyve to eyther of the;;^ for theire paines and 
trouble w^'' they ar like to sustaine herebye fyve poundes Item I 
bequeath to S"" John Scott my lease of the banke or pond at Aldinge 
Item I bequeath to my graund childe Cisley Turno^ tenne poundes 
to buy her a little Chaine It^-m I gyve to my daughter in Lawe Marie 
Collyar six poundes thirteene shillings foure pence to be paide unto 
her within one quarter after my decease, to be bestowed in apparell 
upon her selfe as she shall seeme good nether would I have her 
mothers hand anie thinge the shorter towardes her in that respect 
Item I give to my daughter Turno^ the Covenant that I have of my 
Cozen Charles Scott touchinge the renuinge of my lease when his 
grace doth renne {read renue] his lease of Braborne Rectorie pro- 
vided that my meaninge is, that my said wief shall enioye the full 
tearme that I nowe possesse and howsoever yt shalbe renued my 
daughter shall have the only renuinge which shalbe in effecte after 
the whole tearme w'=^ I holde now be expired so as by any meane 
[intervening] renuinge my saide wief be not defeated of my true 
meaninge towardes her Item I do bequeath to my saied wief and to 
her heires for ever All my Landes Lyinge in Aldington and now in 
thoccupac/on of John Pollard and all my Landes in Ruckinge in 

thoccupaczbn of Diggons and all my Landes in Sellenge in the 

occupac/on of Coakar All which Landes lye in the 9 ayd« sayde* 

Countie of Kent Item I gyve and bequeath to my said wief all my 
other Landes in Rumney Marshe or els where in the said countye 

* Sic, first at end of line. t Sic, to be paide is interlined above this. 

xxviii Introdiution. 

duringe her naturall lieff Item I doe gyve to my Servante Moyll 
Smyth the some of twentie shillinges yearelie duringe his n^/z^rall Life 
to be paide out of all my Landes halfe yearelie and that for defaulte 
of payment yt shalbe LawfuU for him to distraine And so I ende 
desyreinge the worlde to iudge the best hereof and of the consy- 
deracz'ons for greate is the trouble my poore wief hath had with me, 
and small is the comforte she hath receyved at my handes whome yf 
I had not matched w''^ all I had not dyed worth one groate. — 

Ray: Scott. 

By a short notice following the copy of the will, it was proved on 
the 22nd November 1599. There is also a document setting forth 
that Alicia Scott, relicta, and Elizabetha Turnor, als Scott, filia 
naturalis et legitima, had disputed, before certain functionaries named 
regarding the will, and that probate was granted as aforesaid on the 
22nd November 1599. But as the cause or subject of the dispute is 
not mentioned, this, like the short notice, is not given. 


No. 84. 

Ittqiiisition taken at Maidstone on the death of Lady Wytiifred 
Rainsfoord, 30 March, 18 Eliz. [1575-6]. 

She was seised of the Manors of Nettlested and Hikes with 
appurtenances in E. and W. Peckham, Brenchley, W. Barmling, 
Merewood, Marden ; also of the Manor of Pympe with appurtenances 
in Yaulding, Marden, and Brenchley. Also various other lands, 
some of which, called Stockenbury, Motelands, and Souchefields, are 
in Brenchley. 

She died 17 Oct. last, at Chelmsford in Essex. 

Th. Scott, kt., is her next heir, viz., son and heir of Reginalde 
Scotte, kt., Sonne and heir of Anne Scotte, wife of John Scotte, kt., 
daughter and heir of Reginald Pympe, brother of John Pympe, 
father of said Lady Winifred. 

Thomas Scotte, kt., Charles Scott, Henry Scotte, George Scotte, 
and William Scotte [brothers of the tirst-named Thomas Scotte, kt.], 
and Reginald Scotte, are coheirs of the lands held in gavelkind. One 
moiety thereof descends to Thomas, Charles, etc. [as named above], 
sons and coheirs of Reginalde Scotte, kt., son and heir of Anne 
Scotte ; and the other moiety to Reginald, son and heir of Richard 
Scotte, junior, son of the said Anne. 

Introduction. xxix 

Thomas miles is 39 et amplius, Charles 34 [etc.], Henry 32 [etc.], 
George 30 [etc.], William 22 [etc.], and Reginald 38 years of age et 

The exact words regarding the co-heirs are: " descendebant et do 
jure descendere debent prasfato Thomae Scotte militi, Carolo Scott, 
Henrico Scotte, Georgio Scotte et Will'o Scotte, fratribus dicti 
Thomje Scotte militis et Reginaldo Scotte, consanguineo pra;dicti 
Thomae Scotte militis, ut consanguineis et coheredibus prasdictae 
dominae Winifridae eo quod praedictas terras .... ultimo recitata 
sunt de natura de gavelkind." This disproves the assertion of Mr. J. 
Renat Scott in Arch. Cant., xi, 388, and repeated in his genealogy of 
the Scott family, that the Reginald Scott mentioned in the former as 
receiving pay among those appointed in 1587-8 was "a son of Sir 

ABSTRACT OF INQUIS. P.M., 45 ELIZ., pars, i. No. 71. 

Inquisition taken at Maidstone., 2 Dec. [1602], after the death oj 
Reginald Scot, generosus. 

He was seised of a tenement and 20 acres of land called Grayne- 
courtte, held of Th. Scott, Esq., as of his manor of Brabourne, a 
tenement called Essex, and 20 acres of land in two parcels in Ailing- 
ton [Aldington], held of Edw. Hall, as of his manor of Pawlson. 
One parcel of land called Haythorne field, containing 20 acres in 
Bonington, held of the Queen in capite, and a tenement and one 
parcel of land lying in Barefield, containing two acres in Brabourne, 
tenure unknown, and one acre in Brabourne and 5 acres in Brabourne, 
and two parcels in Smeeth, and 30 acres of marsh called Gatesleaf, 
in Newchurch, held of Martin Barneham, Esq., as of his manor of 

He died 9 Oct., 41 Eliz. [1599], at Smeeth. . 

Elizabeth, wife of Sackville Turner, gent., is his daughter and next 
heir, and was 28 years of age and more at his death. 

Alice, his widow, has received the rents since his death. 

[Elizabeth was the next heir to his own property, but that which 
was his own through his wife Alice, he specially devised " to her and 
to her heirs".] 

ji'A'.r Introduction. 

Tlie Cause and History of the Work. — That is, what induced Scot 
to write it, and why did he set it forth as he did ? inquiries which in- 
volve, among other matters, a short notice of the position then and 
previously held by witchcraft in England. His Hoppe-g'arden shows 
him to us as a man of intelligence, foresighted and reflective of thought, 
and desirous of improving the state of his country and countrymen. 
It shows him also as one who could not only seize a thought and 
commend it to others, but as one who had perseveringly put his idea 
into practice, found it feasible, and then so learnt the processes neces- 
sary for growing the plant, and preparing its catkins and storing them 
for use, that a priori one would suppose that he had done what he did 
not, namely, visited Holland and learnt the processes on the spot. 
The same qualities are seen in his Witchcraft, as is also his indepen- 
dence of thought. No sooner had his suspicions been aroused than he 
proceeded, as shown by the work and its references, to investigate the 
matter thoroughly and perseveringly. To this also he was encouraged, 
or rather led, by yet other two qualities, his straightforwardness or 
honesty of purpose, and his compassion, for these taught him that he 
was engaged in a righteous work, that of rescuing feeble and ignorant, 
though it may be too pretentious and shrewish, old women from false 
charges and a violent death, and in a noble work in endeavouring to 
stem the torrent of superstition and cruelty which was then beginning 
to overflow the land. 

Nor was this the result in any way of a mind sceptically inclined. 
His book shows that he accepted the opinions of his day, unless he 
had been led to inquire into them, and either re-receive them as 
facts or discard them. Led doubtless by his academic training, it is 
abundantly clear that he had inquired into the grounds of his belief 
in the Established Church, and into the additions that had been made 
to its faith in the course of illiterate ages by the Popish Church. He 
had read Plotina, who taught him that the so-called vicars of Christ 
and his vice-gerents on earth were often devils incarnate and stan- 
dard-bearers of vice, and that the system which did now and again 
produce a St. Francis d'Assis — all reverence to his name — produced 
also the congeners of Loyola, and Loyola himself, whose followers, 
while assuming to themselves the holy name of Socii Jesu, made that 
name famous and infamous, and their tenets execrated throughout the 

Introduction. xxxi 

civilised world. But he accepted with some doubting, having, as he 
thought, great authority for it and no means of investigation, the story 
of the Remora ; and accepted without doubtmg the beliefs that the bone 
of a carp's head, and none other, staunched blood, the value of the 
unicorn's horn, and the like, and — notwithstanding his disbelief in 
astrology— that seed-time and springing were governed by the waxing 
and waning of the moon. He also believed that precious stones 
owed their origin to the influences of the heavenly bodies; and besides 
his credulous beliefs as to certain waters, narrated at the commence- 
ment, he in the next chapter gives the absurdly wonderful virtues of 
these stones, some, as he says, believed in by him, " though many 
things most false are added". 

How then came he to inquire into and write so strongly against 
witchcraft .-' Before the time of the eighth Henry, sorcerers were dealt 
with by the ecclesiastical law, which punished them as heretics. 
Moreover, their supposed offences against the person seem, chiefly at 
least, to have been taken notice of when they were supposed to inter- 
fere with high or state matters or persons, as in the cases of Joan of 
Arc or Dame Eleanor Cobham. But in Henry's time, probably 
through the extension of continental ideas, aided, it may be, by a 
desire to restrain the ecclesiastical power, c. 8 of the thirty-third year 
of his reign was passed. By this it was enacted, that witches, etc., 
who destroyed their neighbours, and made pictures [images] of them 
for magical purposes, or for the same purposes made crowns, swords, 
and the like, or pulled down crosses, or declared where things lost or 
stolen were become, should suffer death and loss of lands and goods, 
as felons, and lose the privileges of clergy and sanctuary. Afterwards, 
by I Edw. I, c. 12, this and other offences first made felonies in 
Henry's time were no longer to be accounted such. Thirdly, in the 
fifth year of Elizabeth, Parliament, by its twelfth chapter, enacted, 
that whereas many have practised sorceries to the destruction of 
people and their goods, those that cause death shall suffer as was de- 
clared by 33 Henry VIII, c. 8, except that their wives and heirs shall 
not have their rights affected by such attainder. But that when a 
person was only injured, or their goods or cattle destroyed, the 
offenders should for the first offence suffer a years imprisonment, and 
once a cjuarter be exposed in the pillory in a market town for six 

xxxii Introduction. 

hours, and there confess their offences ; and for the second offence 
suffer death as felons, with the exceptions before rehearsed. While 
any who seek treasure, or would bring about unlawful love, or hurt any- 
one in his body or goods, should for a first offence be imprisoned and 
suffer as before, and for a second be imprisoned for life and forfeit 
his goods and cattle. This, so far as humanity is concerned, is a 
distinct advance on Henry's enactment, though an apparent going 
back from that of Edward. Perhaps, as before, it arose from a desire 
to remove the offences from the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical law, 
which would have burnt them, nor, as evidenced by its little results, 
does it seem to have been made through any mania or scare in the 
matter. This came on later, when, as we are told by Brian Darcie 
in 1582, at what time, under pie-crust promises of favour, he was 
endeavouring to get women to confess, and then be hanged, — " there 
is a man of great learning and knowledge come over lately into our 
Queenes Majestie, which hath advertised her what a companie and 
numbers of Witches be within Englande : whereupon I and other of 
her Justices have received Commission for the apprehending of as 
many as are within these limites." Alas, this man of great learning 
and knowledge seems to have been none other than that otherwise 
light of the English Church, the great, good, and pious Bishop Jewel, 
who, having returned from a forced residence abroad, was speedily 
promoted by her Majesty, and in a sermon preached before her, in 
1572, brought in the subject as follows: — 

" Heere perhaps some man will replie, that witches, and conjurers 
often times chase away one Divell by the meane of another. Possible 
it is so ; but that is wrought, not by power, but by Collusion of the 
Divels. For one Divell, the better to attaine his purpose, will give 
place, and make as though he stood in awe of another Divell. And 
by the way to touch but a word or two of this matter for that the 
horrible using of your poore subjects inforceth thereunto. It may 
please your Grace to understand, that this kind of people, I meenes 
witches and sorcerers, within these few last yeeres, are marvellously 
increased within this your Grace's realme. These eies have scene 
most evident and manifest marks of their wickednesse. Your Grace's 
subjects pine away even unto the death, their collour fadeth, their 
flesh rotteth, their speech is benummed, their senses are bereft." 

Introduction. xxxiii 

" Wherefore, j^our poore subjects most humble petition unto your 
Highnesse, is, that the lawes touching such malefactours, may be put 
in due execution. For the shole of them is great, their doings hor- 
rible, their malice intollerable, the examples most miserable. And I 
pray God, they never practise further, then upon the subject. But 
this only by the way, these be the scholers of Beelzebub the chief 
captaine of the Divels.'' 

The plantings of the Queen in the commissions of her Justices thus 
instigated and encouraged, produced an abundant crop. According 
to the Dedications of Scot, Sir Roger Manwood, Lord Chief Baron of 
the Exchequer, had had " in these causes such experience", A ii. v., 
while Sir Thomas Scot, as Justice of the Peace, had also had "manie 
poore old women convented before him for .... witchcraft", A. vi. 
Various booklets also, presently to be spoken of more at large, excited 
still more the imaginations of a credulous people, and it had been 
supposed, before Scot wrote, as will be seen on p. 473, and in my note 
on that page, that the Queen's person had been aimed at in that way. 

It thus appears that though Scot may have been brought up in a 
traditional but little-regarded belief in witchcraft, he, when he was at 
least thirty-four, was not only unprepared, but startled, to witness and 
take part in this new departure from justice and mercy. Witchcraft, 
chiefly looked on as useful in discovermg things lost, or in bringing a 
wished-for sweetheart to return the love of the seeker, or in curing 
ailments simple or grievous, became feared, reviled, and sought out: 
sought out by Commission of the Queen, sought out by the people as 
a great and fearful evil rapidly overspreading the land, and able and 
willing, like the Plague and Black Death, to count its victims by 
thousands, and from the cottage to the throne itself He, a man both 
intelligent and compassionate, sees poor, old, decrepit creatures eking 
out a miserable livelihood by begging an occasional dole from their 
better off neighbours ; ill-tempered by age and condition, and there- 
fore abusive when refused such dole, or on slighter causes, sometimes 
perhaps through old knowledge or superstition, but probably more 
often for the sake of gain, pretending to be wise above what is known ; 
he sees these accused of selling their souls for the sake of such a 
position in the world, he hears them accused sometimes of foul, more 
frequently of unlikely, crimes and acts, nay, such as an unprejudiced 

e c 

xxxiv Introduction. 

common sense must laugh at, while the evidence is nearly always so 
faulty that, were the accusation a different one, it would be at once 
turned inside out and thrown aside. Unfortunately, too, some of 
these old women being more or less mad, and others driven through 
fear on the one hand, or through promised favour on the other, 
confess themselves capable of doing these things, though any man of 
sense and observation could detect their state or motives. Luckily, 
too, he had had close to him, and in his wife's family, the known and 
talked-of imposture of the Holy Maid of Kent ; and in his own time 
and close to his own door, the case of the Pythonist of Westwell, at 
first carried out triumphantly, and then, on her own confession and 
her re-acted acts, branded as an impostor, like the Holy Maid. The 
Dutchman, too, at Maidstone, after being set forth as a worker of 
miracles and an exorcist, was found to be a rogue; and "manie other 
such miracles had beene latelie printed, whereof diverse had beene 
bewraied." He had taken part also — apparently as one engaged for 
the defence — in that piece of folly called the trial of Margaret Simons, 
and knew the history of Ade Davie, and of her restoration to sanity 
without exorcism, hanging, or burning. 

Is it not natural that his suspicions, and more than suspicions, 
should have been aroused, and that he should have been thus led 
to take up the whole subject seriously.'' One who had given himself 
up, as Wood says, to reading and thought as well as to healthy and 
useful exercise, must have sought for and obtained books on either 
side of the subject, and in especial the known book of Wier ; and 
thoughtful reading of these, and meditation must have led him to 
extend his views, and gather them into a harmonious and consistent 
whole. Meanwhile, however, the bloodthirsty superstition daily in- 
creased, and there were published first, the mad book or books of 
Richard Gallis — spoken of in pp. 132-3 — of the witches at Windsor, 
now, I believe, unfortunately lost, where, among other things, he 
narrates how, at a Sabbath meeting, he had a hand-to-hand encounter 
with the devil, and wounded him so sore that he stank of brimstone; 
and in 1582, there took place the wholesale condemnation of the poor 
old women of St. Osees, thirteen I believe of whom were hanged. 
There had been no such condemnation before in England. It is not 
unlikely that he himself witnessed their condemnation — see pp. xxv-vi. 

Introditction. xxxv 

So unusual was it, that — as I cannot but believe on other evidence, as 
stated in my noting on Macbeth — a ballad was written on it, which 
became very commonly known, and was remembered as late as 1606. 
This same unusual breadth of punishment also created so much 
attention that Justice Brian Darcie thought it worth while to set forth 
in print, not the trial, but the depositions taken before him, and thus 
inform a too ignorant public that he and he alone was the primary 
cause of such a purification. 

These facts, and especially this last, aroused, I believe, Scot's 
compassion and indignation, and made both find vent in printed 
words. And besides these likelihoods, including that of date, there 
are two at first sight seemingly contradictory facts, which made them- 
selves manifest to me when I first carefully read the book, and before 
I had formed any opinion on their causes, and which are on this view 
reconciled. These facts are, that while the plan which he has adopted, 
and his facts and conclusions, seem to have been deliberately sought 
out, thought over, and canvassed, there are evidences throughout of 
a feverous haste of composition, such feverous haste as the above 
spoken of emotions would excite in a man like Scot, who had wit- 
nessed so horrible and so bloody a perversion of justice. The proof 
of the first fact I leave to be observed by the intelligent reader ; but 
while the second must also be observed by him, it is needful, to the 
full exposition of my argument, that I should collect in one view most 
at least of the details. This haste is evidenced in some of his cor- 
rected errata, but more in those that he did not correct. Thus we have, 
on p. 174, a curious slip, by which Pharaoh becomes a Persian, and 
Nebuchadnezzar takes Pharaoh's place as an Egyptian king, for other 
parts of the book prove conclusively that this was an unintentional 
lapsus, and one a second time overlooked when the book was re-read 
before the title-page and the preliminary leaves were set up. Similar 
are his errors as to Haias and Sedaias, for at one time he speaks of 
Rabbi Sedaias Haias, repeating it also at the last when he gives his 
" forren authors" consulted, and between these speaks of them as two 
persons, as they were. More especially would I call attention to his 
blunders as to Argerius Ferrerius. He quotes him — yet he is always 
Ferr^rius — five times in his text, twice in his table of contents, and 
once in his "authors used". So in his translation from him, the "s" of 

xxxvi Introduction. 

" verbis" being indistinct in some copies, he read the word as "verbi", 
and thereby translated the sentence into such unmistakable non- 
sense that this alone should have shown him his error. So, also, we 
have the senseless, because careless, rendering of the sword in hand 
passage, p. 257 ; and with these may be classed his adoption of 
T. R.'s curious mistranslations from Wier's Pseudotnonarchia, or from 
another copy of the Etnpto. Saloinonis, for a moment's consideration 
would have shown him their absurdity, and led him to turn to Wier. 
In p. 19 also, we find "infants" where, as stated in my note, all the 
editions of the Mai. Malef. in the British Museum have " infames"; 
and this, though a slip of memory, betokens, when taken with the rest, 
overhaste. These slips, in an ordinary writer, would lead to another 
conclusion, but not in this case, where we have evidence of both 
ordinary and recondite knowledge, of conclusions tried by actual 
experiment, of a quick and intelligent perception, and of what may 
be called, in a good sense, a ready and acute subtlety in refuting or 
retorting allegations or objections. 

Our author's indebtedness to Cornelius Agrippa and to Wier has, 
in a great measure, been anticipated in what has been said; but a few 
words may here be added. Casually coming across their books when he 
became a reader of out-of-the-way works, he did not become a follower 
of theirs, and then write a book, as the disciples of Pythagoras wrote 
books to expound and hand down the doctrines of their master. Wier 
had written a book against witchcraft, and a clear and comprehensive 
book. But while Scot certainly followed Wier in point of time, and 
as certainly was much indebted to him for the perfecting of his book, 
yet, as 1 have said, Scot seems to have taken up his belief against 
the reality of witchcraft from what he in his own experience had 
witnessed ; and my view, that he was then led to read Wier and 
Cornelius Agrippa, and the writers on the other side, seems to me con- 
firmed by what we find as to his indebtedness to Wier. The " Not' 
ings on Wier" show that, while he copied him in some other instances, 
he borrowed from him mainly a long list of illustrations, some of which 
even he may have drawn independently from the same sources as did 

Bibliography. — We do not find an entry of Scot's Hoppe-garden 
in the Stationers' Registers, because the entries about 1574 are want' 

Introduction. xxxvii 

ing. But why do we not find so large and important a book as the 
Witchcraft of 1584 so entered, the writer being of a family of no mean 
repute, and the head of his house, Sir Th. Scot, being in those days 
a man of some mark ? The answer, after what has been said, is 
simple. He upheld and defended a heresy, the existence and dia- 
bolical powers and practices of witches being believed in and guarded 
against, by the Queen, the bishops, and the people. Hence the reply 
of the Stationers' Company would most certainly have been — the same 
as in more trifling cases — " provided he shall get the bishop of Lon- 
don his alowance to yt", words which, under the circumstances, 
would have been a refusal, and a refusal which, had any steps been 
taken against him after its publication, would have told against him. 
Hence he resolved to print it, taking all the blame and responsibility 
on his own shoulders, no stationer's name being connected with it, 
and the name of the printer appearing only at the end of the book, 
without date or place of address — "Imprinted at London by | IVilliam 
Brome." And here, by the way, it may be mentioned that though 
called in catalogues a quarto, its signatures are in eights. As 
before stated, both Thomas Ady and Anthony a Wood tell us that 
it "did for a time make great impressions on the Magistracy 
and Clergy", and that it did so generally is shown by the appear- 
ance of Webster's, Ady's, and other books on the same side, and 
those of Gifford, Perkins, and others, on the other, including King 
James, who, in 1597, issued his DcEinonologie specially against it. 
Whether Elizabeth or the authorities under her took any notice of it 
is doubtful, for, as I have said, he was still an Esquire in 1587 ; and 
the last words of his will, "for greate is the trouble my poor wief hath 
had with me, and small is the comforte she hath receyved at my 
hands", and his designation of himself as " gent.", point leather to a 
voluntary surrender of his office, through weakness and ill-health, 
than td a dismissal. 

But zeal for the truth, as he believed it, combined with his fears for 
himself, for he believed that he had been the object of witchcraft and 
of the machinations of the evil powers more than once, though 
luckily in vain, led the royal author on the other side to cause Scot's 
book to be burned by the common hangman ; and, as is also said by 
Cole, not one copy alone, as significant of its character, and of its 

xxxviii Introduction. 

being a liber prohibitiis in the eyes of this Protestant Pope, but as 
many as could be laid hands upon. While, too, I have as yet found 
no direct proof of this latter statement, it is perhaps in some degree 
confirmatory of it, that no copies of the book exist in the library of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, nor in that of Lambeth Palace, nor in that of 
Sion College. To the same cause is most likely due the exceedingly 
neat copy of various chapters, and parts of chapters, contained in the 
Sloane MS., flF. 2189, in the British Museum, its date according to 
the experts there being circa 1620. At one time I had suspected that 
these extracts had been made with the intent of writing a book either 
for or against the truth of witchcraft ; but the methodical neatness 
of all but the first two or three pages, the manner in which the typo- 
graphical form of the book is followed, the consecutive, though 
broken manner, in which the extracts follow one another, the absence 
of any word or any sign of remark or comment throughout, now cause 
me to hold that it was a copy made by or for one who took such por- 
tions as he wished from a book otherwise inaccessible. 

Turning back to this burning, I would say also that I have not 
come across any English contemporary, or even early statement as 
to it, much less as to its date. Perhaps, however, without much 
fear of error, we may suppose it to have been done immediately after 
the Act against witches, passed in the first year of James's reign. By it 
the Act 5 Eliz. was repealed, and any conjuration, etc., of an evil 
spirit was made a crime punishable by death as a felon, the culprit 
losing all benefit of clergy and sanctuary. The finding of treasure by 
magical means, provoking to unlawful love, or destroymg of cattle, 
was for the first offence to bring with it imprisonment for one year, 
standing in the pillory once a quarter for six hours, and confessing his 
crime, as in the Act repealed; and for the second offence death as a 
felon, though the dowry and the heirship were not attainted. This Act 
itself shows how strong were James's convictions in the matter, as 
does the publication in London of his DcBinonologie in the same year, 
it being entered on the Stationers' Registers on the 3rd April 1603. 
Scot's book was therefore against James's belief, and the esteem in 
which it was held against his own powers as a reasoner and author. 
While, however, so far as I can find, we owe the knowledge of this 
burning to a German source, its extreme likelihood is corroborated by 

IntrodtLction. xxxix 

what I have said, that James's belief in witchcraft was with him an 
undoubted Article of Faith, and by the fact that various books, 
known and unknown, were at different times publicly burnt during 
his reign, though no official records of these burnings have been 

Cole, as quoted in Bliss's edition of the Athen. Oxon.^ gives the 
account as made by Thomasius de crimine magise, a book which I 
believe does not exist. There is a Thesis inaugaralis de crimine 
magias submitted in 1701 by Johan Reiche to the Regia Academia 
Fredericiana . . . praeside D. Christiano Thomasio. But Reiche 
refers to an earlier writer — " Gisberti Voetii | Theologian in Acad. 
Ultrajectina Professoris | Selectarum | Disputationum | Theologi- 
carum, | Pars Tertia. | . . . . | Ultrajecti, | Ex Officina Johannis a 
Waesberge, | Anno CID ID C Lix, | " which says, p. 564 : 

". . . . Reginaldus Scot nobilis Anglijs magise crimen aperte negavit, 
& ex professo oppugnavit, omnes ejus mirabiles effectus aut ad melan- 
coliam, aliosve naturales morbos, aut ad artem, industriam, & agili- 
tatem hominum figmentis &praestigiis suis illudentium, aut ad stolidas 
imaginationes, dictorum magorum, aut ad vanas nugas & fictiones 
eorundem magorum referens. Ejus liber tit. Discoverie of With- 
craft \sic'\ in Anglia combustus est ; quern nominatim etiam per- 
stringit Sereniss. Magnje Briantniae {sic'\ Rexfacobiis in Dcemojiolooia, 
eumque tangit difFusissimce eruditionis T\\e,o\og\i?,fohannesRaynoldi(S, 
in cens. lib. Apocryph. torn. 2prcBlect.i6(). In eundem, sed innominatum 
calamum strinxit eximius & subacti judicii Theologus, Guilelm. Per- 
kinsjis in traciatu de Bascanologia. Pars libri istius Regi^ialdi Scot 
elenctica (nam reliqua in editione Anglicana conjurationes continebat,) 
in Belgicum idioma translata est, ante annos aliquot Lugd. Batav. 
per Thomam Basson : ex illius libri lectione, seu fonte perenni, non 
pauci ab illo tempore docti & indocti in Belgio fiuctuare, & de Magia 
ff/ceajTiKt^eii/ ac \tj3epTivi^eiv, (ut Libertinis & Semilibertinis infesta 
est patria nostra) quin eo ignorantiae saspe prolabi, ut non inique illis 
applicari potuerit, quod Sereniss. Rex Jacobus in DcBmonologid sub- 
dito suo Reginaldo Scot : esse qitasi novos SaddticcEOS : cum omnes 
diabolorum operationes & apparitiones suaviter exibilant: tanquam 
anicularum, aut superstitionis meticulosae phantasmata ac sabellas. 
Sunt & alii, sed pessimi magije patroni, qui ad Deum & divina charis- 

xl Introduction. 

mata seu gratias gratis datas, aut ad angelos bonos, operationes 
magicas referunt." 

Dr. W. N. du Rieu, Librarian of the University of Leyden, kindly 
informs me, that a translation into Dutch, "omitting some formulae 
of malediction and other matters which would more interest English 
readers," was made and edited by Th. Basson, an English stationer 
living at Leyden in i2mo in 1609. It was undertaken at the instiga- 
tion of the professors of law and history, and its dedication, dated 
loth January 1609, was to the Curators of the University, and to the 
burgomasters of Leyden. A second and corrected edition, published 
by his son, G. Basson, was also printed at Leyden in 1637, though the 
dedication is dated 8th May 1637, Amsterdam. 

Though in various of the notes the passages have been spoken of, 
yet to call attention to the matter, and in the hope that others may be 
more successful, I would add that I have not discovered the principle 
on which he went, nor his authorities, for his Scripture readings. In 
his Latin quotations he generally quotes the Vulgate, twice or thrice 
Beza, or Beza varied, while at other times he goes by some other 
translation, or possibly makes it himself. So his long English 
quotation, p. 284, is not taken from Wycliffe's, Tyndale's, Cranmer's, 
Coverdale's, Matthews', or from the Genevan, Bishops', or Rheims 
versions, though more like the Genevan, while, curiously enough, it 
precedes the one of 161 1 by one or two verbal coincidences. Hence, I 
believe that he varied the Genevan version according to his own views 
and taste, and am the more inclined to this in that the passage is not 
in Italics, the then type and mark of quotations, but in Romans. 

Notwithstanding, however, the decree that had gone forth, and, 
notwithstanding the strange Sadducean assertion, not argument, set 
forth by James, and followed by John Rainolds, D.D., in his work on 
the Apocrypha {iom. ii, 1032), and by Gisbert Voet, the book's inherent 
excellency, as reported by Ady, and as evidenced by the notices of it 
in the various books on either side that afterwards came forth, and in 
part, perhaps, through that decree itself, called for its reproduction ; 
and in 165 1 it was issued with a new title-page, though naturally it 
was again not entered on the Stationers' Registers. This time it was 
really — as evidenced by the signatures — a quarto. The text was one 
and the same with that printed off by Richard Cotes ; but there were 

Introduction. xli 

three issues, and three slightly different title-pages. The first bears — 
LONDON I Printed by Richard Cotes. 165 1. The second has — 
Printed by R. C. and are to be sold by Giles Calvert, dwelling at the 

\ Black Spread-Eagle at the IVest-end 0/ Fa.u\s. 1651. And except 
for these final words, separated on both title-pages by a line from the 
rest, both are word for word, and even to the misprint " superstions" 
identical. The explanation, in all probability, if not certainty, being 
that my "first" one was the first issue, when the publisher thought it 
more prudent to withhold his name ; the other, a second issue of 
copies still called for, when, finding no ill results, he had become bolder. 
The third has below the line spoken of : London \ Printed by E. [not 
R.] Cotes and are to be sold by Thomas Williams at the ] Bible in 
Little Britain 1654. In this "Scots" is printed without the apos- 
trophe, "men", "women", and "children", as also "treatise", have 
capital initials ; on both occasions it has " Devils", not " Divels"; and 
the last line but one above the dividing line ends " De-" not "Divels", 
and "superstions" is rightly printed "superstitions". These variations 
in the title-page, and the exact conformity of the text as to the various 
peculiarities of the letters, words, and sizes of the punctuation, show 
that Williams had come into possession of Calvert's remainder, or of 
his set-up type, and had issued these sheets, prefixing a new title-page 
of his own, printed by E. Cotes. 

There is not the slightest evidence of a copy of the 1584 edition 
having been prepared for the press, beyond the new title-page, and 
on two occasions the translation of Latin, that Scot had not — as he 
had done in similar instances — translated. The Latin-named in- 
gredients on p. 184 are Englished, and I have thus been enabled to 
give them in my notings with the more probability that they are 
correct. The second instance is, as stated in my margin, on p. 416. 
Two or three press errors are corrected, one of them not a certain 
emendation, and all within the competency of an ordinary compositor 
or reader ; but no others, not even that of "increase" for "incense", 
p. 446, while fresh errors, indicative of a careless "reader", are 

What has been thus said as to the character of this second reprint, 
goes to prove that it was a publisher's venture based upon the demand 
fur the book, and, therefore, for gain, and one wliich he carried out spite 


xlii Introduction. 

of its having been burnt, and placed among the "prohibited books". 
In like manner, and for the like purpose, and as before, without entry 
in the Stationers' Registers, there was brought out the third, and so- 
called folio edition of 1665, though the sheets are in sixes. All but 
the title-page, which, curiously enough, was again re-written, though 
still bearing, like the second, the words, "By Reginald Scot Esquire"; 
it is a careless reprint of that second, with all its errors, and new 
ones superadded. But as a novelty and inducement to buy, nine 
chapters, commencing the fifteenth book, and a second book of the 
" Discourse on Devils and Spirits", were added by an anonymous 
author. Who this anonymity was, I have uselessly spent some little 
time in inquiring, time that might have been better employed, even had 
I found him. But it goes to prove that these additions were merely 
made for novelty's sake, and its glamour and gain, in that the writer 
was a believer in, and not improbably, from his minute directions, as 
well as from his reticence, a practiser of witchcraft, or of what he 
thought to be witchcraft. He also, and I give this as one possible 
clue, was a strong believer in the perishable Astral spirit of a man, as 
well as of Astral spirits in general, and much of his "Discourse" is 
taken up with remarks on these. 

I may here add, as showing the carelessness with which these 
second and third editions were edited, a note of the errata marked in 
the first and not corrected in them. 

75, 21. "We," so the second; in the third the (,) is rightly placed 
after " years". A correction that could have been made by the least 
intelligent of " readers". 

168,31. " Earth n'rti^ firmament.'' Not corrected. 

247,29. " Write «(7W it." Not corrected. 

269, 16. " If there be masses delete \L" Retained, but the second 
attempts to correct by inserting "no" before "masses'', and the third 
follows suit, though it is as nonsensical as before. 

463,16. " Their business r^rt^/ that business." Not corrected. 

Beyond these, the limited edition now printed is the only other 
known to me. As stated in the preface, it is a reprint of the first 
edition, with some slight alterations in the lettering, but not in the 
spelling. Besides the few errata that have been found and recorded, 
the small heading on its left hand pages up to p. 24 is "Ch.ip. — ". 

Introductio7i. xliii 

like that on the right hand, instead of being " i or 2 Booke". So 
also in the earlier pages, the marginal references, though correct, are 
not printed line for line with the original. The pictorial initial 
letters of the first chapter of each book occupy in the original almost 
a third of the page. The first word of a chapter has only its first two 
letters— ^including its pictorial letter — in capitals, but the remainder, 
as well as the rest of the first line, is in larger type than the rest. The 
original bemg also in black letter was enabled to use both Romans 
and Italics as variants, whereas the reprint could only use Italics. 
The rule of the original is, however, in general very simple. " The 
— Chapter", the contents of the chapter and proper names are in 
Romans; "The — Booke" and quotations in Italics; the translations 
of quotations in Romans. Wherever there can be any doubt the type 
of the original is marked in the margin, as are occasional uses by the 
author of [ ] to distinguish them from the editor's use of the same. 
It may be added that " The — Chapter", and the contents of the 
chapter, have been transposed. The V like arrangement of the lines 
at the end of a chapter have not been followed, but been imitated 
according to the spirit in which they were employed ; for, after an 
investigation made for the purpose, it was found that they do not 
indicate a division of the text or matter, but were simply compositors' 
devices to fill up a page when that page either ended a book, or when 
its blank space did not allow of the commencement of a new chapter. 
Similarly, on one page, a (" . •) was added to complete the page. And, 
in like manner, if there was still space at the end of a book, an en- 
graving was inserted. I would add that all the page references that 
I make are to the pages of the 1584 edition. 

I had collected for an appendix various grammatical peculiarities 
of the age; but they increased the number of pages, and therefore the 
price of the book, without, as seemed to me, sufficient cause, more 
especially as the reader can readily consult Dr. Abbot'i' Shakesperian 
Grammar, as well as notices in other books. One point, however, 
ought to be attended to. Though an educated and University man, 
accustomed to Latin and Greek, he, like all of his time, followed the 
then frequent habit of using singular verbs after plural nominatives 
not immediately preceding them. A close examination of these, both 
in Scot and Greene, another literate and Utriusque Academia; in 

xliv Introduction. 

Artibus Magister ; and one notable one in Ben Jonson, who elsewhere, 
so far as I know, avoids this error ; as well as those in Shakespeare 
and others, have shown me that they cannot be explained as is sought 
in Dr. Abbot's Shakesperian Gra/ninar, § 333, where the form 6f the 
verb is held to be a remnant of the northern early English third person 
plural in "s". The instances alone of the auxiliary verbs so used set this 
theory aside, and show that the custom was due to carelessness, habit, 
the remoteness or after position of the true nominatives, and to the 
nearness of another word, sometimes even to a transposed objective ; 
or of a "that" or " which" that had the look of a singular, or in the 
case of a double nominative, to both words being considered as im- 
plying one thought, as indeed they often did, being merely synonyms. 
Our Elizabethan ancestors would have said : " Pity and compassion 
moves me," because they held pity and compassion were one and 
the same ; and the habit of using Saxon and Latin, or other syn- 
onyms, led them to use the same construction when the meanings 
were but allied. This seems to me the more likely explanation : but 
the reader may prefer this — that our ancestors took the phrase to 
be elliptical, and that the verb really employed after both substantives 
was to be understood after the first and before the " and". 

Contemporary Notices of Scot. — Of strictly contemporary notices, I 
know of but two. In Nash's Four Letters Confuted^ I593) he asks, 
ed. Grosart, ii, 252 : " How is the Supplication a diabolicall Discourse, 
otherwise than as it intreats of the diverse natures and properties of 
Divels and spirits ? in that far fetcht sense may the famous defensa- 
tive against supposed Prophecies., and the Discoverie 0/ Witchcraft be 
called notorious Diabolicall discourses, as well as the Supplication., 
for they also intreate of the illusions and sundrie operations of spirits." 
The second is in Gabriel Harvey's Pierce's Supererogation, 1593, ed. 
Grosart, ii, 291 : " Scottes discoovery of Witchcraft, dismasketh 
sundry egregious impostures, and in certaine principall Chapters, & 
speciall passages, hitteth the nayle on the head with a witnesse: how- 
soever I could have wished, [G. H. is nothing if he be not quasi- 
critical and emending] he had either dealt somewhat more curteously 
with Monsieur Bodine, or cofuted him somewhat more effectually." 

Of course, various of the after-writers on witchcraft, whichever 
side they took, either spoke of him explicitly, or alluded to him ; 

Introdtution. xlv 

Webster, Wagstafte, Ady, and others, on the same side as Scot, and 
Meric Casaubon, Cotta, etc., ending with Glanvil on the other. But 
these, the really curious in such matters may be left to search out 
for themselves. Only I would like to mention John Deacon's and 
John Walker's Dialogicall Discourses of ... Devils [etc.], 1601, both 
because they, being clergymen, had the boldness — besides adding new 
arguments of their own, and though their wording is somewhat less 
decided than their own evident belief — out of three explanations of the 
case of the Witch of Endor which they set before the reader, to 
plainly prefer Scot's view of her ventriloquism, both naming him in 
the text, and giving the reference to his page in their margin ; and 
secondly, because so far as a hasty look enables one to give an 
opinion, they spoke more rationally on magical and other points than 
one would at that date expect. They also quote the opinion of Hip- 
pocrates on magical cures, as given by Scot, p. 450, and show that 
they take it, though not literally, from him, and not from Hippocrates 
directly, by giving a reference to Scot in the margin. Afterwards 
they published in 1603, a second large work, A sununarie\f\ answer 
to John Darrell, the first work having been also suggested by the same 
impostor, and his setting forth of himself as a caster out of devils. 
I have said on p. xxii that the discovery of Scot's name in the Sub- 
sidy Rolls for 1 586 and 1 587 with the affix of " Armiger" was for me an 
important find. And now I would explain that it was so, inasmuch 
as it set my mind at rest as to the oneness of the Raynold of the 
Hoppe-garden with the Reginald Scot Esquire, of the Witclicraft. 
Aware that Reynold and Reginald were variants of one name, used of 
and by the same person, the following facts hindered me for a long 
time from accepting the common belief that the Raynold and Regi- 
nald of these two works were one and the same. First, the author 
of the Hoppe-garden in each of his signatures to the editions of 
1574-6-8, three in each, appears as Raynold. In the marriage entry, in 
the pay-account of the Kent forces, in the Muster-roll, and in the Will, 
it is also Raynold. But in 1584, throughout the Witchcraft, that is, 
four times in all, the name appears as Reginald. Secondly, in the Will 
of 1 599, in accordance with the want of any title on the title-page of the 
Hoppe-garden, he describes himself as "gent", and in the Inquisitio 
p. m., though he is called Reginald, the document being in Latin, he 

xlvi Inti^odiLction. 

is, as in his Will, "generosus". But in the title-page of the Witch- 
crafty he is Reginald Scot Esquire. The finding no evidence of the 
separate existence of a Raynold and a Reginald, the frequent refer- 
ences to the Scriptures in the Witchcraft^ and the very frequent refer- 
ences to the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, in the "Address to the 
Reader^' of the Hoppe-garden, the use in both works, as already quoted, 
of certain legal phrases, and the occurrence in the prefatory part of 
the Hoppe-garden of "w^ith the licour (or rather the lucre)", and 
" condemne the man, or rather the mynde", a trick of language not 
unfrequently repeated in the Discoverie, a trick resulting from his 
love of irony, shook my doubts. But there were still, the want of any 
title after the name in the Hoppe-garden^ the " gent" of the Will, 
and the "generosus" of the Inquisitio, as against the "Esquire" of the 
Discoverie. First, however, Hunter's suggestion, that his esquireship 
was due to his having been appointed a Justice of the Peace, and then 
the discovery of armiger after his name, have removed all reasonable 
doubts; and to turn our belief to a positive certainty, it only remains 
to discover that he was a Justice of the Peace. 

Possibly the reader may now expect some pages on Scot's style 
as a writer, and on his claim — his claim, yet not one made by him- 
self—to be considered an English classic. But, besides that, I am 
not "greatly cesthetic", and besides having expressed my opinions 
in more than one place in this Introduction, I think that any reader, 
with any appreciation of style, and of the manner in which an argu- 
ment ought to be carried out, can come to but one conclusion. Such 
belief, I may add, is strengthened by this, that most writers whom I 
have consulted are of this opinion : and I would conclude with three 
quotations, chiefly regarding the way in which he carried out his 
argument. The Rev. Jos. Hunter, in his MS. Chorus Vatian, ch. v, 
says : " In fact, I had no notion of the admirable character of this 
book till I read it this September 1839. It is one of the few instances 
in which a bold spirit opposes himself to the popular belief, and 
seeks to throw protection over a class of the defenceless. In my 
opinion, he ought to stand very prominent in any catalogue of 
Persons who have been public benefactors." 

" To answer his argument was wholly impossible, and though the 
publication of his book did not put an end to the notion which con- 

Introduction. xlvii 

tinned very prevalent for a century afterwards [though we know from 
Ady that it greatly checked the belief for a tune], yet it had, I have 
no doubt, much to do with the silent and gradual extinction of it." 

So D'Israeli, in his ^wi?«zVzVj iT/'ZzV^ra/z^r^, has these words : "A 
single volume sent forth from the privacy of a retired student, by its 
silent influence may mark an epoch in the history of the human 

" Such a volume was The Discoverie of Witchcraft^ by Reginald 
Scot, a singular work, which may justly claim the honour in this 
country of opening that glorious career which is dear to humanity 
and fatal to imposture." 

Thirdly, Professor W. T. Gairdner, M.D. and LL.D., thus speaks, 
in his address on " Insanity : Modern Views as to its Nature and 
Treatment", read before the Glasgow Medico-Chirurgical Society : 
" But I cannot leave it [witchcraft] . . . without expressing, more 
strongly than even Mr. Lecky does, the unqualified admiration and 
surprise which arise in the mind on finding that in 1584 . . . there 
was at least one man in England . . . who could scan the whole field 
of demonology, and all its terrible results in history, with an eye as 
clear from superstition, and a judgment as sound and unwavering in 
its opposition to abuses, as that of Mr. Lecky himself. There is only 
one book, so far as I know, in any language, written in the sixteenth 
or even the seventeenth century, that merits this praise : and it is a 
book which, notwithstanding its wide human interest, its great and 
solid learning, and a charming English style that makes it most 
readable, even at the present day, has never been reprinted for two 
hundred years, and is therefore extremely inaccessible to most 
readers. Feginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft . . . stands brightly 
out amid the darkness of its own and the succeeding age, as a per- 
fectly unique example of sagacity amounting to genius." He adds: 
" Nothing, however, is more evident than that Scot, however indebted 
to Wier (and both of them, probably, to Cornelius Agrippa . . . ), 
was far in advance of either in the clearness of his views and the 
unwavering steadiness of his leanings to the side of humanity and 

Note. — The italic numerals in the side marqi/is 
denote the pages of the Jirst, the ordinary numbers 
those of the second edition. 

The difcouerie 

of witchcraft, 

Wherein the lewde dealing of witches 

a7id witchmongers is 7iotablie detected, the 
knauerie of coniurors, the impietie of inchan- 

tors, the fo Hie of foothfaiers, the impudent falf- 

hood of coufenors, the infidelitie of atheifts, 

the pejlilent pran:ifes of Pythonijls, the 

curiofitie of figurecafters, the va- 

iiitie of dreamers^ the hegger- 

lie art of Alcu- 


The abhomination of idolatrie, the hor- 

rible art of poifoning, the vertue and power of 

naturall magike, and all the conueiances 

of Legierdemaine and higgling are deciphered: 

and many other things opened, which 

haue long lien hidden, howbeit 

verie necefTarie to 

be knowne. 

Heerevnto is added a treatife vpon the 

nature and fubftance of fpirits and ditiels, 

&c : all latelie written 

by Reginald Scot 


I. lohn. 4, I. 

Beleeue not etierie fpirit^ but trie the fpirits^ whether they are 

of God ; for manie falfe prophets are gone 

out into the worlds &c. 























Difcovery of Witchcraft : 


The common opinions of Witches con- 
tracting with Divels,Spirits,or Familiars; and 

their power to kill, torment, and confume the bodies of 

men women, and children, or other creatures by difeafes 

or otherwife ; their flying in the Air, &c. To be but imaginary 

Erronious conceptions and novelties ; 


The lewde unchriftian practifes of Witchmongers, upon aged, 
melancholy, ignorant, and fuperftious people in extorting con- 

feffions, by inhumane terrors and tortures is notably detedled. 

(The knavery and confederacy of Conjurors. 
The impious blafphemy of Inchanters. 
The impofture of Soothfayers, and Infidelity of Atheifts. 
The delufion of Pythonifts, Figure-cafters, Afirologers, and va- 
A i. b u. j^j^y ^j Dreamers. 

I The fruitleffe beggerly art of Alchimiftry. 

I The horrible art of Poifoning and all the tricks and convey- 

V ances of juggling and Liegerdemain are fully deciphered. 

With many Other things opened that have long lain hidden: though 

very neceffary to be known for the undeceiving of Judges, Juftices, 

and Juries, and for the prefervation of poor, aged, deformed, ignorant 

people ; frequently taken, arraigned, condemned and executed for 

Witches, when according to a right underftanding, and a good 

confcience, Phyfick, Food, and neceffaries should be 

adminiftred to them. 

Whereunto is added, a treatife upon the nature, and fubftance of Spirits and Divels, 
&c. all written and publifhed in Atmo 1584. by Regi7iald Scot, Efquire. 

Vrmtedhy Richard Cotes. 165 1, 










******************** ^t******«-*****i^***«**/>/;^*\^**^*|*^^ 

Size, Fol., lO^ in. x 6 J. 


Difcovery of Witchcraft: 

That the Compacts and Contrads of Witches 

with Devils and all Infernal Spirits or Familiars, are but 
Erroneous Novelties and Imaginary Conceptions. 

Alfo difcovering, How far their power extendeth, in Killing, Tormenting, 

Confuming, or Curing the bodies of Men, Women, Children, or Animals, 

by Charms, Philtres, Periapts, Pentacles, Curfes, and Conjurations. 


The Unchriftian Practices and Inhumane Dealings of 

Searchers and Witch-tryers upon Aged, Melancholly, and Superftitious 

people, in extorting Confeffions by Terrors and Tortures, 
and in devifing falfe Marks and Symptoms, are notably Detected. 

And the Knavery oijtiglers, Conjurers, Charmers, SootJifayers,Fignre^Cafters, 

Dreamers, Alchymifts and Philterers', with many other things 

that have long lain hidden, fully Opened and Deciphered. 


Are very neceffary to be known for the undeceiving of Judges, Juftices, 

and yurors, before they pafs Sentence upon Poor, Miferable and Ignorant People ; 
who are frequenly Arraigned, Condemned, and Executed for Witches and Wizzards. 

By Reginald Scot Efquire. 

Whereunto is added 

An excellent Difcourfe of the Nature and Siibftance 



The Fir/t by the aforefaid Author: The Second now 

added in this Third Edition, as Succedaneous to the former, 

and conducing to the compleating of the Whole Work : 

With Nine Chapters at the beginning of the Fifteenth* Book 

of the DISCO FERr. 


Printed for A. Clark, and are to be fold by Dixy Page at the Turks-Head 
in Cornhill ntz.x the Roya/l Exchange, 1665. 

* [•^'''••l 

To the 


especiall good 

Knight, Lord 

Hono7^able, mine 

Sir Roger Manwood 
cheefe Baron of Jiir Majesties Court 
of the Eschequer. 

Insomuch as I know that your Lordship is by nature 
whollie inclined, and in purpose earnestly bent to releeve 
the poore, and that not onlie with hospitalitie and almes, 
but by diverse other devises and waies tending to their 
comfort, having (as it were) framed and set your selfe to the helpe and 
maintenance of their estate ; as appeareth by your charge and travell 
in that behalfe. Whereas also you have a speciall care for the sup- 
porting of their right, and redressing of their wrongs, as neither 
despising their calamitie, nor yet forgetting their complaint, seeking 
all meanes for their amendement, and for the reformation of their dis- 
orders, even as a verie father to the poore. Finallie, for that I am a 
poore member of that commonwelth, where your Lordship is a 
principall person; I thought this my travell, in the behalfe of the poore, 
the aged, and the simple, might be/ verie fitlie commended unto you : 
for a weake house requireth a strong stale. In which respect I give 
God thanks, that hath raised up unto me so mightieafreend for/thern 
as your Lordship is, who in our lawes have such knowledge, in 
government such discretion, in these causes such experience, and in 
the commonwealth such authoritie; and neverthelesse vouchsafe to 
descend to the consideration of these base and inferior matters, which 
minister more care and trouble, than worldhe estimation. 

And in somuch as your Lordship knoweth, or rather exerciseth the 
office of a judge, whose part it is to heare with courtesie, and to 
determine with equitie ; it cannot but be apparent unto you, that when 
punishment exceedeth the fault, it is rather to be thought vengeance 
than correction. In which respect I knowe you spend more time and 
travell in the conversion and reformation, than in the subversion & 
confusion of offenders, as being well pleased to augment your 
owne private paines, to the end you may diminish their publike smart. 
For in truth, that commonwealth remaineth in wofuU state, where 
fetters and halters beare more swaie than mercie and due com- 

Howbeit, it is naturall to unnaturall people, and peculiar unto 
witchmongers, to pursue the poore, to accuse the simple, and to kill 
the innocent ; supplieng in rigor and malice towards others, that 

A. ii. V. 

viii The Epistle. 

which they themselves want in proofe and discretion, or the other in 
offense or occasion. But as a cruell hart and an honest mind doo 
seldome meete and feed togither in a dish ; so a discreet and mercifull 
magistrate, and a happie commonwealth cannot be separated asunder. 
How much then are we bound to God, who hath given us a Queene, 
that of justice is not only the very perfect image & paterne ; but also 
A. 2. of mercie & clemencie (under God) the meere fountaine &/ bodie it 
A. iii. selfe ? In somuch as they which hunt most after bloud in/ these 
dales, have least authoritie to shed it. Moreover, sith I see that in 
cases where lenitie might be noisome, & punishment wholesome to 
the commonwealth ; there no respect of person can move you, no 
authoritie can abash you, no feare, no threts can daunt you in per- 
forming the dutie of justice. 

In that respect againe I find your Lordship a fit person, to judge 

and looke upon this present treatise. Wherein I will bring before 

you, as it were to the barre, two sorts of most arrogant and wicked 

people, the first challenging to themselves, the second attributing unto 

a Apoc. 4, II. others, that power which onelie apperteineth to God,'^ who onelie is 

bRom. 8. ^jjg Creator of all things,'' who onelie searcheth the heart and reines, 

Acts. 5. . . 

Apoc. 2. who onelie " knoweth our imaginations and thoughts, who onelie"^ 

d Dan. 2. & openeth all secrets, who^ onelie worketh great wonders, who onelie 

Ip*]'"^'-, hath power*' to raise up & cast downe ; who onelie maketh thunder, 

& 136. lightning, raine, tempests, and restraineth them at his pleasure ; who 

f John's. & 36 onelie 8 sendeth life and death, sicknesse & health, wealth and wo; 

Sam. 12. ^j^Q neither giveth nor lendeth his^ glorie to anie creature. 

1. Reg. 8. ^ ° 

2. Reg. 3. And therefore, that which greeveth me to the bottome of my hart, 
Zach 10. 's> that these witchmongers cannot be content, to wrest out of Gods 
& '4- hand his almightie power, and keepe it themselves, or leave it with a 

Amos. 4. 7. o r- 7 r- 7 

Ejob. I. witch: but that, when by drift of argument they are made to laie 

saie. 42, 8. downe the bucklers, they yeeld them up to the divell, or at the least 

praie aid of him, as though the raines of all mens lives and actions 

were committed into his hand ; and that he sat at the sterne, to guide 

and direct the course of the whole world, imputing unto him power 

and abilitie inough to doo as great things, and as strange miracles as 

ever Christ did. 

A. 2. V. But the doctors of this supernaturall doctrine saie/ somtimes, that 

A. iii. V. the witch doth all these things by vertue of hir/ charmes ; sometimes 

that a spirituall, sometimes that a corporall divell doth accomplish it; 

sometimes they saie that the divell doth but make the witch beleeve 

she doth that which he himselfe hath wrought ; sometimes that the 

divell seemeth to doo that by compulsion, which he doth most 

willinglie. Finallie, the writers hereupon are so eloquent, and full of 

varietie ; that sometimes they write that the divell dooth all this by 

The Epistle. ix 

Gods permission onelie ; sometimes by his licence, somtimes by his 
appointment : so as (in effect and truth) not the divell, but the high 
and mightie king of kings, and Lord of hosts, even God himselfe, 
should this waie be made obedient and servile to obeie and performe 
the will & commandement of a malicious old witch, and miraculouslie 
to answere hir appetite, as well in everie trifling vanitie, as in most 
horrible executions ; as the revenger of a doting old womans imagined 
wrongs, to the destruction of mania innocent children, and as a 
supporter of hir passions, to the undoing of manie a poore soule. 
And I see not, but a witch may as well inchant, when she will ; as a 
lier may lie when he list : and so should we possesse nothing, but by 
a witches licence and permission. 

And now forsooth it is brought to this point, that all divels, which 
were woont to be spirituall, may at their pleasure become corporall, 
and so shew themselves familiarlie to witches and conjurors, and to 
none other, and by them onlie may be made tame, and kept in a box, 
&c. So as a malicious old woman may command hir divell to plague 
hir neighbor : and he is afflicted in manner and forme as she desireth. 
But then commeth another witch, and she biddeth hir divell helpe, 
and he healeth the same partie. So as they/ make it a kingdome A 3 
divided in it selfe, and therefore I trust it will not long endure, but 
will shortlie be overthrowne, according to the words of our Savior, 
OniJie regnjtin in se divisitni desolabihcr, Everie king/dome divided in a. iiii. 
it selfe shalbe desolate. 

And although some sale that the divell is the witches instrument, 
to bring hir purposes and practises to passe : yet others saie that she 
is his instrument, to execute his pleasure in anie thing, and therefore 
to be executed. But then (me thinks) she should be injuriouslie dealt 
withall, and put to death for anothers offense : for actions are not 
judged by instrumentall causes ; neither dooth the end and purpose 
of that which is done, depend upon the meane instrument. Finallie, 
if the witch doo it not, why should the witch die for it .'' But they saie 
that witches are persuaded, and thinke, that they doo indeed those 
mischeefs ; and have a will to performe that which the divell com- 
mitteth : and that therefore they are worthie to die. By which reason 
everie one should be executed, that wisheth evill to his neighbor, &c. 
But if the will should be punished by man, according to the offense 
against God, we should be driven by thousands at once to the 
slaughterhouse or butcherie. For whosoever loatheth correction Proverb. 5. 
shall die. And who should escape execution, if this lothsomnesse (I 
saie) should extend to death by the civill lawes. Also the reward of 
sinne is death. Howbeit, everie one that sinneth, is not to be put to 
death by the magistrate. But (my Lord) it shalbe proved in my 


X The Epistle. 

booke, and your Lordship shall trie it to be true, as well here at home 
in your native countrie, as also abrode in your severall circuits, that 
(besides them that be Venifica, which are plaine poisoners) there will 
be found among our witches onelie two sorts ; the one sort being such 
A 3 V by imputation, as/ so thought of by others (and these are abused, and 
not abusors) the other by acceptation, as being willing so to be 
accompted (and these be meere cousenors.) 
Instit. lib. Calvine treating of these magicians, calleth them cousenors, saieng 

UemlplT' ^' that they use their juggling knacks onelie to amase or abuse the 
Deut. cap. i8. people ; or else for fame : but he/ might rather have said for gaine. 
mils, Pag. 5. Erastus himselfe, being a principal! writer in the behalfe of witches 

A.\\\i.v. omnipotencie, is forced to confesse, that these Greeke words, /ifi7<'a, 

fui^l^iarjla, (papfiaKia, are most commonlie put for illusion, false packing, 
cousenage, fraud, knaverie and deceipt : and is further driven to saie, 
that in ancient time, the learned were not so blockish, as not to see 
that the promises of magicians and inchanters were false, and no- 
thing else but knaverie, cousenage, and old wives fables ; and yet 
defendeth he their flieng in the aire, their transferring of corne or 
grasse from one feeld to another, &c. 

But as Erastus disagreeth herein with himselfe and his freends : so 
is there no agreement among anie of those writers, but onlie in 
cruelties, absurdities, and impossibilities. And these (my Lord) that 
fall into so manifest contradictions, and into such absurd assevera- 
tions, are not of the inferior sort of witers ; neither are they all 
papists, but men of such accompt, as whose names give more credit 
to their cause, than their writings. In whose behalfe I am sorie, and 
partlie for reverence suppresse their fondest errors and fowlest absur- 
alsaie. 59, 7. dities ; dealing speciallie with them that most contend in crueltie,'^ 
bEccU27^5. whose feete are swift to shed bloud, striving (as ''Jesus the sonne of 
c Prov. 1, 16. Sirach saith) and hasting (as ''Salomon the sonne of David saith) to 
powre out the bloud of the innocent ; whose heat against these poore 
d jer 2 34. wretches cannot be allaied with anie other liquor than bloud. And 

eps. 139, 15. therfore I feare that ''under their wings will be found the bloud of the 
A 4 soules of the poore, at that daie, when the Lord shall saie ;/ "^Depart 
from me ye bloadthirstie men. 

And bicause I know your Lordship will take no counsell against 

innocent bloud, but rather suppresse them that seeke to embrue their 

hands therein ; I have made choise to open their case unto you, and 

to laie their miserable calamitie before your feete : following herein 

[A. v.] the/ advise of that learned man Brentius, who saith ; .5"/ gtns admo- 

in epistola nuerit magistratum, ne i/i miseras illas viulierculas scsviat, eum ego 

ad Jo. Wter. arbitvor divinitus excitatiini ; that is. If anie admonish the magistrate 

not to deale too hardlie with these miserable wretches, that are called 

The Epistle. xi 

witches, I thinke him a good instrument raised up for this purpose by- 
God himselfe. 

But it will perchance be said by vvitchmongers ; to wit, by such as 
attribute to witches the power which apperteineth to God onelie, that 
I have made choise of your Lordship to be a patrone to this my booke; 
bicause I think you favour mine opinions, and by that meanes may 
the more freelie publish anie error or conceipt of mine owne, which 
should rather be warranted by your Lordships authoritie, than by the 
word of God, or by sufficient argument. But I protest the contrarie, 
and by these presents I renounce all protection, and despise all freend- 
ship that might serve to helpe towards the suppressing or supplanting 
of truth : knowing also that your Lordship is farre from allowing anie 
injurie done unto man ; much more an enimie to them that go about 
to dishonor God, or to embezill the title of his immortall glorie. But 
bicause I know you to be perspicuous, and able to see downe into the 
depth and bottome of causes, and are not to be carried awaie with the 
vaine persuasion or superstition either of man, custome, time, or 
multitude, but mooved with the authoritie of truth onlie : I crave 
your countenance herein, even so farre foorth, and no further, than 
the lawe of God, the lawe of nature, the lawe of this land, and the/ rule A4 v 
of reason shall require. Neither doo I treat for these poore people 
anie otherwise, but so, as with one hand you may sustaine the good, 
and with the other suppresse the evill : wherein you shalbe thought a 
father to orphans, an advocate to widowes, a guide to the blind, a 
staie to the lame, a comfort & countenance to the honest, a scourge/ 
and terror to the wicked. lA. v. ».] 

Thus farre I have beene bold to use your Lordships patience, being 
offended with my selfe, that I could not in brevitie utter such matter 
as I have delivered amplie: whereby (I confesse) occasion of tedious- 
nes might be ministred, were it not that your great gravitie joined 
with your singular constancie in reading and judging be means of 
the contrarie. And I wish even with all my hart, that I could make 
people conceive the substance of my writing, and not to misconstrue 
anie part of my meaning. Then doubtles would I persuade my selfe, 
that the companie of witchmongers, &c : being once decreased, the 
number also of witches, &c : would soone be diminished. But true 
be the words of the Poet,* [* Homer.] 

Haudqiiaquam poteris sortirier omnia sohis, 
Ndmqtie aliis divi bello poller e dederujit. 
Hide saltandi arteni, voce huic cythardqtie canendi : 
Rurswn alii inseruil sagax in pectore niagims 
Jtipiter ingenium^ ^t'c. 


The Epistle. 

And therefore as doubtful! to prevaile by persuading, though I have 
reason and common sense on my side ; I rest upon earnest wishing ; 
namelie, to all people an absolute trust in God the creator, and not 
in creatures, which is to make flesh our arme : that God may 
have his due honor, which by the undutifulnes of manic 
is turned into dishonor, and lesse cause of offense 
and errour given by common received evill 
example. And to your Lordship I wish, as 
increase of honour, so continu- 
ance of good health, 
and happie 

Your Lordships to be commanded 

Reginald Scot. 

The Epistle. xiii 

To the right worshipfull Sir [^•^''•i ^^^ 

Thomas Scot Knight, Sr^c. 

[Rora. and Ital. of this reversed from original.] 

Ir, I see among other malefactors manie poore old women 
convented before you for working of miracles, other 
wise called witchcraft, and therefore I thought you also a 
meet person to whom I might comend my booke. And 
here I have occasion to speake of your sincere administration of justice, 
and of your dexteritie, discretion, charge, and travell emploied in that 
behalfe, wherof I am oculatus testis. Howbeit I had rather refer the 
reader to common fame, and their owne eies and eares to be satisfiedy 
than to send them to a Stationers shop, where manie times lies are 
vendible, and truth contemptible. For I being of your house, of your 
name, & of your bloud y my foot being under your table, my hand in 
your dish, or rather in your pursse, might bee thought to flatter you in 
that, wherein (I knowe) I should rather offend you than please you. 
And what need I currie favour with my most assured friend .'' And if 
I should onelie publish those vertues (though they be manie) which 
give me speciall occasion to exhibit this my travell unto you, I should 
doo as a painter, that describeth the foot of a notable personage, and 
leaveth all the best features in his bodie untouched. 

I therefore (at this time) doo onelie desire you to consider of my 
report, concerning the evidence that is commonlie brought before you 
against them. See first whether the evidence be not frivolous, & 
whether the proofs brought against them be not incredible, consisting 
of ghesses, presumptions, & impossibilities contrarie to reason, scrip-/ 
ture, and nature. See also what persons complaine upon them, A a 2 
whether they be not of the basest, the unwisest, & most faithles kind 
of people. Also/ may it please you to waie what accusations and [A. vi. v.] 
crimes they laie to their charge, namelie : She was at my house of 
late, she would have had a pot of milke, she departed in a chafe 
bicause she had it not, she railed, she curssed, she mumbled and 
whispered, and finallie she said she would be even with me : and 
soone after my child, my cow, my sow, or my pullet died, or was 
strangelie taken. Naie (if it please your Worship) I have further 
proofe : I was with a wise woman, and she told me I had an ill 
neighbour, & that she would come to my house yer it were long, and 
so did she ; and that she had a marke above hir waste, & so had she: 
and God forgive me, my stomach hath gone against hir a great while. 
Hir mother before hir was counted a witch, she hath bcene beaten 

xiv The Epistle. 

and scratched by the face till bloud was drawne upon hir, bicause she 
hath beene suspected, & afterwards some of those persons were 
said to amend. These are the certeinties that I heare in their evi- 

Note also how easilie they may be brought to confesse that which 
they never did, nor lieth in the power of man to doo : and then see 
whether I have cause to write as I doo. Further, if you shall see 
that infidelitie, poperie, and manie other manifest heresies be backed 
and shouldered, and their professors animated and hartened, by 
yeelding to creatures such infinit power as is wrested out of Gods 
hand, and attributed to witches : finallie, if you shall perceive that I 
have faithfullie and trulie delivered and set downe the condition and 
state of the witch, and also of the witchmonger, and have confuted 
by reason and lawe, and by the word of God it selfe, all mine adver- 
saries objections and arguments : then let me have your countenance 
against them that maliciouslie oppose themselves against me./ 
Aa2 My greatest adversaries are yoong ignorance and old custome. 
\.A. vii.] For what follie soever tract of time hath fostered, it is/ so supersti- 
tiouslie pursued of some, as though no error could be acquainted with 
custome. But if the lawe of nations would joine with such custome, to 
the maintenance of ignorance, and to the suppressing of knowledge^ 
the civilest countrie in the world would soone become barbarous, &c. 
For as knowledge and time discovereth errors, so dooth superstition 
and ignorance in time breed theni. And concerning the opinions of 
such, as wish that ignorance should rather be mainteined, than know- 
ledge busilie searched for, bicause thereby offence may grow : I 
John. 5. answer, that we are commanded by Christ himselfe to search for 

Prov. 15,1. knowledge : for it is the kings honour (as Salomon saith) to search 

out a thing. 

Aristotle said to Alexander, that a mind well furnished was more 

beautiful! than a bodie richlie araied. What can be more odious to 

man, or offensive to God, than ignorance : for through ignorance the 

Acts. 3. Jewes did put Christ to death. Which ignorance whosoever forsaketh, 

Proverbs. 9. jg pj-Qmised life everlasting : and therfore among Christians it should 

be abhorred above all other things. For even as when we wrestle 

in the darke, we tumble in the mire, &c : so when we see not the 

truth, we wallow in errors. A blind man may seeke long in the rishes 

yer he find a needley and as soone is a doubt discussed by ignorance. 

Finallie, truth is no sooner found out in ignorance, than a sweet savor 

in a dunghill. And if they will allow men knowledge, and give them 

no leave to use it, men were much better be without it than have it. 

Matth. 25. For it is, as to have a tallent, and to hide it under the earthy or to 

Luk* 8 P*^*- ^ candle under a bushell : or as to have a ship, & to let hir lie 

The Epistle. 


ahvaies in the docke : which thing how profitable it is, I can saie 
somewhat by experience./ 

But hereof I need saie no more, for everie man seeth that A a 2 v 
none can be happie who knoweth not what felicitie meaneth. 
For what availeth it to have riches, and not to have the use/ 
thereof? Trulie the heathen herein deserved more commen- ^A.yW.v.^ 
dation than manic christians, for they spared no paine, no cost, nor 
travell to atteine to knowledge. Pythagoras travelled from Thamus 
to Aegypt, and afterwards into Crete and Lacedaemonia : and Plato 
out of Athens into Italic and Aegypt, and all to find out hidden 
secrets and knowledge : which when a man hath, he seemeth to be 
separated from mortalitie. For pretious stones, and all other crea- 
tures of what value soever, are but counterfeits to this jewell : they 
are mortall, corruptible, and inconstant/ this is immortall, pure 
and certeine. Wherfore if I have searched and found out any 
good thing, that ignorance and time hath smothered, 
the same I commend unto you : to whom 
though I owe all that I have, yet am 
I bold to make other par- 
takers with you in 
this poore 

Your loving cousen, 

Reg. Scot. 


The Epistle. 

[^. viii]. 
A a 3 

[* = wooden] 

A rt 3 V. 

\A. viii. v.'\ 

To the right worshipfull his loving friends, 

Maister Doctor Coldwell Deane of Ro- 

chester, and Maister Doctor Read- 

7}taii Archdeacon of Can- 

turburze, &^c. 

[Rom. and Ital. reversed ; the italics of original smaller than in that to Sir Th. Scot. J 

[Aving found out two such civill Magistrates, as for 
direction of judgement, and for ordering matters con- 
cerning justice in this common weakh (in my poore 
opinion) are verie singular persons, who (I hope) will 
accept of my good will, and examine my booke by their experience, 
as unto whom the matter therin conteined dooth greatlie apperteine: 
I have now againe considered of two other points : namelie, divinitie 
and philosophic, whereupon the groundworke of my booke is laid. 
Wherein although I know them to be verie sufficientlie informed, 
yet dooth not the judgement and censure of those causes so properlie 
apperteine to them as unto you, whose fame therein hath gotten 
preeminence above all others that I know of your callings : and in 
that respect I am bold to joine you with them, being all good neigh- 
bours togither in this commonwelth, and loving friends unto me. 
I doo not present this unto you, bicause it is meet for youy but for 
that you are meet for it (I meane) to judge upon it, to defend it, and 
if need be to correct ity knowing that you have learned of that grave 
counseller Cato, not to shame or discountenance any bodie. For if 
I thought you as readie, as able, to disgrace me for mine insufficien- 
cies I should not have beene hastie (knowing your learning) to have 
written unto you : but if I should be abashed to write to you, I should 
shew my selfe ignorant of your courtesie. 

I knowe mine owne weakenesse, which if it have beene able to 
mainteine this argument, the cause is the stronger. Eloquent words 
may please the eares, but sufficient matter persuadeth the hart. So 
as, if I exhibit wholsome drinke (thought it be small) in a treene* 
dish with a faithfuU hand, I hope it will bee as well accepted, as 
strong wine offered in a silver bowle with a flattering heart. And 
surelie it is a point of as great liberalitie to receive a small thing 
thankeful/lie, as to give and distribute great and costlie gifts bounti- 
fullie : for there is more supplied with courteous answers than with 
rich rewards. The ty/rant Dionysius was not so hated for his 
tyrannie, as for his churlish and strange behaviour. Among the 
poore Israelites sacrifices, God was satisfied with the tenth part of 

The Epistle. xvii 

an Ephah of flower, so as it were fine and good. Christ liked well 
of the poore widowes mite, Lewis of France accepted a rape root of 
clownish Conan, Cyrus vouchsafed to drinke a cup of cold water out 
of the hand of poore Sintetes .• and so it may please you to accept 
this simple booke at my hands, which I faithfullie exhibit unto you, 
not knowing your opinions to meet with mine, but knowing your 
learning and judgement to be able as well to correct me where I 
speake herein unskilfullie, as others when they speake hereof ma- 

Some be such dogs as they will barke at my writings, whether I 
mainteine or refute this argument : as Diogenes snarled both at the 
Rhodians and at the Lacedaemonians : at the one, bicause they were 
bravey at the other, bicause they were not brave. Homer himselfe 
could not avoid reprochfuU speaches. I am sure that they which 
never studied to learne anie good thing, will studie to find faults 
hereat. I for my part feare not these wars, nor all the adversaries I 
havey were it not for certeine cowards, who (I knowe) will come 
behind my backe and bite me. 

But now to the matter. My question is not (as manie fondlie 
suppose) whether there be witches or naie : but whether they can 
doo such miraculous works as are imputed unto them. Good Mais- 
ter Deane, is it possible for a man to breake his fast with you at 
Rochester, and to dine that day at Durham with Maister Doctor 
Matthewy or can your enimie maime you, when the Ocean sea is 
betwixt you ? What reall communitie is betwixt a spirit and a bodie ? 
May a spirituall bodie become temporall at his pleasure .-' Or may a 
carnall bodie become invisible .'' Is it likelie that the lives of all 
Princes, magistrates, & subjects, should depend upon the will, or 
rather upon the wish of a poore malicious doting old fooley and that 
power exempted from the wise, the rich, the learned, the godlie, &c ? 
Finallie, is it possible for man or woman to do anie of those miracles 
expressed in my booke, & so constantlie reported by great clarks .'' 
If you saie, noy then am I satisfied. If you sale that God, abso- 
lutelie, or by meanes can accomplish all those, and manie more, I 
go with you. But witches may well saie they can doo these things, 
howbeit they cannot shew how they doo them. If I for my part 
should saie I could doo/ those things, my verie adversaries would saie a a 4' 
that I lied. 

O Maister Archdeacon, is it not pitie, that that which is said to be 
doone with the almightie power of the most high God, and by our 
saviour his onelie sonne Jesus Christ our Lord, shouldbe referred to 
a baggage old womans nod/ or wish, &c ? Good Sir, is it not one B. i. 
manifest kind of Idolatrie, for them that labor and are laden, to come 


xviii The Epistle. 

unto witches to be refreshed? If witches could helpe whom they 
are said to have made sicke, I see no reason, but remedie might as 
well be required at their hands, as a pursse demanded of him that 
hath stolne it. But trulie it is manifold idolatrie, to aske that of a 
creature, which none can give but the Creator. The papist hath 
some colour of scripture to mainteine his idoll of bread, but no 
Jesuiticall distinction can cover the witchmongers idolatrie in this 
behalfe. Alas, I am sorie and ashamed to see how manie die, that 
being said to be bewitched, onelie seeke for magicall cures, whom 
who] some diet and good medicines would have recovered. I dare 
assure you both, that there would be none of these cousening kind 
of witches, did not witchmongers mainteine them, followe them, and 
beleeve in them and their oracles : whereby indeed all good learning 
and honest arts are overthrowne. For these that most advance their 
power, and mainteine the skill of these witches, understand no part 
thereof : and yet being manie times wise in other matters, are made 
fooles by the most fooles in the world. 

Me thinks these magicall physicians deale in the commonwelth, 
much like as a certeine kind of Cynicall people doo in the church, 
whose severe saiengs are accompted among some such oracles, as 
may not be doubted ofy who in stead of learning and authoritie 
(which they make contemptible) doo feed the people with their owne 
devises and imaginations, which they prefer before all other divinitie : 
and labouring to erect a church according to their owne fansies, 
wherein all order is condemned, and onelie their magicall words and 
curious directions advanced, they would utterlie overthrowe the true 
Church. And even as these inchanting Paracelsians abuse the 
people, leading them from the true order of physicke to their 
charmes : so doo these other (I sale) dissuade from hearkening to 
learning and obedience, and whisper in mens eares to teach them 
their frierlike traditions. And of this sect the cheefe author at this 
A a4 V time is/ one Browne, a fugitive, a meet cover for such a cup : as here- 

[» Allans] tofore the Anabaptists, the Arrians,* and the Franciscane friers. 

Trulie not onlie nature, being the foundation of all perfection^ 
but also scripture, being the mistresse and director thereof, and of 
all christianitie, is beautified with knowledge and learning. For as 
nature without discipline dooth naturallie incline unto vanities, and 

Rom. 2, 27! as it were sucke up errors : so doth the word, or rather the letter of 

the scripture, without understanding, not onlie make us devoure 

errors, but yeeldeth us up to death & destruction : & therefore 

Paule saith he was not a minister of the letter, but of the spirit. 

Thus have I beene bold to deliver unto the world, and to you, those 

B. i. V. simple/ notes, reasons, and arguments, which I have devised or col- 

Cor. 3, 6. 

The Epistle. 


lected out of other authors : which I hope shall be hurtfull to none, 
but to my selfe great comfort, if it may passe with good liking and 
acceptation. If it fall out otherwise, I should thinke my paines ill 
imploied. For trulie, in mine opinion, whosoever shall performe any 
thing, or atteine to anie knowledge y or whosoever should travell 
throughout all the nations of the world, or (if it were possible) should 
peepe into the heavens, the consolation or admiration thereof were 
nothing pleasant unto him, unles he had libertie to impart his know- 
ledge to his friends. Wherein bicause I have made speciall choise 
of you, I hope you will read it, or at the least laie it up in your studie 
with your other bookes, among which there is none dedicated 
to any with more good will. And so long as you 
have it, it shall be unto you (upon adven- 
ture of my life) a certeine amulet, 
periapt, circle, charme, &c : 
to defend you from 
all inchant- 

Your loving friend 
Reg. Scot. 

A ii. B 

To the Readers. 

Isai. II. 
Prover. 1. 

B. ii V. 

jo you that are wise & discreete few words may suffice : 
for such a one judgeth not at the first sight, nor reproov- 
eth by heresaie ; but patientlie heareth, and thereby 
increaseth in understanding : which patience bringeth 
foorth experience, whereby true judgement is directed. I shall not 
need therefore to make anie further sute to you, but that it would 
please you to read my booke, without the prejudice of time, or former 
conceipt : and having obteined this at your hands, I submit my selfe 
unto your censure. But to make a solemne sute to you that are 
parciall readers, desiring you to set aside parcialitie, to take in good 
part my writing, and with indifferent eies to looke upon my booke, 
were labour lost, and time ill imploied. For I should no more pre- 
vaile herein, than if a hundred yeares since I should have intreated 
your predecessors to beleeve, that Robin goodfellowe, that great and 
ancient bulbegger, had beene but a cousening merchant, and no 
divell indeed. 

If I should go to a papist, and sale ; I praie you beleeve my 
writings, wherein I will proove all popish charmes, conjurations, 
exorcismes, benedictions and cursses, not onelie to be ridiculous, 
and of none effect, but also to be impious and contrarie to Gods 
word : I should as hardlie therein win favour at their hands, as here- 
in obteine credit at yours. Neverthelesse, I doubt not, but to/ use 
the matter so, that as well the massemoonger for his part, as the 
witchmoonger for his, shall both be ashamed of their professions. 

But Robin goodfellowe ceaseth now to be much feared, and poperie 
is sufficientlie discovered. Nevertheles, witches charms, and con- 
jurors cousenages are yet thought effectuall. Yea the Gentiles have 
espied the fraud of their cousening oracles, and our cold prophets 
and inchanters make us fooles still, to the shame of us all, but 
speciallie of papists, who conjure everie thing, and thereby bring to 
passe nothing. They saie to their candles ; I conjure you to endure 
for ever : and yet they last not a pater noster while the longer. They 
conjure water to be wholesome both for bodie and soule : but the 
bodie (we see) is never the better for it, nor the soule anie whit 

The Epistle. xxi 

reformed by it. And therefore I mervell, that when they see their 
owne conjurations confuted and brought to naught, or at the least 
void of effect, that they (of all other) will yet give such credit, counte- 
nance, and authoritie to the vaine cousenages of witches and con- 
jurors ; as though their charmes and conjurations could produce more/ 
apparent, certeine, and better effects than their owne. B v 

But my request unto all you that read my booke shall be no more, 
but that it would please you to conferre my words with your owne 
sense and experience, and also with the word of God. If you find 
your selves resolved and satisfied, or rather reformed and qualified 
in anie one point or opinion, that heretofore you held contrarie to 
truth, in a matter hitherto undecided, and never yet looked into ; I 
praie you take that for advantage : and suspending your judgement, 
staie the sentence of condemnation against me, and consider of the 
rest, at your further leasure. If this may not suffice to persuade you, 
it cannot prevaile to annoy you : and then, that which is written with- 
out offense, may be overpassed without anie greefe. 

And although mine assertion, be somewhat differing from the old 
inveterat opinion, which I confesse hath manie graie heares, whereby 
mine adversaries have gained more authoritie than reason, towards 
the maintenance of their presumptions and old wives fables : yet 
shall it fullie agree with Gods glorie, and with his holie word. And 
albeit there be hold taken by mine adver/saries of certeine few words B. iii. 
or sentences in the scripture that maketh a shew for them : yet when 
the whole course thereof maketh against them, and impugneth the 
same, yea and also their owne places rightlie understood doo nothing 
at all releeve them : I trust their glorious title and argument of 
antiquitie will appeare as stale and corrupt as the apothecaries drugs, 
or grocers spice, which the longer they be preserved, the woorsse they 
are. And till you have perused my booke, ponder this in your mind, 
to wit, that Sages, Thessalce, Striges, Lamia (which words and none 
other being in use do properlie signifie our witches) are not once 
found written in the old or new testament ; and that Christ himselfe 
in his gospell never mentioned the name of a witch. And that neither 
he, nor Moses ever spake anie one word of the witches bargaine with 
the divell, their bagging, their riding in the aire, their transferring of 
corne or grasse from one feeld to another, their hurting of children 
or cattell with words or charmes, their bewitching of butter, cheese, 
ale, &c : nor yet their transubstantiation ; insomuch as the writers Mai. male/. 
hereupon are not ashamed to say, that it is not absurd to affirme that ''''' " ''""' ' 
there were no witches in Jobs time. The reason is, that if there had 
beene such witches then in beeing, Job would have said he had beene 
bewitched. But indeed men tooke no heed in those daies to this 


The Epistle. 

DaKiPUS ill 

suo frologo. 

1. Pet. 4. 1. doctrine of divels ; to wit, to these fables of witchcraft, which Peter 

saith shall be much regarded and hearkened unto in the latter daies. 
Howbeit, how ancient so ever this barbarous conceipt of witches 
omnipotencie is, truth must not be measured by time : for everie old 
opinion is not sound. Veritie is not impaired, how long so ever it be 
suppressed ; but is to be searched out, in how darke a corner so ever 
it lie hidden : for it is not like a cup of ale, that may be broched too 
rathe. Finallie, time bewraieth old errors, & discovereth new matters 
of truth. Danaeus himselfe saith, that this question hitherto hath 
never beene handled ; nor the scriptures concerning this matter have 
never beene expounded. To prove the antiquitie of the cause, to 
B 2 confirme the opini/on of the ignorant, to inforce mine adversaries 
arguments, to aggravate the punishments, & to accomplish the con- 
fusio of these old women, is added the vanitie and wickednes of 
them, which are called witches, the arrogancie of those which take 
B. iii. V. upon them to/ worke wonders, the desire that people have to hearken 
to such miraculous matters, unto whome most commonlie an impos- 
sibilitie is more credible than a veritie ; the ignorance of naturall 
causes, the ancient and universall hate conceived against the name 
of a witch ; their ilfavoured faces, their spitefull words, their cursses 
and imprecations, their charmes made in ryme, and their beggerie ; 
the feare of manie foolish folke, the opinion of some that are wise, 
the want of Robin goodfellowe and the fairies, which were woont to 
mainteine chat, and the common peoples talke in this behalfe ; the 
authoritie of the inquisitors, the learning, cunning, consent, and 
estimation of writers herein, the false translations and fond interpre- 
tations-used, speciallie by papists ; and manie other like causes. All 
which toies take such hold upon mens fansies, as whereby they are 
lead and entised awaie from the consideration of true respects, to the 
condemnation of that which they know not. 

Howbeit, I will (by Gods grace) in this my booke, so apparentlie 
decipher and confute these cavils, and all other their objections ; as 
everie witchmoonger shall be abashed, and all good men thereby 
satisfied. In the meane time, I would wish them to know that if 
neither the estimation of Gods omnipotencie, nor the tenor of his 
word, nor the doubtfulnes or rather the impossibilitie of the case, nor 
the small proofes brought against them, nor the rigor executed upon 
them, nor the pitie that should be in a christian heart, nor yet their 
simplicitie, impotencie, or age may suffice to suppresse the rage or 
rigor wherewith they are oppressed ; yet the consideration of their 
sex or kind ought to moove some mitigatio of their punishment. 
For if nature (as Plinie reporteth) have taught a lion not to deale so 
roughlie with a woman as with a man, bicause she is in bodie the 

The Epistle. xxiii 

weaker vessell, and in hart more inclined to pitie (which Jeremie in Lam. jer. 3. 
his lamentations seemeth to confirme) what should a man doo in this ^ct^^^io 
case, for whome a woman was created as an helpe and comfort unto l- ^or- n- 9- 

, . 1 , • 1 , r ■ ■ Ibid. vers. 7. 

him? In 80 much as, even m the lawe of nature, it is a greater Ge. 2. 22. is. 

offense to slea a woman than a man : not bicause a man is not the fyollem. 2. 9. 

more excellent creature, but bicause a woman is the weaker vessell. 

And therefore among all modest and honest persons it is thought a 

shame to offer violence or injurie to a woman : in which respect Vir. Georg. 

Virgil/ saith, Nitlluni meniorabile nomen faviinea m pcrna est. IB. iv.] 

God that knoweth my heart is witnes, and you that read my booke 
shall see, that my drift and purpose in this enterprise tendeth onelie 
to these respects. First, that the glorie and power of God be not so 
abridged and abased, as to be thrust into the hand or lip of a lewd 
old woman: whereby the worke of the Creator should be attributed to 
the power of a creature. Secondlie, that the religion of the gospell 
may be seene to stand without such peevish trumperie. Thirdlie, 
that lawfuU favour and christian compassion be rather used towards 
these poore soules, than rigor and extremitie. Bicause they, which 
are commonlie accused of witchcraft,/ are the least sufficient of all B 2 v 
other persons to speake for themselves ; as having the most base and 
simple education of all others ; the extremitie of their age giving 
them leave to dote, their povertie to beg, their wrongs to chide and 
threaten (as being void of anie other waie of revenge) their humor 
melancholicall to be full of imaginations, from whence cheefelie pro- 
ceedeth the vanitie of their confessions ; as that they can transforme 
themselves and others into apes, owles, asses, dogs, cats, &c : that 
they can flie in the aire, kill children with charmes, hinder the 
comming of butter, &c. 

And for so much as the mightie helpe themselves together, and the 
poore widowes crie, though it reach to heaven, is scarse heard here Ecd[us.] 35,15. 
upon earth : I thought good (according to my poore abilitie) to make 
intercession, that some part of common rigor, and some points of 
hastie judgement may be advised upon. For the world is now at that 
stay (as Brentius in a most godlie sermon in these words afifirmeth) 
that even as when the heathen persecuted the christians, if anie were 
accused to beleeve in Christ, the common people cried Ad leonem: so 
now, if anie woman, be she never so honest, be accused of witchcraft, 
they crie Ad igneni. What difference is betweene the rash dealing of 
unskilfull people, and the grave counsell of more discreet and learned 
persons, may appeare by a tale of Daneeus his owne telling ; wherein 
he opposeth the rashnes of a few townesmen, to the counsell of a 
whole senate, preferring the follie of the one, before the wisdome of 
the other. 


The Epistle. 

Lib. 15. cap. 
1 8. de varie- 
tatib. rerunt 

At Orleance on Loyre (saith he) there was a manwitch, not only/ 
IB. iv. -'.] taken and accused, but also convicted and condemned for witchcraft, 
who appealed from thence to the high court of Paris. Which accusa- 
tion the senate sawe insufficient, and would not allow, but laughed 
thereat, lightlie regarding it ; and in the end sent him home (saith 
he) as accused of a frivolous matter. And yet for all that, the magis- 
trats of Orleance were so bold with him, as to hang him up within 
short time after, for the same or the verie like offense. In which 
example is to be scene the nature, and as it were the disease of this 
cause : wherein (I sale) the simpler and undiscreeter sort are alwaies 
more hastie & furious in judgements, than men of better reputation 
and knowledge. Nevertheles, Eunichius saith, that these three things ; 
to wit, what is to be thought of witches, what their incantations can 
doo, and whether their punishment should extend to death, are to be 
well considered. And I would (saith he) they were as well knowne, 
as they are rashlie beleeved, both of the learned, and unlearned. 
And further he saith, that almost all divines, physicians and lawyers, 
who should best know these matters, satisfieng themselves with old 
custome, have given too much credit to these fables, and too rash and 
unjust sentence of death upon witches. But when a man pondereth 
(saith he) that in times past, all that swarved from the church of 
Rome were judged heretikes ; it is the lesse marvell, though in this 
matter they be blind and ignorant. 

And surelie, if the scripture had beene longer suppressed, more 
absurd fables would have sproong up, and beene beleeved. Which 
credulitie though it is to be derided with laughter; yet this their cruel- 
B 3 tie is to be/ lamented with teares. For (God knoweth) manie of these 
poore wretches had more need to be releeved than chastised ; and 
more meete were a preacher to admonish them, than a gailor to keepe 
them ; and a physician more necessarie to helpe them, than an 
executioner or tormentor to hang or burne them. For proofe and 
due triall hereof, I will requite Danasus his tale of a manwitch (as he 
termeth him) with another witch of the same sex or gender. 

Cardanus from the mouth of his owne father reporteth, that one 
Barnard, a poore servant, being in wit verie simple and rude, but in 
his service verie necessarie and diligent (and in that respect deerelie 
\B. v.] beloved of his maister) professing the art of witchcraft,/ could in no 
wise be dissuaded from that profession, persuading himselfe that he 
knew all things, and could bring anie matter to passe ; bicause cer- 
teine countrie people resorted to him for helpe and counsell, as 
supposing by his owne talke, that he could doo somewhat. At length 
he was condemned to be burned : which torment he seemed more 
willing to suffer, than to loose his estimation in that behalfe. But his 

The Epistle. xxv 

maister having compassion upon him, and being himselfe in his 
princes favor, perceiving his conceipt to proceed of melancholic, 
obteined respit of execution for twentie daies. In which time (saith 
he) his maister bountifullie fed him with good fat meat, and with foure 
egs at a meale, as also with sweet wine : which diet was best for so 
grosse and weake a bodie. And being recovered so in strength, that 
the humor was suppressed, he was easilie woone from his absurd and 
dangerous opinions, and from all his fond imaginations : and con- 
fessing his error and follie, from the which before no man could 
remoove him by anie persuasions, having his pardon, he lived long a 
good member of the church, whome otherwise the crueltie of judge- 
ment should have cast awaie and destroied. 

This historie is more credible than Sprengers fables, or Bodins 
babies, which reach not so far to the extolling of witches omnipotencie, 
as to the derogating of Gods glorie. For if it be true, which they 
affirme, that our life and death lieth in the hand of a witch ; then is 
it false, that God maketh us live or die, or that by him we have our 
being, our terme of life appointed, and our daies numbred. But surelie 
their charmes can no more reach to the hurting or killing of men or 
women, than their imaginations can extend to the stealing and car- 
rieng awaie of horsses & mares. Neither hath God given remedies 
to sicknes or greefes, by words or charmes, but by hearbs and 
medicines ; which he himselfe hath created upon earth, and given Amos. 3. 6. 
men knowledge of the same; that he might be glorified, for that La.jer. 3. 38. 

o j3 J Isai, 45. 9. 

therewith he dooth vouchsafe that the maladies of men and cattell Rom. 9. 20. 

should be cured, &c. And if there be no affliction nor calamitie, but 

is brought to passe by him, then let us defie the divell, renounce 

all his works, and not so much as once thinke or dreame upon this 

supernaturall power of witches ; neither let us prosecute them with 

such despight, whome our fansie condemneth,and our reason acquiteth : 

our/ evidence against them consisting in impossibilities, our proofes [5 v. v.'\ 

in unwritten verities, and our whole proceedings in doubts and 


Now bicause I mislike the extreame crueltie used against some of b 3. v. 
these sillie soules (whome a simple advocate having audience and 
justice might deliver out of the hands of the inquisitors themselves) 
it will be said, that I denie anie punishment at all to be due to anie 
witch whatsoever. Naie, bicause I bewraie the follie and impietie of 
them, which attribute unto witches the power of God : these witch- 
moongers will report, that I denie there are anie witches at all : and 
yet behold (saie they) how often is this word [Witch]* mentioned in the * [ ] in text, 
scriptures ? Even as if an idolater should saie in the behalfe of 
images and idols, to them which denie their power and godhead, and 


xxvi The Epistle. 

inveigh against the reverence doone unto them ; How dare you denie 
the power of- images, seeing their names are so often repeated in the 
scriptures ? But truehe I denie not that there are witches or images : 
but I detest the idolatrous opinions conceived of them ; referring that 
to Gods worke and ordinance, which they impute to the power and 
malice of witches ; and attributing that honour to God, which they 
ascribe to idols. But as for those that in verie deed are either 
witches or conjurors, let them hardlie suffer such punishment as to 
their fault is agreeable, and as by the grave judgement of lawe is 

Places aniended by t/ie author, afid to be read as followeth. The first 
number standeth for the page, the second for the line. 

46, 16. except you. 257. 32. an image. 

51. 9. one Saddocke. 269. 16. there be masses. 

75. 21. that we of 333. H- evenlie severed, 

no. 21. as Elimas. 363. 26. for bellowes. 

112. 10. is reproved. 366. 27. his leman. 

119. 16. one Necus. 438. 29. exercise the. 

126. 12. Magus as. 450- i- that it is. 

[*i6] 138. 2. the hart. 463. I9.*thatbusinesse. 

144. 25. in hir closet at 471- I9- coteineth nothing. 

Endor, or in. 472. n. I did deferre. 

168. 31. the firmament. 491. 6. so difficult. 

187. 16. reallie finished. 491. 27. begat another. 

192. put out the first line 503. 9. of all the. 

of the page. 519. 7- the Hevites. 

247. 29. write it. 542. 30. their reproch./ 

[Corrected in this 4th edition. The numbers of the 3rd line in original, /.<■., from 43S, 
are smaller."! 

The forren authors used in this Booke. 

[B. vi.] [B 4J 

/r^ Lianus. 
/jLL Aetius. 
Albertus Crantzius. 
Albertus Magnus. 
Alcoranum Francisca- 

Alexander TralUanus. 
AndrEeas Gartnerus. 
Andrseas Massius. 
Antonius Sabellicus. 
Apollonius Tyan^us. 
Argerius Ferrarius.* 

Arnoldus de villa nova. 
Augustinus episcopus 

Augustinus Niphus. 
Aulus Gellius. 
Barnardinus de bustis. 
Bartholomaeus Anglicus, 
Berosus Anianus. 
Cardanus pater. 
Cardanus filius. 
Carolus Callus. 



Cornelius Agrippa. 

Cornelius Nepos. 

Cornelius Tacitus. 






Diodorus Siculus. 

Dionysius Areopagita, 







Erasmus Roterodamus. 

Erasmus Sarcerius. 



Eusebius Caesariensis. 


Franciscus Petrarcha. 





Gemma Phrysius. 

Georgius Pictorius. 


Goschalcus Boll. 




Guido Bonatus. 

Gulielmus de sancto 

Gulielmus Parisiensis. 
Hermes Trismegistus. 








Jacobus de Chusa Car- 

Jaso Pratensis. 
Innocentius. 8. Papa. 
Johannes Anglicus. 
Johannes Baptista Nea- 

Johannes Cassianus. 
Johannes Montiregius. 
Johannes Rivius. 
Josephus ben Gorion. [* Ferre-] 
Josias Simlerus. 

Julius Maternus. 
Justinus Martyr. 
Laurentius Ananias. 
Laurentius a villavi- 

Leo II. Pontifex. 
Lex Salicarum. 
Lex 12. Tabularum. 
Legenda aurea. 
Legenda longa Colonise. 
Leonardus Vairus. 
Ludovicus Ccclius. 
Magna Charta. 
Malleus Maleficarum. 


Marbodeus Callus. 
Marsilius Ficinus. 
Martinus de Aries. 
Melancthonus.//] B4V. Memphradorus. 

Michael Andrsas. 




Nicholaus 5. Papa. 


Olaus Gothus. 




Paulus Aegineta. 

Paulus Marsus. 


Petrus de Appona. 

Petrus Lombardus. 

Petrus Martyr. 



Philastrius Brixiensis. 


Philo Judasus. 







Polydorus Virgilius. 

Pomoerium sermonum 









Rabbi Abraham. 

Rabbi ben Ezra. 

Rabbi David Kimhi. 

Rabbi Josuah ben Levi. 

Rabbi Isaach Natar. 

Rabbi Levi. 

Rabbi Moses. 

Rabbi Sedaias Haias. 

Robertas Carocullus. 







Septuaginta interpretes. 




Speculum exemplorum. 


Sulpitius Severus. 




Thomas Aquinas. 



Theodorus Bizantius. 





Valerius Maximus. 



Xanthus historiogra- 

^ T/iese Ens;lish. 

Barnabe Googe. 

Beehive of the Romish 

Edward Deering. 

Geffrey Chaucer. 

Giles Alley. 

GnimelfMaharba [Abra- 
ham Fleming]. 

Henrie Haward. 

John Bale. 

John Fox. 

John Malborne. 

John Record. 

Primer after Yorke use. 

Richard Gallis. 

Roger Bacon. 

Testament printed at 

T. E. a nameles author. 

Thomas Hilles. 

Thomas Lupton. 

Thomas Moore Knight. 

Thomas Phaer. 

T. R. a nameles author. 

William Lambard. 
W. W.a nameles author. 


[These Contents in original end the book as do our Indices.] 

The summe of everie chapter con 

tehied in the sixtecne bookes of this disco- 

verie, with the discourse of divels and 

spirits annexed thereunto. 

\ The first Booke. 

\ N impeachment of witches power 
in meteors and elementarie 
bodies, tending to the rebuke of 
such as attribute too much unto 
them. Pag. i. 

The inconvenience growing by mens cre- 
duhtie herein, with a reproofe of some 
churchmen, which are inclined to the com- 
mon conceived opinion of witches omni- 
potencie, and a familiar example thereof, 
pag. . 4- 

Who they be that are called witches, with a 
manifest declaration of the cause that 
mooveth men so commonlie to thinke, & 
witches themselves to beleeve that they 
can hurt children, cattell, &c. with woros 
and imaginations : and of coosening 
witches. pag. ?• 

What miraculous actions are imputed to 
witches by witchmongers, papists, and 
poets. pag. (). 

A confutation of the common conceived 
opinion of witches and witchcraft, and 
how detestable a sinne it is to repaire to 
them for counsell or helpe in time of afflic- 
tion, pag. II. 

A further cocfutation of witches miraculous 
and omnipotent power, by invincible 
reasons and authorities, with dissuasions 
from such fond credulitie. pag. 12. 

By what meanes the name of witches be- 
commeth so famous, & how diverslie 
people be opinioned concerning them and 
their actions. pa. 14. 

Causes that moove as well witches them- 
selves as others to thinke that they can 
worke impossibilities, with answers to 
certeine objections : where also their 
punishment by law is touched. pag. 16. 

A conclusion of the first booke, wherein is 
foreshewed the tyrannicall crueltie of 
witchmongers and inquisitors, with a re- 
quest to the reader to peruse the same, 
pag. 17- 

51 The second Booke. 

VX/'Hat testimonies and witnesses are 
' * allowed to give evidence against re- 
puted witches, by the report and allow- 
ance of the inquisitors themselves, & such 
as are speciall writers herein. -Pag. 19. 

The order of examination of witches by the 
inquisitors. pag. 20. 

Matters of evidence against witches, pag. 22. 

Confessions of witches, whereby they are 
condemned. pag- 24. 

Presumptions, whereby witches are con- 
demned, pag. 25. 

Particular interogatories used by the inquisi- 
tors against witches. pa. 27. 

The inquisitors triall of weeping by conju- 
ration, pag. 29. 

Certeine cautions against witches, and of 
their tortures to procure confession, pag. 29. 

The 15. crimes laid to the charge of witches, 
by witchmongers ; speciallie by Bodin, in 
Demonomania 32. 

A refutation of the former surmised crimes 
patched togiiher by Bodin, and the onelie 
waie to escape the inquisitors hands, pag. 34. 

The opinion of Cornelius Agrippa concern- 
ing witches, of his pleading/ for a poore 
woman accused of witchcraft, and how he 
convinced the inquisitors. pag. 35. 

What the feare of death and feeling of tor- 
ments may force one to doo, and that it 
is no marvell though witches condemne 
themselves by their owne confessions so 
tyrannicallie extorted. pag. 37. 

^ The third Booke. 

'X'He witches bargaine with the divell, ac- 

■'■ cording to M. Mai. Bodin, Nider, 

Daneus, Psellus, Erastus, Hemingius, Cu- 

manus, Aquinas, Bartholomeus Spineus, 

&c. Pag. 40. 

The order of the witches homage done (as it 
is written by lewd inquisitors and peevish 
witchmoonger.s) to the divell in person ; of 
their songs and danses, and namelie of La 
volta, and of other ceremonies, also of 
their e.xcourses. pag. 41. 

How witches are summoned to appeere be- 
fore the divell, of their riding in the aire, 
of their accompts, of their conference with 
the divell, of his supplies, and their con- 
ference, of their farewell and sacrifices : 
according to Daneus, Psellus, iS;c. p. 43. 

That there can no real league be made with 
the divell the first author of the league, 
and the weake proofes of the adversaries 
for the same. pag. 44. 

Of the private league, a notable tale of Bo- 
dins concerning a French ladie, with a 
confutation. pag. 46. 


TJie Contents. 

A disproofe of their assemblies, and of their 
bargaine _ _ pag. 47. 

A confutation of the objection concerning 
witches confessions. pag. 49 

What follie it were for witches to enter into 
such desperate perill, and to endure such 
intollerable tortures for no gaiue or cora- 
moditie, and how it comes to passe that 
witches are overthrowne by their confes- 
sions. 51. 

How melanchtilie abuseth old women, and 
of the effects thereof by sundrie ex- 
amples, psg. 52. 

That voluntarie confessions may be untrulie 
made, to the undooing of the confessors, 
and of the strange operation of melan- 
cholic, prooved by a familiar and late 
example. pag. 55. 

The strange and divers effects of melan- 
cholie, and how the same humor abound- 
ing in witches, or rather old women, fiUeth 
them full of mervellous imaginations, & 
that their confessions are not to be cre- 
dited. _ p. 57. 

A confutation of witches confessions, especi- 
allie concerning their league. pag. 59. 

A confutation of witches confessions, con- 
cerning making of tempests and raine : of 
the naturall cause of raine, and that 
witches or divels have no power to doo 
such things. pag. 60. 

What would ensue, if witches confessions or 
witchmCigers opinions were true, concern- 
ing the effects of witchcraft, inchantments, 
&c. pag. 63. 

Examples of forren nations, who in their 
warres used the assistance of witches ; of 
eybiting witches in Ireland, of two archers 
that shot with familiars. pag. 64. 

Authorities condemning the fantasticall con- 
fessions of witches, and how a popish doc- 
tor taketh upon him to disproove the 
same. pag. 65. 

Witch mongers reasons, to proove that 
witches can worke wonders, Bodins tale of 
a Friseland preest transported, that imagi- 
nations proceeding of melancholie doo 
cause illusions. pag. 67. 

That the confession of witches is insufficient 
in civill and common law to take awaie 
life. What the sounder divines, and de- 
crees of councels determine in this 
case. pag. 68. 

Of foure capitall crimes objected against 
witches, all fuUie answered & confuted as 
frivolous. pag. 70./ 

S s. ii. A request to such readers as loath to heare 
or read filthie & bawdie matters (which of 
necessitie are here to be inserted) to passe 
over eight chapters. pag. 72. 

\ The fourth Booke. 

f\y witchmoongers opinions concerning e- 

^-^ vill spirits, how they frame themselves 

in more excellent sort than God made 

us. Pag. 73. 

Of bawdie Incubus and Succubus, and 

whether the action of venerie may be per- 

formed betweene witches and dive! 
and when witches first yeelded to I 
cubus. pag. 74. 

Of the divels visible and invisible dealing 
with witches in the waieof lecherie. pag.76. 

That the power of generation is both out- 
wardlie and inwardlie impeached by 
witches, and of divers that had their geni- 
tals taken from them by witches, and by 
the same means againe restored, pag. 77. 

Of bishop Sylvanus his leacherie opened & 
covered agiine, how maids having yellow 
haire are most combred with Incubus, how 
marled men are bewitched to use other mens 
wives, and to refuse their owne. pag. 79. 

How to procure the dissolving of bewitched 
love, also to enforce a man (how proper 
so ever he be) to love an old hag ; and 
of a bawdie tricke of a priest in Gelder- 
land. pag. 80. 

Of divers saincts and holie persons, which 
were exceeding bawdie and lecherous, 
and by certeine miraculous meanes became 
chast. pag. 81. 

Certeine popish and magicall cures, for them 
that are bewitched in their privities, p. 82. 

A strange cure doone to one that was mo- 
lested with Incubus. pag- 83. 

A confutation of all the former follies touch- 
ing Incubus, which by examples and 
proofes of like stuffe is shewed to be flat 
knaverie, wherein the carnall copulation 
with spirits is overthrowne. pag. 85. 

That Incubus is a naturall disease, with 
remedies for the same, besides magicall 
cures herewithall expressed. pag. 86. 

The censure of G. Chaucer, upon the knave- 
rie of Incubus. pag. 88. 

1 The fift Booke. 

r\^ transformations, ridiculous examples 

^-^ brought by the adversaries for the con- 
firmation of their foolish doctrine. Pag 8g. 

Absurd reasons brought by Bodin, & such 
others, for confirmation of transforma- 
tions, pag. 93. 

Of a man turned into an asse, and returned 
againe into a man by one of Bodins 
witches : S. Augustines opinion thereof. 
cap. _ ^ 94. 

A summarie of the former fable, with a refu- 
tation thereof, after due examination of 
the same. pag. 97. 

That the bodie of a man cannot be turned 
into the bcdie of a beast by a witch, is 
prooved by strong reasons, scriptures, and 
authorities. pag. 99. 

The witchmongers objections concerning 
Nabuchadnez-zar answered, & their errour 
concerningLycanthropia confuted, pag.ioi. 

A speciall objection answered concerning 
transportations, with the consent of diverse 
writers thereupon. pag. 103. 

The witchmongers objection concerning the 
historie of Job answered. pag. 105. 

What severall sortes of witches are men- 
tioned in the scriptures, & how the word 
witch is there applied. pag. 109. 

The Contents. 


H The sixt Booke. 

'X'He exposition of this Hebrue word Cha- 

■'■ saph, wherin is answe/red the objection 

conteined in Exodus 22. to wit: Thou shalt 

not suflfer a witch to live, and of Simon 

Magus Acts 8. pag. iii. 

The place of Deuteronomie expounded, 
wherein are recited all kind of witches ; 
also their opinions confuted, which hold 
that they can worke worke* such miracles 
as are imputed unto them. pag. 113. 

That women have uted poisoning in all ages 
more ihan men, & of the inconvenience of 
poisoning pag. 116. 

Of divers poisoning practises, otherwise 
called vencficia, committed in Italic, 
Genua, Millen,Wittenberge, also how they 
were discovered and executed, pag. 119. 

A great objection answered concerning this 
kind of witchcraft called Veneficium. 
pag. 120. 

In what kind of confections that witchcraft, 
which is called Venehcium, consisteth : 
of love cups, and the same confuted by 
poets. pag. 121. 

It is prooved by more credible writers, that 
love cups rather ingendrr death through 
venome, than love by art : and with what 
toies ttiey destroie cattell, and procure 
luve. ... . P-. 123- 

John Bodin triumphing against J. Wier is 
overtaken with lalse grecke & false inter- 
pretation thereof. p. 125. 

If The seventh Booke. 

C\ F the Hebrue woord Ob, what it signifieth 

^-^ where it is found, of Pythonisses called 
Ventriloque, who they be, & what the r 
practises are, experience and examples 
thereof shewed. Pag. 126. 

How the lewd practise of the Pythonist of 
Westwell came to light, and by whome 
she was examined ; and that all hir dia- 
bolicall speach was but ventriloquie and 
plaine cousenage, which is prooved by hir 
owne confession. P^g- 130. 

Bodins stuffe concerning the Pythonist of 
Endor, with a true storie of a counterfeit 
Dutchman. P^g- i32- 

Of the great oracle of Apollo the Pythonist, 
and how men of all sorts have beene de- 
ceived, and that even the apostles have 
mistaken the nature of spirits, with an un- 
answerable argument, that spirits can 
take no shapes. pag. 133. 

Why Apollo was called Pytho wherof those 
witches were called Pythonists : Gregorie 
his letter to the divcH. pag. 136. 

Apollo, who was called Pytho, compared to 
the Rood of grace : Gregories letter to the 
divell cofuted. p. 137. 

How diverse great clarkes and good authors 
have beenc abu.-ed in this matter of spirits 
through false reports, and by means of 
their credulilie have published lies, which 
are confuted by Aristotle and the scrip- 
tures, pag. 138. 

< )f the witch of Endor, and whether she 

accomplished the raising of Samuel trulie, 
or by deceipt : the opinion of some d'vines 
hereupon. p. 139. 

That Samuel was not raised indeed, and S s. ii. v. 
how Bodin and all papists dote herin, and 
that soules cannot be raised by witch- 
craft, pag. 140. 

That neither the divell nor Samuel was 
raised, but that it was a meere cousenage, 
according to the guise of our Pythonists. 
pag.. . . 142. [*i;V] 

The objection of the witchmongers concern- 
ing this plac; fullie answered, and what cir- 
cumstances are to be considered for the un- 
derstanding of this storie, which is plainelie 
opened from the beginning of the 28 chapt. 
of the I. Samuel, to the 12. verse, pag. 143. 

The 12. 13. & 14. verses of i. Sam. 28. ex- 
pounded : wherein is shewed that Saule 
was cousened and abused by the witch, & 
that Samuel was not raised, is prooved by 
the witches/ owne talke. pag. 146. S s. iii. 

The residue of i. Sam. 28. expounded : 
wherein is declared how cunninglie this 
witch brought Saule resolutelie to beleeve 
that she raised Samuel, what words are 
used to colour the cousenage, & how all 
might also be wrought by ventriloquie. 
p. _ 148. 

Opinions of som"; learned men, that Samuel 
was indeed raised, not by the witches art 
or power, but by the speciall miracle of 
God, that there are no such visions in these 
our dales, and that our witches cannot doo 
the like. pag. 151. 

Of vaine apparitions, how people have beene 
brought to feare bugs, which is partlie re- 
formed by preaching of the gospel, the 
true effect of Christes miracles, pag. 152. 

Witches miracles copared to Chnsts, that 
God is the creator of al things, of Apollo, 
and of his names and portraiture, pag. 154. 

H The eight Booke. 

np Ha' miracles are ceased. 156. 

-*• 'Ihat the gift of prophesie is ceased. 

Pag. 158. 

That Oracles are ceased. pag. 160. 

A tale written by manie grave authors, and 
beleeved by manie wise men of the divels 
death. Another storie written by papists, 
and beleeved of all catholikes, approoving 
the divels honestie, conscience, and coiir- 
tesie. pag. 162. 

The judgments of the ancient fathers touch- 
ing oracles, and their abolishment, and 
that they be now transferred from Delphos 
to Rome. p. 164. 

Where and wherein cou^eners, witches, and 
prei-sts were woont to give oracles, and to 
worke their feats. pag. 165. 

If The ni?ith Booke. 

"T^He Hebrue word Kasam expounded, and 
•'■ how farre a Christian may conjecture 
Pag. 167. 

of things to come. 


The Contents. 


[* doe] 

[* sic'^ 

Proofes by the old and new testament, that 
certaine observations of the weather are 
lawful!. pag. i68. 

That certeine observations are indifferent, 
certeine ridiculous, and certeine impious, 
whence that cunning is derived of Apollo, 
and of Aruspices. pag. 169. 

The predictions of soothsaiers & lewd 
preests, the prognostications of astrono- 
mers and physicians allowable, divine 
prophesies holie and good. pag. 171. 

The diversitie of true prophets, of Urim, 
and of the propheiicall use of the twelve 
pretious stones conteined therein, of the 
divine voice called Eccho. pag. 172. 

Of prophesies conditional! : whereof the pro- 
phesies in the old testament dee** intreat, 
and by whom they were published ; witch- 
mongers answers to the objections against 
witches supernatural! actions. pag. 173. 

What were the miracles expressed in the 
old testament, and what are they in the 
new testament: and that we are not now to 
loolce for anie more miracles. pag. 175. 

U The tetith Booke. 

'T'He interpretation of the Hebrue word 

-*■ Onen, of the vanitie of dreames, and 

divinations thereupon. Pag. 177. 

Of divme, natural!, & casual! dreames. with 
the differing causes and effects, pag. 178. 

The opinion of divers old writers touching 
dreames, and how they varie in noting 
the causes therof. p. 179. 

Against interpretors of dreames, of the ordi- 
narie cause of dreames, Hemingius his 
opinion of diabolicall dreames, the inter- 
pretation of dreames cea^ed. pag. 180./ 

That neither witches, nor anie other, can 
either by words or herbs, thrust into the 
mind of a sleeping man, what cogitations 
or dreames they list ; and whence magi- 
cal! dreames come. pag. 181. 

How men have beene bewitched, cousened 
or abused by dreames to dig and search 
for monie. pag. 182. 

The art & order to be used in digging for 
monie, revealed by dreames, how to pro- 
cure pleasant dreames, of morning and 
midnight dreames. p. 183. 

Sundrie receipts & ointments, made and 
used lor the transportation of witches, and 
other miraculous effects : an instance 
thereof reported and credited by some 
that are learned. pag. 184. 

A confutation of the former follies, as well 
cocerning ointments, dreams, &c. as also 
of the assemblie of witches, and of their 
consultations and bankets at sundrie 
places, and all in dreames. pag. 185. 

That most part of prophesies in the old 
testament were revealed in dreams, that 
we are not now to looke for such revela- 
tions, of some who have drempt of that 
which hath come to passe, that dreames 
proove contrarie, NelSuchadnez zars* rule 
to know a true e.\positor of dreames. 
pag. 187. 

H The eleventh Booke. 

'X'He Hebrue word Nahas expounded, of 
the art of augurie, who invented it, 
how slovenlie a science it is: the multitude 
of sacrifices and sacrificers of the heathen, 
and the causes thereof. Pag. 189. 

Of the Jewes sacrifice to Moloch, a discourse 
thereupon, and of Purgatorie. pag. 190. 
The Cambals* crueltie, of popish sacrifices 
exceeding in tyrannie the jewes or Gen- 
tiles, pag. igi. 
The superstition of the heathen about the 
element of fier, and how it grew in such 
reverence among them, of their corrup- 
tions, and that they had some inkling of 
the godlie fathers dooings in that be- 
halfe. pag. 191. 
Of the Romane sacrifices, of the estimation 
they had of augurie, of the lawe of the 
twelve tables. pag. 192. 
Colleges of augurors, their office, their num- 
ber, the signification of augurie, that the 
practisers of that art were couseners, their 
profession, their places of exercise, their 
apparell, their superstition. pag. 193. 
The times and seasons to exercise augurie, 
the maner and order thereof, of the cere- 
monies thereunto belonging. pag. 195. 
Upon what signes and tokens augurors did 
prognosticate, observations touching the 
inward and outward parts of beasts, with 
notes of beasts behaviour in the slaughter- 
house, pag 196. 
A confutation of augurie, Plato his reverend 
opinion thereof, of contrarie events, & 
false predictions. p. 196. 
The cousening art of sortilege or lotarie, 
practised especiallie by Aegyptian vaga- 
bonds, of allowed lots, of Pythagoras his 
lot, &c. pag. 197. 
Of the Cabalisticall art, consisting of tradi- 
tions and unwritten verities learned without 
booke, and of the division thereof cap. i gS. 
When, how, and in what sort sacrifices were 
first ordained, and how they were pro- 
phaned, and how the pope corrupteth the 
sacraments of Christ. pag. 200. 
Of the objects whereupon the augurors used 
to prognosticate, with certeine cautions 
and notes. pag. 201. 
The division of augurie, persons acimittable 
into the colleges of augurie, of their super- 
stition, pag. 202./ 
Of the common peoples fond and supersti- 
tious collections and observations, pag. 203. 
How old writers varie about the matter, the 
maner, and the meaiies, whereby things 
augurificall are mooved. pag. 205. 
How ridiculous an art augurie is, how Cato 
mocked it, Aristotles reason against it, 
fond collections of augurors, who allowed, 
and who disallowed it. pag. 206. 
Fond distinctions of the heathen writers, con- 
cerning augurie. pag. 208. 
Of naturall and casuall augurie, the one 
allowed, and the other disallowed pag. 208. 
A confutation of casual augurie which is 
meere witchcraft, and upon what uncer- 
teintie those divinations are grounded, 
pag. Z09. 

The Contents. 


That figiire-cahters are witches, the uncer- 
teiiitie of their art, and of their contradic- 
tions, CorneUus Agrippas sentence against 
judiciall astrologie. pag. 210. 

The subtiltie of astrologers to mainteine 
the credit of their art, why they remaiiie 
in credit, certeine impieties conteined in 
astrologers assertions. _ pag. 212. 

Who have power to drive awaie divels with 
their onelie presence, who shall receive of 
God whatsoever they aske in praier, who 
shall obteine everlasting life by meanes of 
constellations, as nativitie-casters afifirme. 
pag. 214- 

t The twclfc Booke. 

"yHe Hebrue word Habar expounded, 
-'- where also the supposed secret force of 
charmes and inchantments is shewed, and 
the efficacie of words is diverse waies de- 
clared. Pag. 216. 

What is forbidden in scriptures concerning 
witchcraft, of the operation of words, the 
superstition of the Cabalists and papists, 
who createth substances, to imitate God 
in some cases is presumption, words of 
sanctification. pag. 217. 

What eflect & offense witches charmes bring, 
how unapt witches are, and how unlikelie 
to worke those things which they are 
thought to doo, what would follow if those 
things were true which are laid to their 
charge. pag. 218. 

Why God forbad the practise of witchcraft, 
the absurditie of the law of the twelve 
tables, whereupon their estimation in 
miraculous actions is grounded, of their 
woonderous works. pag. 220. 

An instance of one arreigned upon the law 
of the twelve tables, whereby the said law 
is prooved ridiculous, of two witches that 
could doo woonders. pag. 221. 

Lawes provided for the punishment of such 
witches as worke miracles, whereof some 
are mentioned, and of certeine popish 
lawes published against them. pag. 222. 

Poetical authorities commonlie alledged by 
witchmongers, for the proofe of witches 
miraculous actions, and for confirmation 
of their supernaturall power. pag. 223. 

Poetrie and poperie compared in inchant- 
ments, popish witchmongers have more ad- 
vantage herein than protestants. pag. 229. 

Popish periapts, amulets & charmes, agnus 
Dei, a wastcote of proofe, a charme for the 
falling evil!, a writing brought to S. Leo 
from heaven by an angell, the vertues 
of S. Saviors epistle, a charme against 
theeves, a writing found in Christs wounds, 
of the crosse, &c. P^g- 230. 

H A charme against shot, or a wastcote of 
proofe. Against the falling evill, p. 231. 
A popish periapt or charme, which must 
never be said, but carried about one, 
against theeves. Another amulet, pag. 233. 
A papisticall charme. A charme found in 
the ca/non of the masse. Other papisticall 
charmes. pag. 234. A charme of the holie 
Crosse, pag. 235. A charme taken out of 
the Primer. pag. 236. 

How to make holie water, and the vertues 
thereof, S. Rufins charme, of the wearuig 
& bearing of the name of Jesus, that the 
sacrament of confession & the eucharist 
is of as much efficacie as other charmes, 
and magnified by L. Vairus. pag. 237, 

Of the noble balme used by Moses, apishlie 
counterfeited in the church of Rome. 
pag. _ 238. 

The opinion of Ferrarius touching charmes, 
periapts, appensions, amulets, &c. Of 
Homericall medicines, of constant opinion, 
and the effects thereof. pag. 239. 

Of the effects of amulets, the drift of Arge- 
rius Ferrarius in the commendation of 
charmes, &c : foure sorts of Homericall 
medicines, and the choice thereof; of 
imagination. pag. 241. 

Choice of charmes against the falling evill, 
the biting of a mad dog, the stinging of a 
scorpion, the toothach, for a woman in 
travell, for the kings evill, to get a thorne 
out of any member, or a bone out of ones 
throte, charmes to be said fasting, or at 
the gathering of hearbs, for sore eies, to 
open locks, against spirits, for the bots 
in a horsse, and speciallie for the Duke of 
Albas horsse, for sowre wines, &c. pag. 242. 

If For the faUing evill. pa. 242. Against 
the biting of a mad dog. pag. 243. Against 
the biting of a scorpion. Against the 
toothach. A charme to release a woman 
in travell. To heale the Ivings or Queenes 
evill, or anie other sorenesse in the throte. 
A charme read in the Romish church, 
upon saint Blazes daie, that will fetch a 
thorne out of anie place of ones bodie, a 
bone out of the throte, &c ; Lect. 3. pag. 
244. A charme for the headach. A 
charme to be said ech morning by a 
witch fasting, or at least before she go 
abroad. Another charme that witches use 
at the gathering of their medicinable 
hearbs. An old womans charme, wher- 
with she did much good in the countrie, 
and grew famous thereby, pag. 245. An- 
other like charme. A charme to open 
locks. A charme to drive awaie spirits 
that haunt anie house, pag. 246. A prettie 
charme or conclusion for one possessed. 
Another for the same purpose. Another 
to the same effect. Another charme or 
witchcraft for the same. pag. 247. A 
charme for the bots in a horsse. pag. 248. 
A charme against vineger. pa. 249. 

The inchanting of serpents & snakes, objec- 
tions answered concerning the same ; fond 
reasons whie charmes take effect therein, 
Mahomets pigeon, miracles wrought by 
an Asse at Memphis in Aegypt, popish 
charmes against serpents, of miracle- 
-workers, the taming of snakes, Bodins lie 
of snakes. pag. 249. 

Charmes to carrie water in a sive, to know 
what is spoken of us behind our backs, 
for bleare eies, to make seeds to growe 
well, of images made of wax, to be rid of 
a witch, to hang hir up, notable authori- S g. iiii. y. 
ties against waxen images, a storie be- 
wraieng the knaverie of waxen images, 
pag. 256 



TJie Contents. 

f A charme teaching how to hurt whom you 
list with images of wax, &c. pag. 257. 

Sundrie sorts of charmes tending to divrrse 
purposes, and first, certeine charmes to 
make taciturnitie in tortures. pag. 259. 
1[ Counter charmes against these and all 
other witchcrafts, in the saieng also 
whereof witches are vexed, &c. A charme 
for the choine cough. For corporall or 
spirituall rest, Charmes to find out a 
[Ss. v.] theefe. pag. 260. Another/ waie to find 
out a theefe that hath stolne any thing 
from you. pag. 261. To put out the 
theeves eie. Another waie to find out a 
theefe. pag. 262. A charme to find out 
or spoile a theefe. S. Adelberts cursse or 
charme against theeves. pag 263. Another 
inchantment. P^g. 266. 

A charme or experiment to find out a witch, 
pag. 266. 

^ To spoile a theefe, a witch, or any other 
enimie. and to be delivered from the evill. 
pag. 269. A notable charme or medicine 
to pull out an arrowhead, or any such 
thing that sticketh in the flesh or bones, 
and cannot otherwise be had out. Charmes 
[Ss. V. v.] against a quotidian ague. For all maner 
of agues intermittant. Periapts, charac- 
ters, &c : for agues, and to cure all dis- 
eases, and to deliver from all evill. p. 270. 
More charmes for agues, pag. 271. For a 
bloudie fluxe, or rather an issue of bloud. 
Cures CO mmensed and finished by witch- 
craft, pa, 273. Another witchcraft or 
knaverie, practised by the same surgion. 
pag. 275. Another experiment for one 
bewitched. Otherwise. A knacke to 
know whether you be bewitched, or no, 
&c. pag. 276. 

That one witchcraft may lawfullie meete 
with another. pag. 277. 

Who are privileged from witches, what 
bodies are aptest to be bewitched, or to be 
witches, why women are rather witches 
than men, and what they are. pag. 277. 
What miracles witchmongers report to have 
been done by witches words &c : contra- 
dictions of witchmongers among them- 
selves, how beasts are cured hereby, of 
bewitjhed butter, a charme against 
witches, & a counter charme, the effect of 
charmes and words prooved by L. Vairus 
to be woonderfull. pag. 279. 

% A charme to find hir that bewitched your 
kine. Another, for all that have bewitched 
any kind of cattell. p. 281. A speciall 
charme to preserve all cattell from witi h- 
craft. pag. 2S2. 

Lawfull charmes, rather medicinable cures 
for diseased cattell. The charme of 
charmes, and the power thereof, pag. 283. 
1[ The charme of charmes. Otherwise, 
pag. 284. 

A confutation of the force and vertue falselie 
ascribed to charmes and amulets, by the 
authorities of ancient writers, both divines 
and physicians. pag. 285. 

If The xiii. Booke. 

He signification of the Hebrue word 
Hartumim, where it is found written 


in the scriptures, and how it is diverslie 
translated : whereby the objection of 
Pharaos magicians is afterward answered 
in this booke ; also of naturall magicke 
not evill in it selfe. Pag. 287. 

How the philosophers in times past travelled 
for the knowledge of naturall magicke, of 
Salomons knowledge therein, who is to be 
called a naturall magician, a distinctio 
therof, and why it is condemned for witch- 
craft, pag. 288. 
What secrets doo lie hidden, and what is 
taught in naturall magicke, how Gods 
glorie is magnified therein, and that it is 
nothing but the worke of nature, pag. 290. 
What strange things are brought to passe by 
naturall magicke. P^g' 291. 
The incredible operation of waters, both 
standing and running ; of wels, lakes, 
rivers, and of their woonderfull effects. 
pag. 292. 
The vertues and qualities of sundrie pre- 
tious stones, of cousening Lapidaries, &c. 
pag. _ 293. 
Whence the pretious stones receive their 
operations, how curious Magicians use 
them, and of their/ seales. pag. 297. 
The sympathie and antipathic of naturall 
and elementarie bodies declared by di- 
verse examples of beasts, birds, plants, 
&c. pag. 301. 
The former matter prooved by manie exam- 
ples of the living and the dead. pag. 303. 
The bewitching venome conteined in the 
bodie of an harlot, how hir eie, hir toong, 
hir beautie and behavior bewitcheth some 
men : of bones and homes yeelding great 
vertue. pag. 304. 
Two notorious woonders and yet not mar- 
velled at. pag. 305. 
Of illusions, confederacies, and legierde- 
maine, and how they may be well or ill 
used. pag. 307. 
Of private confederacie, and of Brandons 
pigeon. _ pag. 308. 
Of publike confederacie, and whereof it 
consisteth. pag. 309. 
How men have beene abused with words of 
equivocation, with sundrie examples there- 
of, pag. 309. 
How some are abused with naturall magike, 
and sundrie examples therof when illu- 
sion is added thereunto, of Jacobs pied 
sheepe, and of a blacke Moore, pag. 311. 
The opinion of witchmongers, that divels 
can create bodies, & of Pharaos magicians, 
pag. 312. 
How to produce or make monsters by art 
magike, and why Pharaos magicians 
could not make lice. pa. 313. 
That great matters may be wrought by this 
art, when princes esteeme and mainteine 
it : of divers woonderfull experiments, 
and of strange conclusions in glasses, of 
the art perspective, &c. pag. 315. 
A comparison betwixt Pharaos magicians 
and our witches, and how their cunning 
consisted in juggling knacks. pag. 317. 
That the serpents and frogs were trulie pre- 
sented, and the water poisoned indeed by 
Jannes and Jambres, of false prophets, and 
of their miracles, of Balams asse. pag. 318 

The Contents. 


The art of juggling discovered, and in 
what points it dooth principallie consist, 
pag. 321. 

Of the ball, and the manner of legierde- 
maine therwith, also notable feats with 
one or diverse balles. pag. 322. 

1[ To make a little ball swell in your hand 
till it be verie great, p. 323. To con- 
sume (or rather to conveie) one or manie 
balles into nothing, pag. 324. How to rap 
a wag upon the knuckles- pag. 324. 

Of conveiance of monie. pag. 324. 

% To conveie monie out of one of your 
hands into the other by legierdemaine. 
pag. 325. To convert or transubstantiate 
monie nito counters, or counters into 
monie. pag. 325. To put one testor inte 
one hand, and an other into the other 
hand, and with words to bring them to- 
gither. pag. 325. To put one testor into a 
strangers hand, and another into your 
owne, and to conveie both into the 
strangers hand with words, pag. 326. How 
to doo the same or the like feat otherwise. 
pa. 326. To throwe a peece of monie 
awaie, and to find it againe where you 
list. pag. 326. With words to make a 
groat or a testor to leape out of a pot, or 
to run alongst upon a table, pag. 327. To 
make a groat or a testor to sinke through 
a table, and to vanish out of a handkercher 
verie strangelie. pag. 327. 

A notable tricke to transforme a counter to a 
groat. pag. 328. 

An excellent feat, to make a two penie peece 
lie plaine in the palme of your hand, and 
to be passed from thence when you list, 
pag. _ 329. 

1[ To conveie a testor out of ones hand that 
holdeth it fast. pag. 329. To throwe a 
peece of monie into a deepe pond, and to 
fetch it againe from whence you list, 
pag. _ _ _ _ 330./ 

To conveie one shilling being in one hand 
into an other, holding your armes abroad 
like a rood. pag. 330. How to rap a wag 
on the knuckles. pag- 33°. 

To transforme anie one small thing into anie 
other forme by folding of paper, pag. 331. 

Of cards, with good cautions how to avoid 
cousenage therein : speciall rules to con- 
veie and handle the cards, and the maner 
and order how to accomplish all difficult 
and strange things wrought by cards. 

„pag. . 331- 

Tl How to deliver out foure aces, and to con- 
vert them into foure knaves, pag. 333. How 
to tell one what card he seeth in the bot- 
tome, when the same card is shuffled into 
the stocke. pag. 334. An other waie to doo 
the same, having your selfe indeed never 
seene the card. pag. 334. To tell one with- 
out confederacie what card he thinketh. 
pag- 334- 

How to tell what card anie man thinketh, 
how to conveie the same into a kernell of 
a nut or cheristone, &c : and the same 
againe into ones pocket : how to make one 
drawe the same or anie card you list, and 
all under one devise. pag. 335. 

Of fast or loose, how to knit a hard knot 

upon a handkercher, and to undoo the 
same with words. p. 336. 

H A notable feat of fast or loose, namelie, to 
pull three headstones from off a cird, 
while you hold fast the ends thereof, with- 
out remooving of your hand. pag. 337. 
Juggling knacks by confederacie, and how 
to know whether one cast crosse or pile by 
the ringing. pag. 338. 

H To make a shoale of goslings drawe a tim- 
ber log. pag. 338. To make a pot or anie 
such thing standmg fast on the cupboord, 
to fall downe thense by vertue of words, 
pag. 338. To* one danse naked, pag. 339. ["make] 
To transforme or alter the colour of ones 
cap or hat. pag. 339. How to tell where a 
stoUen horsse is become. pag. 339. 

Boxes to alter one graine into another, or to 
consume the graine or come to nothing, 
pag. 340- 

*\ How to conveie (with words or charmes) 
the come conteined in one boxe into an 
other, pag. 340. Of an other boxe to con- 
vert wheat into flower with words, &c. 
pag. 341. Of diverse petie juggling knacks, 
pag. 341- 

To burne a thred, and to make it whole 
againe with the ashes thereof. pag. 341. 
H To cut a lace asunder in the middest, and 
to make it whole againe. pag. 342. How 
to pull laces innumerable out of your 
mouth, of what colour or length you list, 
and never anie thing seene to be therein, 
pag. _ 343- 

How to make a booke, wherein you shall 
shew everie leafe therein to be white, 
blacke, blew, red, yellow, greene, &c. 
pag. 343- 

Desperate or dangerous juggling knacks, 
wherin the simple are made to thinke, 
that a seelie juggler with words can hurt 
and hclpe, kill and revive anie creature 
at his pleasure: and first to kill anie [Ss. vi.] 
kind of puUen, and to give it life againe. 
pag. 346- 

H To eate a knife, and to fetch it out of anie 
other place, pag. 346. To thrust a bodkin 
into your head without hurt. pag. 347. To 
thrust a bodkin through your toong, and 
a knife through your arme: a piltiful sight, 
without hurt or danger, pag. 347. To 
thrust a peece of lead into one eie, and to 
drive it about (with a sticke) betweene the 
skin and flesh of the forehead, untill it be 
brought to the other eie, and there thrust 
out. pag. 348. To cut halfe your nose 
asunder, and to heale it againe presentlie 
without anie salve. pag. 348 / 

To put a ring through your cheeke. pag. 348. [Ss vi. v.] 
To cut off ones head, and to laie it in a 
platter, &c : which the juglers call the 
decollation of John Baptist, pag. 349. To 
thrust a dagger or bodkin in your guts 
verie strangelie, and to recover immediat- 
lie. pag. 350. To draw a cord through 
your nose, mouth or hand, so sensiblie as it 
is wonderfuU to see. pag. 351. 

The conclusion wherein the reader is referred 
to certeine patterns of instruments where- 
with diverse feats here specified are to be 
executed. pag. 3Si- 


TJie Contents. 


'\ The xiiii. Booke. 

^F the art of Alqumysterie, of their woords 
of art and devises to bleare mens eies, 
and to procure credit to their profession, 
Pag. 353- 

[S s. iii.] The Alcumysters drift, the Chanons yeomans 
tale, of alcumystical stones and waters, 
pag. 355- 

Of a yeoman of the countrie cousened by an 
Alcumyst. pag. 357- 

A certeine king abused by an Alcumyst, 
and of the kings foole a pretie jest, 
pag. 360- 

A notable storie written by Erasmus of two 
Alcumysts, also of longation and curtation. 
pag. 361- 

The opinion of diverse learned men touching 
the follie of Alcumystrie. pag. 368. 

That vaine and deceitfuU hope is a great 
cause why men are seduced by this allur- 
ing art, and that there labours therein are 
bootelesse, &c. pag. 371- 

A continuation of the former matter, with a 
conclusion of the same. p. 372- 

H The XV. Booke. 

'y He e.xposition of lidoni, and where it is 
-'■ found, whereby the whole art of conjur- 
ation is deciphered. Pag. 376. 

An inventarie of the names, shapes, powers, 
governement, and effects of divels and 
spirits, of their severall segniorities and 
degrees : a strange discourse woorth the 
reading. p. 377- 

The houres wherein principall divels may be 
bound ; to wit, raised and restrained from 
dooing of hurt. p. 393. 

The forme of adjuring or citing of the spuits 
aforesaid to arise & appeare. page. 393. 

A confutation of the manifold vanities con- 
teined in the precedent chapters, speciallie 
of commanding of divels. pag. 396. 

The names of the pl.-inets, their characters, 
togither with the twelve signes of the 
zodiake, their dispositions, aspects, and 
government, with other observations, 
pag. _ 397- 

H The twelve signes of the zodiake, their 
characters and denominations, &c. pag. 
397. Their dispositions or inclinations. 397. 
The disposition of the planets, pag. 398. 
The aspects of the planets. 398. How the 
dale is divided or distinguished. 398. The 
division of the dale, and the planetarie 
regiment, pag. 399. The division of the 
night, and the planetarie regiment, 
pag. 399- 

The characters of the angels of the seven 
dales, with their names : of figures, seales 
and periapts. P^g- 4oo. 

An experiment of the dead. P-ig- 4oi. 

A licence for Sibylla to go and come by at 

all times. pag. 407. 

To know of treasure hidden in the earth. 

pag. _ _ 408. 

H This is the waie to go invisible by these 

three sisters of fairies. 408. 

An experiment of Citrael, &c : aiigeli diei 
dotninici. P^g- 4fO- 

U The seven angels of the seven dales, with 
the praier called /?r^/«rt litigme. pag. 410. 
How to inclose a spirit in a christall stone, 
pag. 411/ 

A figure or typeproportionall, shewing what 
forme must be observed and kept, in mak- 
ing the figure whereby the former secret 
of inclosing a spirit in christall is to be ac- 
complished, &c. pag. 414. 
An experiment of Bealphares. pag. 415. 
^ The twoo and twentieth Psalme. pag. 416. 
This psalme also following, being the fiftie 
one psalme, must be said three times over, 
&c. pag. 416. 
To bind the spirit Bealphares, and to lose 
him againe. pag. 418- 
^ A licence for the spirit to depart, pag. 419. 
A type or figure of the circle for the maister 
and his fellowes to sit in, shewing how & 
after what fashion it should be made, 
pag. 420- 
The making of the holie water pag. 421. 
TI To the water sale also as followeth. pag. 
421. Then take the salt in thy hand, and 
sale putting it into the water, making in 
the maner of a crosse. pag. 421. Then 
sprinkle upon anie thing, and sale as fol- 
loweth. pag. 422. 
To make a spirit to appeare in a christall. 
pag. _ 422. 
An experiment of the dead. pag. 423. 
If Now the Pater noster, Ave, and Credo 
must be said, and then the praier imme- 
diatlie following. p. 425. 
A bond to bind him to thee, and to thy N. 
as followeth. pag. 425. 
^ This bod as followeth, is to call him into 
your christall stone, or glasse, &.C. pag. 
428. Then being appeared, sale these 
words following, pag. 429. A licence to 
depart. pag. 429. 
When to taike with spirits, and to have true 
answers to find out a theefe. pag. 430. 
•J To speake with spirits. pag. 430. 
A confutation of conjuration, especiallie 
of the raising, binding and dismissing of 
the divell, of going invisible and other 
lewd practises. pag. 430. 
A comparison betweene popish exorcists and 
other conjurors, a popish conjuration 
published by a great doctor of the 
Romish church, his rules and cautions, 
pag. 433- 
A late experiment, or cousening conjuration 
practised at Orleance by the Franciscane 
Friers, how it was detected, and the 
judgement against the authors of that 
comedie. _ pag. 435. 
Who may be conjurors in the Romish church 
besides priests, a ridiculous definition of 
superstition, what words are to be used 
and not used in exorcismes, rebaptisme 
allowed, it is lawful! to conjure any thing, 
differences betweene holie water and con- 
juration, pag. 438. 
The seven reasons why some are not rid of 
the divell with all their popish conjura- 
tions, why there were no cojurors in the 
primitive church, and why the divell is 

The Contents. 


not so soone cast out of the bewitched as 
of the possessed. _ pag. 441. 

Other grosse absurdities of witchmongers in 
this matter of conjurations. pag. 443. 

Certaine conjurations taken out of the pon- 
tificall and out of the missall. pag. 444. 
11 A conjuration written in the masse booke. 
Fol. I. pag. 445. Oremus. pag. 445. 

That popish priests leave nothing uncon- 
jured, a forme of exorcisme for incense, 
pag. 446. 

The rules and lawes of popish E.xorcists and 
other conjurors all one, with a confutation 
of their whole power, how S. Martine con- 
jured the divell. _ pag. 447. 
That it is a shame for papists to beleeve 
other conjurors dooings, their owne being 
of so litle force, Hippocrates his opinion 
herein. _ pag. 450./ 
How conjurors have beguiled witches, what 
bookes they carie about to procure credit 
to their art, wicked assertions against 
Moses and Joseph. pag. 451. 
All magicall arts confuted by an argument 
concerning Nero, what Cornelius Agrippa 
and Caroius Gallus have left written ther- 
of, and prooved by e.xperience. pag. 452. 
Of Salomons conj urations, and of the opinion 
conceived of his cunning and practise 
therein. pag. 454. 
Lessons read in all churches, where the pope 
hath authoritie, on Saint Margarets dale, 
translated into English word for word, 
pag. 455- 
A delicate storie of a Lombard, who by 
saint jMargarets example would needs 
fight with a reall divell. pag. 457. 
The storie of S. Margaret prooved to be 
both ridiculous and impious in everie 
point. pag. 459. 
A pleasant miracle wrought by a popish 
preest. pag. 460. 
The former miracle confuted, with a strange 
storie of S. Lucie. _ pag 461. 
Of visions, noises, apparitions, and imagined 
sounds, and of other illusions, of wander- 
ing soules : with a confutation thereof 
pag. _ 461. 
Cardanus opinion of strange noises, how 
counterfet visions grow to be credited, of 
popish appeerances, of pope Boniface, 
pag. 464. 
Of the noise or sound of eccho, of one that 
narrowlie escaped drowning thereby &c. 
pag . . . 465- 
Of Theurgie, with a confutation therof, a 
letter sent to me concerning these matters, 
pag. 466. 
U The copie of a letter sent unto me R. S. 
by T. E. Maister of art, and practiser 
both of physicke, and also in times past, 
of certeine vaine sciences ; now condemned 
to die for the same : wherein he openeth 
the truth touching these deceits, pag. 467. 

II The xvi. Booke. 

A Conclusion, in maner of an epilog, re- 

•'^ peating manie of the former absurdities 

of witchmongers conceipts, confutations 

thereof, and of the authoritie of James 
Sprenger and Henry Institor inquisitors 
and compilers of M. Mai. Pa. 470. 

By what meanes the common people have 
beene made beleeve in the miraculous 
works of witches, a' definition of witch- 
craft, and a description thereof, pag. 471. 

Reasons to proove that words and characters 
are but babies, and that witches cannot doo 
such things as the multitude supposeth 
they can, their greatest woonders prooved 
trifles, of a yoong gentleman cousened. 
pag. . 473- 

Of one that was so bewitched that he could 
read no scriptures but canonicall, of a 
divell that could speake no Latine, a 
proofe that witchcraft is flat cousenage. 
pag. _ _ _ 476. 

Of the divination by the sive & sheeres, and 

by the booke and key, Hemingius his [Ssvii.v.] 

opinion thereof confuted, a bable to know 

what is a clocke, of certeine jugling 

knacks, manifold reasons for the over- 

throwe of witches and conjurors, and their 

cousenages, of the divels transformations, 

of Ferrum candeiis, &^c. pag. 477. 

How the divell preached good doctrine in the 
shape of a preest, how he was discovered, 
and that it is a shame (after confutation of 
the greater witchcrafts) for anie man to 
give credit to the lesser points thereof, 
pag. ... . 481- 

A conclusion against witchcraft, in maner 
and forme of an Induction. pag. 483. 

Of naturall witchcraft or fascination, pag. 4S4. 

Of inchanting or bewitching eies. pag. 485./ 

Of naturall witchcraft for love, &c. pag. 487. [S s. viii.] 

A Discourse upon divels and spirits, and 

•'"*■ first of philosophers opinions, also the 
maner of their reasoning hereupon, and 
the same confuted. Pag. 489. 

Mine owne opinion concerning this argu- 
ment, to the disproofe of some writers here- 
upon, pag. 491. 

The opinion of Psellus touching spirits, of 
their severall orders, and a confutation of 
his errors therein. pag. 492. 

More absurd assertions of Psellus and such 
others, concerning the actions and passions 
of spirits, his definition of them, and of 
his experience therein. " pag. 495. 

The opinion of Fascius Cardanus touching 
spirits, and of his familiar divell. pag. 497. 

The opinion of Plato concerning spirits, 
divels and angels, what sacrifices they 
like best, what they feare, and of Socrates 
his familiar divell. pag. 498. 

Platos nine orders of spirits and angels, 
Dionysius his division thereof not much 
differing from the same, all disprooved by 
learned divines. pag. 500. 

The commensementofdivelsfondlie gathered 
out of the 14. of Isaie, of Lucifer and of 
his fall, the Cabalists the Thalmudists 
and Schoolemens opinions of the creation 
of angels. pag. 501. 

Of the cotention betweene the Greeke and 


The Contents. 

Latine church touching the fall of angels, 

the variance among papists themselves 

[S s viii. v.] herein, a conflict betweene Michael and 

Lucifer. pag. 503. 

Where the battell betweene Michael and 
Lucifer was fought, how long it continued, 
and of their power, how fondlie papists 
and infidels write of them, and how rever- 
entlie Christians ought to thinke of them, 
p. . 504- 

Whether they became divels which being 
angels kept not their vocation, in Jude 
and Peter ; of the fond opinions of the 
Rabbms touching spirits and bugs, with a 
confutation thereof. P^g- 5o6. 

That the divels assaults are spirituall and 
not temporall, and how grosselie some 
understand those parts of the scripture, 
pag. _ _ 508. 

The equivocation of this word spirit, how 
diverslie it is taken in the scriptures, where 
(by the waie) is taught that the scripture 
is not alwaies literallie to be interpreted, 
nor yet allegoricallie to be understood, 
pa. 509. 

That it pleased God to manifest the power 
of his Sonne and not of witches by mira- 
cles, pag. 512. 

Of the possessed with devils. _ pag. 513. 

That we being not throughlie informed of 
the nature of divels and spirits, must 
satisfie our selves with that which is di- 
livered us in the scriptures touching the 
same, how this word divell is to be under- 
stood both in the singular & plurall num- 
ber, of the spirit of God and the spirit of 
the divell, of tame spirits,ofAhab pag. 154. 

Whether spirits and soules can assume 
bodies, and of their creation and substance, 
wherein writers doo extreamelie contend 
and varie. pag. 516. 

Certeine popish reasons concerning spirits 
made of aier, of dale divels and night 
divels, and why the divell loveth no salt 
in his meate pag. 517. 

That such divels as are mentioned in the 
scriptures, have in their names their na- 
ture and qualities expressed, with in- 
stances thereof. P^g- S^S- 
[* Pneuma-] Diverse names of the divell, whereby his 
nature and disposition is manifested. 
pag. 520- 

That the idols or gods of the Gentiles are 
divels, their diverse names, and/ in what 
affaires their labours and authorities are 
emploied, wherein also the blind supersti- 
tion of the heathen people is discovered, 
pag. 521. 

Of the Romans cheefe gods called Dii se- 
lecti, and of other heathen gods, their 
names and offices. pag. 523. 

Of diverse gods in diverse countries. 

Of popish provmciall gods, a comparison be- 
tweene them and heathen gods, of physi- 
call gods, and of what occupation everie 
popish god is. pag. 526. 

A comparison betweene the heathen and 
papists, touching their e.vcuses for idola- 
trie. pag. 529. 

The conceipt of the heathen and the papists 
all one in idolatrie, of the councell of 
Trent, a notable storie of a hangman 
arraigned after he was dead and buried, 
&c. pag. 530. 

A confutation of the fable of the hangman, 
of manie other feined and ridiculous tales 
and apparitions, with a reproofe thereof, 
pag. . _ 532- 

A confutation of Johannes Laurentius, and 
of manie others, mainteining these fained 
and ridiculous tales and apparitions, & 
what driveth them awaie ; of Moses and 
Helias appearance in Mount Thabor. 
pag. _ _ _ 534- 

A confutation of assuming of bodies, and of 
the serpent that seduced Eve. pag. 536. 

The objection concerning the divels assum- 
ing of the serpents bodie answered, 
pag. 537- 

Of the cursse rehearsed Genes. 3. and that 
place rightlie expounded, John Calvines 
opinion of the divell. pag. 539. 

Mine owne opinion and resolution of the 
nature of spirits, and of the divell, with his 
properties. pag. 540. 

Against fond witchmongers, and their 
opinions concerning corporall divels. 
pag. .... 542- 

A conclusion wherin the Spirit of spirits is 
described, by the illumination of which 
spirit all spirits are to be tried : with a 
confutation of the Pneutomachi* flatlie de- 
nieng the divinitie of this Spirit, pag. 543. 


^ Imprinted at London by 
William Brome. 

[These Contents in original end the book as do our Indices.] 

Appendix I. 

\Ch. [ to 9 affixed to the \^th Book in Ed. 1665.] 


I. C\F Magical Circles, and the reason of 
^-^ t leir Institution. 215 

II. H01V to raise up the Ghost of one that 
hath hanged himself. 217 

III. How to raise iip the three Spirits, 
Paymon, Bathin, and Barma ; and what 
wonderful things may be effected through 
their Assistance. 218 

IV. How to consecrate all manner of Circles, 
Fumigations, Fires, Magical Garments, 
and Utensils. 220 

V. Treating jnore practically of the Co?ise- 

cration of Circles, Fires, Gartnents and 
Fumigations. 221 

VI. How to raise and exorcise all sorts of 
Spirits belonging to the A iry Region. 111 

VII. How to obtain the familiarity of the 
Genius, or Good Angel, and cause him to 
appear. 223 

VIII. A form of Conjuring Luridan the 
Familiar, otherwise called Belelah. 224 

IX. How to cotijtire the Spirit Balkin tlie 
Master of Luridan. 226 

Appendix II. 

[Second Book of A Discourse on Devils and Spirits.'] 

Book II. 


I. y^F spirits in general, wliat they are, 
'-^ a}id hozu to be co)isidercd, also how 

far the p07uer 0/ Magiiians and Witches, 
is able to operate in Diabolical Ma- 
gick. 39 

II. Of the good and evil Dsemons or Genii ; 
•whether they are, what they are, and how 
they are manifested; also of their jiames, 
powers, faculties, offices, how they are to 
be considered. 42 

III. Of the Astral Spirits of Men de- 
parted ; wliat they are, and 7uhy tJiey ap- 
pear again, and what witclicraft may be 
wrought by them. 45. 


IV. Of astral spirits, or separate daemons ui 
all their drstinctiotis, names, dr' natures, 
and places of habitations, <Sr= what maybe 
ivrought by their assistance. 49 

V. Of the Infernal Spirits, or Devils, dr' 
damned sojils, treating what their tia- 
tures, names, &^ powers are. 56. 

VI. Of the nature, force, 6^ fortns of 
charms, periapts, a>nulets, pentacles, con- 
jurations, ceremonies, is'c. 66 

VII. Being the conclusion of the whole, 
7vherein divers ancient spells, cliarms, 
incantations, and exorcisms, are briefly 
spoken of, 68 


The discoverie of Witchcraft. 
^f The first Booke. 

The first Chapter. 

An impeachment of Witches power in jneteors and elementarie bodies 
tciidiiii!; to the rebicke of such as attribute too much unto them. 

I HE fables of Witchcraft have taken so fast hold and deepe 
root in the heart of man, that fewe or none can (novva- 
daies) with patience indure the hand and correction of 
God. For if any adversitie, greefe, sicknesse, losse of 
children, corne, cattell, or libertie happen vnto them ; by & by 
they exclaime uppon witches. As though there were no God in 
Israel that ordereth all things according to his will ; punishing both 
just and unjust with greefs, plagues, and afflictions in maner and 
forme as he thinketh good : but that certeine old women heere on 
earth, called witches, must needs be the contrivers of all mens 
calamities, and as though they themselves were innocents, and had 
deserved no such punishments. Insomuch as they sticke not to ride 
and go to such, as either are injuriouslie tearmed witches, or else are 
willing 50 to be accounted, seeking at their hands comfort and remedie 
in time of their tribulation, contrarie to Gods will and commandement 
in that behalfe, who bids us resort to him in all / our necessities. 

Such faithlesse people (I sale) are also persuaded, that neither 
haile nor snowe, thunder nor lightening, raine nor tempestuous winds 
come from the heavens at the commandement of God : but are raised 
by the cunning and power of witches and conjurers ; insomuch as a 
clap of thunder, or a gale of wind is no sooner heard, but either they 
run to ring bels, or crie out to burne witches ; or else burne consecrated 
things, hoping by the smoke thereof, to drive the divell out of the 
aire, as though spirits could be fraied awaie with such externall toies : 
howbeit, these are right inchantments, as Brentius affirmeth. 

But certeinlie, it is neither a witch, nor divell, but a glorious^ God 
that maketh the thunder. I have read in the scriptures, that God ^ 
maketh the blustering tempests and whirlewinds : and I find that it 
is<= the Lord that altogither dealeth with them, and that they*^ blowe 
according to his will. But let me see anie of them all " rebuke and 
still the sea in time of tempest, as Christ did ; or raise the stormie 
wind, as ^ God did with his word ; and I will beleeve in them. Hath 


Job. 5. 

Mitth. II. 

In condone. 
aPsal. 25. 
bPsal. 83- 

«Eccles. 43. 
d Luke- g. 
Matth. g. 
«Mark. 4,41. 
Luke. g. 14. 

'Psal. 170. 

Chap. I. 

The discoverie 

gjob. 38, 22- 

Eccles. 43. 

liLeviti. 26. 
verse. 3 4. 

'Psal. 78, 23- 
liNahum. I. 

ijob. 26,8. 
Job. 37. 
Psalme. 135. 
Jar. 10 & 15. 

mOse. 13. 

" Psa. 39, &c. 

In epist. ad 
Jo. Wierinii. 

oExod. 13. 

Isai. 65. 

Ps. 18, II, 19. 

anie witch or conjurer, or anie creature entred into the ^ treasures of 
the snowe ; or seene/ the secret places of the haile, which GOD hath 
prepared against the daie of trouble, battell, and warre? I for my part 
also thinkewith Jesus Sirach, that at Gods onelie commandement the 
snowe falleth ; and that the wind bloweth according to his will, who 
onelie maketh all stormes to cease; a.nd.'^ who (if we keepe his 
ordinances) will send us raine in due season, and make the land to 
bring forth hir increase, and the trees of the field to give their fruit. 

But little thinke our witchmongers, that the ^ Lord commandeth the 
clouds above, or openeth the doores of heaven, as David aftirmeth ; 
or that the Lord goeth forth in the tempests and stormes, as the 
Prophet '^ Nalunn reporteth: but rather that witches and conjurers are 
then about their businesse. 

The Martionists acknowledged one God the authour of good things, 
and another the ordeiner of evill : but these make the divell a whole 
o-od, to create things of nothing, to knowe mens cogitations, and to 
doo that which God never did ; as, to transubstantiate men into beasts, 
&c. Which thing if divels could doo, / yet followeth it not, that 
witches have such power. But if all the divels in hell were dead, 
and all the witches in England burnt or hanged ; I warrant you we 
should not faile to have raine, haile and tempests, as now we have : 
according to the appointment and will of God, and according to the 
constitution of the elements, and the course of the planets, wherein 
God hath set a perfect and perpetuall order. 

I am also well assured, that if all the old women in the world were 
witches ; and all the priests, conjurers : we should not have a drop 
of raine, nor a blast of wind the more or the lesse for them. For Uhe 
Lord hath bound the waters in the clouds, and hath set bounds 
about the waters, untill the daie and night come to an end : yea it is 
God that raiseth the winds and stilleth them : and he saith to the 
rame and snowe ; Be upon the earth, and it falleth. The ™ wind of the 
Lord, and not the wind of witches, shall destroie the treasures of 
their plesant vessels, and drie up the fountaines ; saith Oseas. Let 
us also learne and confesse with the Prophet Z'aw^, that we ° our 
selves are the causes of our afflictions ; and not exclaime upon 
witches, when we should call upon God for mercie. 

The Imperiall lawe (saith Brentius) condemneth them to death 
that trouble and infect the aire : but I aflirme (saith he) that it is 
neither in the power of witch not divell so to doo, but in God onelie. 
Though (besides Bodin, and all the popish writers in generall) it 
please Danceus, Hyperiiis, Haningius, Erasius, &c. to conclude 
otherwise. The clouds" are called the pillers of Gods tents, Gods 
chariots, and his pavillions. And if it be so, what witch or divell can 

of Witchcraft. chap. 2. 3 

make maisteries therof ? S. Atis;jistine saith, No)i est piitandiun istis August, 
transgressoribiis angelisservire hanc7-eru)nvisibiliuin tnafc7'ievi,sed soli ^'^"''"' ""'^' 
Deo: We must not thinke that these visible things are at thecommande- 
ment of the angels that fell, but are obedient to the onelie God. 

Finallie, if witches could accomplish these things ; what needed it 
seeme so strange to the people, when Christ by miracle p commanded pMar. 4,41. 
both seas and winds, &c. For it is written ; Who is this ? for both 
wind and sea obeie him./ 

The second Chapter. 4- 3. 

The inconvenience growing by mens crednlitie herein., with a re- 
proofe of some chtirchmen, which aj-e inclined to the common 
conceived opinion of witches omnipotencie, and a familiar exatiiple 


tUT the world is now so bewitched and over-run with this 
fond error, that even where a man shuld seeke comfort 
and counsell, there shall hee be sent (in case of necessitie) 
from God to the divell ; and from the Physician, to the 
coosening witch, who will not sticke to take upon hir, by wordes 
to heale the lame (which was proper onelie to Christ ; and to 
them whom he assisted with his divine power) yea, with hir 
familiar & charmes she will take upon hir to cure the blind : though 
in the ^ tenth of S. Johns Gospell it be written, that the divell cannot * Joh. 10, 21. 
open the eies of the blind. And they attaine such credit as I have 
heard (to my greefe) some of the ministerie afifirme, that they have 
had in their parish at one instant, xvii. or xviii. witches : meaning 
such as could worke miracles supernaturallie. Whereby they 
manifested as well their infidelitie and ignorance, in conceiving Gods 
word ; as their negligence and error in instructing their flocks. For 
they themselves might understand, and also teach their parishoners, 
that ^ God onelie worketh great woonders ; and that it is he which ''Psai. 72, & 136. 

IGrfciiiic S« 

sendeth such punishments to the wicked, and such trials to the elect : 

according to the saieng of the Prophet Haggai,'^ I smote you with c Hag. 2, 23. 

blasting and mildeaw, and with haile, in all the labours of your hands ; 

and yet you turned not unto me, saith the Lord. And therefore saith 

the same Prophet in another place ; "^ You have sowen much, and bring '' Idem. cap. i, 6. 

in little. And both in ^ Joel a.nd ^Leviticus, the like phrases and proofes «Joei. i. 

are used and made. But more shalbe said of this hereafter. 

S. Paiile fore-sawe the blindnesse and obstinacie, both of these 
blind shepheards, and also of their scabbed sheepe, when he said ;/ j, 
8 They will not suffer wholsome doctrine, but having their eares itching, s 2 Tim. 4, 34. 
shall get them a heape of teachers after their own lusts ; and shall 

4 Chap. 2. The discoverie 

turne their eares from the truth, and shall be given to fables. And 
1' I Tim. 4. I h jj^ j-j^g latter time some shall depart from the faith, and shall give heed 

to spirits of errors, and doctrines of divels, which speake lies (as 
witches and conjurers doo) but cast thou awaie such prophane and 
old wives fables. In which sense Basil saith ; Who so giveth heed to 
inchanters, hearkeneth to a fabulous and frivolous thing. But I will 
rehearse an example whereof I my selfe am not onelie OculaUis testis, 
but have examined the cause, and am to justifie the truth of my 
report : not bicause I would disgrace the ministers that are godlie, 
but to confirme my former assertion, that this absurd error is growne 
into the place, which should be able to expell all such ridiculous follie 
and impietie. 
Margaret*Siraons, ^"^ the assiscs hoMcn at Rochester, Anno 1581, one Margaret 
a supposed witch. Szmo7is,l the wife ofjohfi Siino7is, of Brenchlie in Kent, was araigned 
for witchcraft, at the instigation and complaint of divers fond and 
malicious persons ; and speciallie by the meanes of or\& JoJui Ferrall 
vicar of that parish : with whom I talked about that matter, and 
found him both fondlie assotted in the cause, and enviouslie bent 
towards hir : and (which is worse) as unable to make a good account 
of his faith, as shee whom he accused. That which he, for his part, 
laid to the poore womans charge, was this. 

His Sonne (being an ungratious boie, and prentise to one Robert 
Scotcliford clothier, dwelling in that parish of Brenchlie') passed on a 
dale by hir house ; at whome by chance hir little dog barked. Which 
thing the boie taking in evill part, drewe his knife, & pursued him 
therewith even to hir doore : whom she rebuked with some such 
words as the boie disdained, & yet neverthelesse would not be per- 
suaded to depart in a long time. At the last he returned to his 
maisters house, and within five or sixe daies fell sicke. Then was 
called to mind the fraie betwixt the dog and the boie : insomuch as 
the vicar (who thought himselfe so privileged, as he little mistrusted 
that God would visit his children with sicknes) did so calculate ; as 
he found, partlie through his owne judgement, and partlie (as he him- 
6. selfe told/ me) by the relation of other witches, that his said sonne was 
by hir bewitched. Yea, he also told me, that this his sonne (being as 
it were past all cure) received perfect health at the hands of another 

He proceeded yet further against hir, affirming, that alwaies in his 
parish church,when he desired to read most plainelie, his voice so failed 
him, as he could scant be heard at all. Which hee could impute, he 
said, to nothing else, but to hir inchantment. When I advertised the 
poore woman hereof, as being desirous to heare what she could saie 
for hir selfe ; she told me, that in verie deed his voice did much faile 

of Witchcraft. chap. 3. 

him, speciallie when he strained himselfe to speake lowdest. How 
beit, she said that at all times his voice was hoarse and lowe : which 
thing I perceived to be true. But sir, said she, you shall understand, 
that this our vicar is diseased with such a kind of hoarsenesse, as 
divers of our neighbors in this parish, not long since, doubted that he 
had the French pox ; & in that respect utterly refused to communi- 
cate with him: untill such time as (being therunto injoined by 
M, D. Lewen the Ordinarie) he had brought fro London a certificat, 
under the hands of two physicians, that his hoarsenes proceeded from 
a disease in the lungs. Which certificat he published in the church, 
in the presence of the whole congregation : and by this meanes hee 
was cured, or rather excused of the shame of his disease. And this I 
knowe to be true by the relation of divers honest men of that parish. 
And truelie, if one of the Jurie had not beene wiser than the other, she 
had beene condemned thereupon, and upon other as ridiculous matters 
as this. For the name of a witch is so odious, and hir power so 
feared among the common people, that if the honestest bodie living 
chance to be arraigned therupon, she shall hardlie escape condem- 

The third Chapter. 

Who they be that are called witches, with a manifest declaratioft of 
the cause that tnooveth men so commonlie to thijike^ and witches 
themselves to beleeve that they can htirt children, cattell, S^c. with 
words and imaginatiofts : and of coosening witches. 

[;NE sort of such as are said to bee witches, are women 
which be commonly old, lame, bleare-eied, pale, fowle, 
and full of wrinkles ; poore, sullen, superstitious, and 
papists ; or such as knowe no religion : in whose 
drousie minds the divell hath goten a fine seat ; so as, what 
mischeefe, mischance, calamitie, or slaughter is brought to passe, 
they are easilie persuaded the same is doone by themselves ; 
inprinting in their minds an earnest and constant imagination Cardan, devar. 
hereof. They are leane and deformed, shewing melancholie in their 
faces, to the horror of all that see them. They are doting, scolds, 
mad, divelish ; and not much differing from them that are thought to 
be possessed with spirits ; so firme and stedfast in their opinions, as 
whosoever shall onelie have respect to the constancie of their words 
uttered, would easilie beleeve they were true indeed. 

These miserable wretches are so odious unto all their neighbors, 
and so feared, as few dare offend them, or denie them anie thing they 
aske : whereby they take upon them ; yea, and sometimes thinke, 
that they can doo such things as are beyond the abilitie of humane 

7. 5. 


6 Chap 3. The discoverie 

nature. These go from house to house, and from doore to doore for a 
pot full of milke, yest, drinke, pottage, or some such releefe ; without 
the which they could hardlie live : neither obtaining for their service 
and paines, nor by their art, nor yet at the divels hands (with whome 
they are said to make a perfect and visible bargaine) either beautie, 
monie, promotion, welth, worship, pleasure, honor, knowledge, 
S. learning, or anie other benefit whatsoever. / 

It falleth out many times, that neither their necessities, nor their 
expectation is answered or served, in those places where they beg or 
borrowe ; but rather their lewdnesse is by their neighbors reprooved. 
And further, in tract of time the witch waxeth odious and tedious to 
hir neighbors ; and they againe are despised and despited of hir : so 
as sometimes she cursseth one, and sometimes another ; and that 
from the maister of the house, his wife, children, cattell, &c. to the 
little pig that lieth in the stie. Thus in processe of time they have all 
displeased hir, and she hath wished evill lucke unto them all ; perhaps 
with cursses and imprecations made in forme. Doubtlesse (at length) 
some of hir neighbors die, or fall sicke ; or some of their children are 
visited with diseases that vex them strangelie : as apoplexies, 
epilepsies, convulsions, hot fevers, wormes, &c. Which by ignorant 
parents are supposed to be the vengeance of witches. Yea and their 
opinions and conceits are/ confirmed and maintained by unskilfull 
physicians : according to the common saieng ; Inscitice pallium 
malejiciuni &r^ iticantatio, Witchcraft and inchantment is the cloke 
of ignorance : whereas indeed evill humors, & not strange words, 
witches, or spirits are the causes of such diseases. Also some of their 
cattell perish, either by disease or mischance. Then they, upon whom 
such adversities fall, weighing the fame that goeth upon this woman 
(hir words, displeasure, and cursses meeting so justlie with their mis- 
fortune) doo not onelie conceive, but also are resolved, that all their 
mishaps are brought to passe by hir onelie meanes. 

The witch on the other side exspecting hir neighbours mischances, 

and seeing things sometimes come to passe according to hir wishes, 

Bodjn cursses, and incantations (for Boditi himselfe confesseth, that not 

dismono : cap. 3. above two in a hundred of their witchings or wishings take effect) 

being called before a Justice, by due examination of the circumstances 

is driven to see hir imprecations and desires, and hir neighbors 

harmes and losses to concurre, and as it were to take effect : and so 

confesseth that she (as a goddes) hath brought such things to passe. 

Wherein, not onelie she, but the accuser, and also the Justice are 

fowhe deceived and abused ; as being thorough hir confession and 

other circumstances persuaded (to the injurie of Gods glorie) that she 

Q hath doone, or can doo that which / is proper onelie to God himselfe. 

of WitcJicraft. chap. 4. 7 

Another sort of witches there are, which be absolutehe cooseners. 
These take upon them, either for gloria, fame, or gaine, to doo anie 
thing, which God or the divell can doo : either for foreteUing of things 
to come, bewraieng of secrets, curing of maladies, or working of 
miracles. But of these I will talke more at large heereafter. 

The fourth Chapter. 

What miraculous actions a7'e imputed to ivitches by witchftwugers, 
papists, and poets. 

jLTHOUGH it be quite against the haire, and contrarie to 
the divels will, contrarie to the witches oth, promise, and 
homage, and contrarie to all reason, that witches should 

helpe anie thing that is bewitched ; but rather set forward 

their maisters businesse : yet we read hi malleo malejicarum, Mai. Male/. par. 

. T , ,1 1 • 2. quast.i.cap,2. 

of three sorts of witches ; and the same is affirmed by all the writers 
heereupon, new and old. One sort (they say) can hurt and not 
helpe, the second can helpe and not hurt, the third can both helpe 
and hurt. And among the hurtfull witches he saith there is one 
sort more beastlie than any kind of beasts, saving woolves : for these 
usuallie devoure and eate yong children and infants of their owne 
kind. These be they (saith he) that raise haile, tempests, and hurtfull 
weather ; as lightening, thunder, &c. These be they that procure 
barrennesse in man, woman, and beast. These can throwe children 
into waters, as they walke with their mothers, and / not be scene. 7- 
These can make horsses kicke, till they cast the riders. These can 
passe from place to place in the aire invisible. These can so alter 
the mind of judges, that they can have no power to hurt them. These 
can procure to themselves and to others, taciturnitie and insensibilitie 
in their torments. These can bring trembling to the hands, and 
strike terror into the minds of them that apprehend them. These can 
manifest unto others, things hidden and lost, and foreshew/ things 10. 
to come ; and see them as though they were present. These can 
alter mens minds to inordinate love or hate. These can kill whom 
they list with lightening and thunder. These can take awaie mans 
courage, and the power of generation. These can make a woman 
miscarrie in childbirth, and destroie the child in the mothers wombe, 
without any sensible meanes either inwardhe or outwardlie applied. 
These can with their looks kill either man or beast. 

All these things are avowed by James Spre7tger and Henrie Institor 
III malleo malejicarum, to be true, & confirmed by Nider, and the 
inquisitor Cumanus ; and also by Danceus, Hyperius, Hemingius, and 
multiplied by Bodinus, and frier Bartholomccus Spineus. But bicause 
I will in no wise abridge the authoritie of their power, you shall have 

Chap. 4. 

TJie discoverie 

*Ovid. lib. 
fhoseon 7. 
Danceiis in 
Pselhis in 
deem. Da mo 
Horn. epod. 5. 
lib. I. eUg. 2. 
Ovid epist 4. 
Lex. 12. 
Mai. Male/. 
Luc a. de bello 
civili. lib. 6. 
Virg. eclog. 8. 
Cv remedio 
amoris. lib. i. 

Rich. Gal. in his 
horrible treatise. 
Bar. Spineus. 
Bryan Darcy 
Virgil. A eneid. 4. 
C. Matilius 
astrol. lib. i. 

Mai. Male/, 
part. 2. quccst 
I. cap. 14. 8. 

I. Cor 9, 9. 

also the testimonies of manic other grave authors in this behalfe ; as 

*And first CT/zV/affirmethjthat they can raise and suppresse Hghtening 
and thunder, raine and haile, clouds and winds, tempests and earth- 
quakes. Others doo write, that they can pull downe the moone and 
the starres. Some write that with wishing they can send needles into 
the livers of their enimies. Some that they can transferre corne in 
the blade from one place to another. Some, that they can cure 
diseases supernaturallie, flie in the aire, and danse with divels. Some 
write, that they can plaie the part of Succubus, and contract them- 
selves to Incttbus; and so yoong prophets are upon them begotten, &c. 
Som sale they can transubstantiate themselves and others, and take 
the forms and shapes of asses, woolves, ferrets, cowes, apes, horsses, 
dogs, &c. Some say they can keepe divels and spirits in the likenesse 
of todes and cats. 

They can raise spirits (as others affirme) drie up springs, turne the 
course of running waters, inhibit the sunne, and staie both day and 
night, changing the one into the other. They can go in and out 
at awger holes, & saile in an egge shell, a cockle or muscle shell, 
through and under the tempestuous seas. They can go invisible, 
and deprive men of their privities, and otherwise of the act and 
use of venerie. They can bring soules out of the graves. They 
can teare snakes in peeces with words, and with looks kill 
lambes. But in this case a man may sale, that Miranda cafinnt j 
sed non credenda Poetcc. They can also bring to passe, that chearne 
as long as you list, your butter will not come ; especiallie, if either 
the maids have eaten up the creame ; or the goodwife have sold the 
butter before in the market. Whereof I have had some triall, 
although there may be true and naturall causes to hinder the common 
course thereof : as for example. Put a little sope or sugar into your 
chearne of creame, and there will never come anie butter, chearne as 

long as you list. But M. Mai. saith, that there is not so little a 

village, where manie women are not that / bewitch, infect, 

and kill kine, and drie up the milke: alledging for the 

strengthening of that assertion, the saie- 

ing of the Apostle, Niitiquid 

Deo atra est de bobiis f 

Dooth God take 

anie care of 


of Witchcraft. chap. 5. 9 

The fift Chapter. 

A confutation of the common coticeived opinion of witches and 
witchcraft, and how detestable a sinne it is to repaire to them for 
cotinsell or helpe in time of affliction. 

UT whatsoever is reported or conceived of such maner of 
witchcrafts, I dare avow to be false and fabulous (coosin- 
age, dotage, and poisoning excepted :) neither is there 
any mention made of these kind of witches in the Bible. 
If Christ had knowne them, he would not have pretermitted to 
invaie against their presumption, in taking upon them his office : 
as, to heale and cure diseases ; and to worke such miraculous and 
supernaturall things, as whereby he himselfe was speciallie knowne, 
beleeved, and published to be God ; his actions and cures consist- 
ing (in order and effect) according to the power by our witch- 
moongers imputed to witches. Howbeit, if there be any in these 
daies afflicted in such strange sort, as Christs cures and patients 
are described in the new testament to have beene : we flie from 
trusting in God to trusting in witches, who doo not onelie in their 
coosening art take on them the office of Christ in this behalfe ; but 
use his verie phrase of speech to such idolaters, as com to seeke 
divine / assistance at their hands, saieng ; Go thy waies, thy sonne or j^. 
thy daughter, &c. shall doo well, and be whole. John, s : 6. 

It will not suffice to dissuade a witchmonger from his credulitie, that ^"^^ ^' '^''' 
he seeth the sequele and event to fall out manie times contrarie to their 
assertion ; but in such case (to his greater condemnation) he seeketh 
further to witches of greater fame. If all faile, he will rather thinke 
he came an houre too late ; than that he went a mile too far. Trulie 
I for my part cannot perceive what is to go a whoring after strange to go to witches, 
gods, if this be not. He that looketh upon his neighbors wife, and &c. is idolatrie. 
lusteth after hir, hath committed adulterie. And truelie, he that in 
hart and by argument mainteineth the sacrifice of the masse to be 
propitiatorie for the quicke and the dead, is an idolater ; as also he 
that alloweth and commendeth creeping to the crosse, and such like 
idolatrous actions, although he bend not his corporall knees. 

In like manner I say, he that attributeth to a witch, such divine 
power, as dulie and onelie apperteineth unto GOD (which all witch- 
mongers doo) is in hart a blasphemer, an idolater, and full of grosse 
impietie, although he neither go nor send to hir for assistance. / 


Chap. 6. 

The discoverie 


Aristoi. de 
anima. lib, 2 . 
Acts. %. 

Why shuld not 
the divell be as 
readie to helpe a 

The sixt Chapter. 

A ftirther conftitation of 'witches miraculous and ovmipotent 
power,, by invincible reasons and authorities, with dissuasions 
frojn such fond credulitie. 

I'F witches could doo anie such miraculous things, as these 
and other which are imputed to them, they might doo 
them againe and againe, at anie time or place, or at 
anie mans desire : for the divell is as strong at one 
time as at another, as busie by daie as by night, and readie enough 
to doo all mischeefe, and careth not whom he abuseth. And 
in so much as it is confessed, by the most part of witchmoongers 
themselves, that he knoweth not the cogitation of mans heart, he 
should (me thinks) sometimes appeere / unto honest and credible 
persons, in such grosse and corporall forme, as it is said he dooth 
unto witches : which you shall never heare to be justified by one 
sufficient witnesse. For the divell indeed entreth into the mind, and 
that waie seeketh mans confusion. 

The art alwaies presupposeth the power ; so as, if they saie they 
can doo this or that, they must shew how and by what meanes they 
doo it; as neither the witches, nor the witchmoongers are able to doo. 
For to everie action is required the facultie and abilitie of the agent or 
dooer; the aptnes of the patient or subject; and a convenient and 
possible apphcation. Now the witches are mortall, and their power 
dependeth upon the analogie and consonancie of their minds and 
bodies ; but with their minds they can but will and understand ; and 
with their bodies they can doo no more, but as the bounds and ends 
of terrene sense will suffer : and therefore their power extendeth not 
to doo such miracles, as surmounteth their owne sense, and the 
understanding of others which are wiser than they ; so as here 
wanteth the vertue and power of the efficient. And in reason, there 
can be no more vertue in the thing caused, than in the cause, or that 
which proceedeth of or from the benefit of the cause. And we see, 
that ignorant and impotent women, or witches, are the causes of 
incantations and charmes ; wherein we shall perceive there is none 
effect, if we will credit our owne experience and sense unabused, the 
rules of philosophic, or the word of God. For alas! What an unapt 
instrument is a toothles, old, impotent, and unweldie woman to flie in 
the aier ? Truelie, the divell little needs such instruments to bring his 
purposes to passe. 

It is strange, that we should suppose, that such persons can worke 
such feates: and it is more strange, that we will imagine that to be 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 7. 


possible to be doone by a witch, which to nature and sense is impos- 
sible ; speciallie when our neighbours life dependeth upon our 
credulitie therein ; and when we may see the defect of abilitie, which 
alwaies is an impediment both to the act, and also to the presumption 
thereof. And bicause there is nothing possible in lawe, that in nature 
is impossible ; therefore the judge dooth not attend or regard what 
the accused man saith ; or yet would/ doo : but what is prooved to 
have beene committed, and na/turallie falleth in mans power and 14. 
will to doo. For the lawe saith, that To will a thing unpossible, is a 
signe of a mad man, or of a foole, upon whom no sentence or judge- 
ment taketh hold. Fui'thermore, what Jurie will condemne, or what 
Judge will give sentence or judgement against one for killing a man 
at Berxvicke ; when they themselves, and manie other sawe that man 
at London^ that verie dale, wherein the murther was committed ; yea 
though the partie confesse himself guiltie therein, and twentie wit- 
nesses depose the same ? But in this case also I sale the judge is not 
to weigh their testimonie, which is weakened by lawe ; and the judges 
authoritie is to supplie the imperfection of the case, and to mainteine 
the right and equitie of the same. 

Seeing therefore that some other things might naturallie be the 
occasion and cause of such calamities as witches are supposed to 
bring ; let not us that professe the Gospell and knowledge of Christ, 
be bewitched to beleeve that they doo such things, as are in nature im- 
possible, and in sense and reason incredible. If they sale it is doone 
through the divels helpe, who can work miracles ; whie doo not theeves 
bring their busines to passe miraculouslie, with whom the divell is as 
conversant as with the other? Such mischeefes as are imputed to 
witches, happen where no witches are ; yea and continue when witches 
are hanged and burnt : whie then should we attribute such effect to that 
cause, which being taken awaie, happeneth neverthelesse ? 

theefe reallie a.s 
a witch ? 

The seventh Chapter. 

L, mitUuni. I. si 
quis alteri, vel 


An objection 

By what meaties the name of witches becomineth so famous, and 
how diverslie people be opinioned concerning them and their 

URELIE the naturall power of man or woman cannot 
be so inlarged, as to doo anie thing beyond the power 
and vertue given and ingrafifed by God. But it is 
the will and mind of man, which is vitiated and de- 
praved by the divell : neither dooth God permit anie more, 
than that which the naturall order appointed by / him dooth 
require. Which naturall order is nothing else, but the ordinarie 
power of God, powred into everie creature, according to his state 

are ceased. 



Chap. 8. 

The discoverie 

The opinions of 
people concern- 
ing witchcraft 
are diverse and 


Card, de var. 
rerum. lib. 15. 
tap. go. 

and condition. But hereof more shall be said in the title of witches 
confessions. Hovvbeit you shall understand, that few or none are 
throughlie persuaded, resolved, or satisfied, that witches can indeed 
accomplish all these impossibilities : but some one is bewitched in 
one point, and some is coosened in another, untill in fine, all these 
impossibihties, and manie mo, are by severall persons affirmed to be 

And this I have also noted, that when anie one is coosened with a 
coosening toie of witchcraft, and maketh report thereof accordinglie 
verifieng a matter most impossible and false as it were upon his owne 
knowledge, as being overtaken with some kind of illusion or other 
(which illusions are right inchantments) even the selfe-same man will 
deride the / like lie proceeding out of another mans mouth, as a 
fabulous matter unworthie of credit. It is also to be woondered, how 
men (that have seene some part of witches coosenages detected, and 
see also therein the impossibilitie of their owne presumptions, & 
the follie and falsehood of the witches confessions) will not suspect, 
but remaine unsatisfied, or rather obstinatelie defend the residue of 
witches supernaturall actions : like as when a juggler hath discovered 
the slight and illusion of his principall feats, one would fondlie continue 
to thinke, that his other petie juggling knacks of legierdemaine are 
done by the helpe of a familiar : and according to the follie of some 
papists, who seeing and confessing the popes absurd religion, in the 
erection and maintenance of idolatrie and superstition, speciallie in 
images, pardons, and relikes of saints, will yet persevere to thinke, 
that the rest of his doctrine and trumperie is holie and good. 

Finallie, manie mainteine and crie out for the execution of witches,* 
that particularlie beleeve never a whit of that which is imputed unto 
them ; if they be therein privatelie dealt withall, and substantiallie 
j6. opposed and tried in argument./ 

The eight Chapter. 

Causes that moove as well witches themselves as others to thinke that 
they can worke impossibilities, with answers to certeine objec- 
tio7is : where also their ptmishment by lawe is touched. 

\ARDANUS writeth, that the cause of such credulitie 
consisteth in three points ; to wit, in the imagina- 
tion of the melancholike, in the constancie of them 
that are corrupt therewith, and in the deceipt of the 
Judges ; who being inquisitors themselves against heretikes and 
witches, did both accuse and condemne them, having for their 
labour the spoile of their goods. So as these inquisitors added 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 5. 


manie fables hereunto, least they should seeme to have doone 
injurie to the poore wretches, in condemning and executing them for 
none offense. But sithens (saith he) the springing up of Luthers sect, 
these priests have tended more diligentlie upon the execution of them ; 
bicause more wealth is to be caught from them : insomuch as now 
they deale so looselie with witches (through distrust of gaines) that 
all is seene to be malice, foUie, or avarice that hath beene practised 
against them. And whosoever shall search into this cause, or read 
the cheefe writers hereupon, shall find his words true. 

It will be objected, that we here in England are not now directed An objection 
by the popes lawes ; and so by consequence our witches not troubled 
or convented by the inquisitors Ha:reticce pravitatis. I answer, that 
in times past here in England, as in other nations, this order of 
discipline hath beene in force and use ; although now some part of 
old rigor be qualified by two severall statutes made in the fift of 
Elizabeth, and xxxiii of Henrie the eight. Nevertheles the estimation 
of the omnipotencie of their words and charmes seemeth in those 
statutes to be somewhat mainteined, as a matter hitherto generallie 
received ; and not yet so looked into, as / that it is refuted and decided. 12. 
But how wiselie so ever the Parle/ment house hath dealt therin, or 77. 
how mercifuUie soever the prince beholdeth the cause : if a poore 
old woman, supposed to be a witch, be by the civill or canon lawe 
convented ; I doubt, some canon will be found in force, not onelie to 
give scope to the tormentor, but also to the hangman, to exercise their 
offices upon hir. And most certaine it is, that in what point soever 
anie of these extremities, which I shall rehearse unto you, be mitigated, 
it is thorough the goodnesse of the Queenes Majestic, and hir excellent 
magistrates placed among us. For as touching the opinion of our 
writers therein in our age ; yea in our owne countrie, you shall see 
it doth not onlie agree with forren crueltie, but surmounteth it farre. 
If you read a foolish pamphlet dedicated to the lord Darcy by W. W booke.'prin- 
1582. you shall see that he affirmeth, that all those tortures are farre Do^^f'j"^"" 
too light, and their rigor too mild ; and that in that respect he 
impudentlie exclameth against our magistrates, who suffer them to be 
but hanged, when murtherers, & such malefactors be so used, which 
deserve not the hundreth part of their punishments. But if you will 
see more foUie and lewdnes comprised in one lewd booke, I com- 
mend you to Ri. Ga. a Windsor man ; who being a mad man hath 
written according to his frantike humor : the reading wherof may 
satisfie a wise man, how mad all these witchmoongers dealings be in 
this behalfe. 


Cliap. 9. 

The discoverie 

The ninth Chapter. 

A conclusion of the first booke, wherein is fore-shewed the tyrannicall 
crtieltie of witchmongers and inquisitors, with a request to the 
reader to peruse the same. 

jJND bicause it may appeare unto the world what trecher- 
ous and faithlesse dealing, what extreame and intollerable 
tyrannic, what grosse and fond absurdities, what un- 
naturall & uncivil discourtisie, what cancred and spiteful! 
malice, what outragious and barbarous crueltie, what lewd 
18. and false packing, what cunning and craftie intercepting, what 
bald and peevish inter / pretations, what abhominable and divelish 
inventions, and what flat and plaine knaverie is practised against 
these old women ; I will set downe the whole order of the 
inquisition, to the everlasting, inexcusable, and apparent shame 
of all witchmoongers. Neither will I insert anie private or doubt- 
full dealings of theirs ; or such as they can either denie to be 
usuall, or justlie cavill at ; but such as are published and renewed in 
all ages, since the commensement of poperie, established by lawes, 
practised by inquisitors, privileged by princes, commended by doctors, 
[* ? beleeved.] confirmed by popes, councels, decrees, and canons ; and finallie *be 
left of all witchmoongers ; to wit, by such as attribute to old women, 
and such like creatures, the power of the Creator. I praie you 
therefore, though it be tedious & intollerable (as you would be 
heard in your miserable calamities) so heare with compassion, their 
accusations, examinations, matters given in evidence, confessions, 
presumptions, interrogatories, conjurations, cautions, 
crimes, tortures and condemnations, 
devised and practised 
usuallie against 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 2. 


\ The second Booke, 

The first Chapter. 

What testimonies ajtd witiiesses are allowed to give evidence against 
repJited luitches, by the report Sr* allowance of the inquisitors 
themselves, aJid such as are speciall writers heerein. 

XCOMMUNICAT persons, partakers of the fait, infants, 
wicked servants, and runnawaies are to be admitted to 
beare witnesse against their dames in this mater of 
witchcraft : bicause (saith Bodin the champion of witch- 
moongers) none that be honest are able to detect them. Here- 
ikes also and witches shall be received to accuse, but not to 
excuse a witch. And finallie, the testimonie of all infamous per- 
sons in this case is good and allowed. Yea, one lewd person (saith 
Bodin) may be received to accuse and condemne a thousand suspected 
witches. And although by lawe, a capitall enimie may be challenged ; 
yet James Sprenger, and Henrie Institor, (from whom Bodin, and all 
the writers that ever I have read, doo receive their light, authorities 
and arguments) sale (upon this point of lawe) that The poore frend- 
lesse old woman must proove, that hir capitall enimie would have 
illed hir, and that hee hath both assalted & wounded hir ; otherwise 
she pleadeth all in vaine. If the judge aske hir, whether she have 
anie capitall enimies ; and she rehearse other, and forget hir accuser 5 
or else answer that he was hir capitall enimie, but now she hopeth he 
is not so : such a one is nevertheles admitted for a witnes. And 
though by lawe, single witnesses are not admittable ; yet if one depose 
she/ hath bewitched hir cow ; another, hir sow ; and the third, hir 
butter : these saith (saith M. Mai. a.nd Bodin) are no single witnesses ; 
bicause they agree that she is a witch. 

The second Chapter. 

The order of examination of witches by the inquistors. 

OMEN suspected to be witches, after their apprehension 

may not be suffered to go home, or to other places, to 

seek suerties : for then (saith Bodin) the people would 

be woorse willing to accuse them ; for feare least 

returne home, they worke revenge upon them. In which 

Bodin commendeth much the Scottish custome and order 

behalfe : where (he saith) a hollowe peece of wood 

ig. 13. 

at their 
in this 

Mai. Male/, 
quest. 5. fa. 3. 
/. Bod. lib. 4. 
cap. 2, de da- 

Arch, in C. al- 
in §. Iz. super, 

I.Bod. lib. 4. 
cap. I. de dae- 

Mai. Malef 
quest. 56. 
pa. 3, & quae. 
S,part. 3. 


Que. 7. act 2. 



The Scottish 
custOe of ac- 
cusing a witch. 

1 6 Chap. 2. The discoverie 

or a chest is placed in the church, into the which any bodie may 
freelie cast a little scroll of paper, wherein may be conteined the 
name of the witch, the time, place, and fact, &c. And the same chest 
being locked with / three severall locks, is opened everie fifteenth daie 
by three inquisitors or officers appointed for that purpose ; which 
keepe three severall kaies. And thus the accuser need not be 
knowne, nor shamed with the reproch of slander or malice to his 
poore neighbour. 

Item, there must be great persuasions used to all men, women, and 
children, to accuse old women of witchcraft. 

Item, there may alwaies be promised impunitie and favour to 
witches, that confesse and detect others ; and for the contrarie, there 
may be threatnings and violence practised and used. 

Item, the little children of witches, which will not confesse, must be 
attached ; who (if they be craftilie handled saith Bodin) will confesse 
against their owne mothers. 

Item, witches must be examined as suddenlie, and as unawares as 

is possible : the which will so amaze them, that they will confesse 

any thing, supposing the divell hath forsaken them ; wheras if they 

21. should first be comitted to prison, the divell would tem/per with them, 

and informe them what to doo. 

Item, the inquisitor, judge, or examiner, must begin with small 
matters first. 

Item, they must be examined, whether their parents were witches 
or no : for witches (as these Doctors suppose) come by propagation. 
/. Bod. lib. dt And Bodm setteth downe this principle in witchcraft, to wit, Si saga 
L.^arenltes"' '^' sit mater, sic etiam estfilia: howbeit the la we forbiddeth it, Ob san- 
guinis reverentiam. 

Item, the examiner must looke stedfastlie upon their eies : for they 
cannot looke directlie upon a mans face (as Bodin affirmeth in one 
place, although in another he saith, that they kill and destrcie both 
men and beasts with their lookes.) 

Item, she must be examined of all accusations, presumptions, and 
faults, at one instant ; least sathan should afterwards dissuade hir 
from confession. 

Item, a witch may not be put in prison alone, least the divell dis- 
suade hir from confession, through promises of her indemnitie. For 
(saith Bodin) some that have beene in the gaole have prooved to flie 
awaie, as they were woont to doo when they met with Diana and 
Minerva, Gr>c. : and so brake their owne necks against the stone 

Item, if anie denie hir owne confession made without torture, she 

dt testibus. 

of Witchci-aft. 




is neverthelesse by that confession to be condemned, as in anie other 

Item, the judges must seeme to put on a pittifuU countenance and 
to mone them ; saieng, that It was not they, but the divell that com- 
mitted the murther, and that he compelled them to doo it ; and must 
make them beleeve that they thinke them to be innocents. 

Item, if they will confesse nothing but upon the racke or torture ; 
their apparell must be changed, and everie haire in their bodie must 
be shaven off with a sharpe razor. 

Item, if they have charmes for taciturnitie, so as they feele not 
the common tortures, and therefore confesse nothing : then some 
sharpe instrument must be thrust betwixt everie naile of their fingers 
and toes : which (as / Bodin saith) was king Childeberts devise, and is k. chiideberts 
to this daie of all others the most effectuall. For by meanes of that ^^^eii devise. 
extreme paine, they will (saith he) confesse anie / thing. 22. 

Item, Pmilus Grillafidus, being an old dooer in these matters, p. GrUlandus. 
wisheth that when witches sleepe, and feele no paine upon the 
torture, Dojiiiiie labia mea aperies should be said, and so (saith he) 
both the torments will be felt, and the truth will be uttered : Et sic ars 
debiditur arte. 

Item, Bodin saith, that at the time of examination, there should 
be a semblance of great a doo, to the terrifieing of the witch : and 
that a number of instruments, gieves, manacles, ropes, halters, fetters, 
&c. be prepared, brought foorth, and laid before the examinate : and 
also that some be procured to make a most horrible and lamentable 
crie, in the place of torture, as though he or she were upon the racke, 
or in the tormentors hands : so as the examinate may heare it whiles 
she is examined, before she hir selfe be brought into the prison ; and 
perhaps (saith he) she will by this meanes confesse the matter. 

Item, there must be subborned some craftie spie, that may seeme 
to be a prisoner with hir in the like case ; who perhaps may in con- 
ference undermine hir, and so bewraie and discover hir. 

Item, if she will not yet confesse, she must be told that she is detected, 
and accused by other of hir companions ; although in truth there be 
no such matter : and so perhaps she will confesse, the rather to be 
revenged upon hir adversaries and accusers. 

The third Chapter. 

Matters of evidence against witches. 

F an old woman threaten or touch one being in health, 

who dieth shortlie after ; or else is infected with the 

leprosie, apoplexie, or anie other strange disease : it is 

(saith Bodin a permanent fact, and such an evidence, 


A subtill 
and dive- 
lish devise 


Chap. 3. 

The discoverie 

as condemnation or death must insue, without further proofe ; 
if anie bodie have mistrusted hir, or said before that she was a 
23. witch. / 

Item, if anie come in, or depart out of the chamber or house, the 
doores being shut ; it is an apparent and sufficient evidence to a 
witches condemnation, without further triall : which thing Bodin 
never sawe. If he can shew me that feat, I will subscribe to his 
follie. For Christ after his resurrection used the same : not as a 
ridiculous toie, that everie witch might accomplish ; but as a speciall 
miracle, to strengthen the faith of the elect. 

Item, if a woman bewitch anie bodies eies, she is to be executed 
without further proofe. 

Item, if anie inchant or bewitch mens beasts, or corne, or flie in the 
aire, or make a dog speake, or cut off anie mans members, and unite 
them againe to men or childi'ens bodies ; it is sufficient proofe to con- 

Item, presumptions and conjectures are sufficient proofes against 
16. witches. / 

Item, if three witnesses doo but saie, Such a woman is a witch ; 
then is it a cleere case that she is to be executed with death. Which 
matter Bodin saith is not onelie certeine by the canon and civill 
lawes, but by the opinion of pope Innocent^ the wisest pope (as he 
saith) that ever was. 

Item, the complaint of anie one man of credit is sufficient to bring 
a poore woman to the racke or pullie. 

Item, a condemned or infamous persons testimonie is good and 
allowable in matters of witchcraft. 

Item, a witch is not to be delivered, though she endure all the 
tortures, and confesse nothing ; as all other are in anie criminall 

Item, though in other cases the depo.sitions of manie women at one 
instant are disabled, as insufficient in lawe ; bicause of the imbecillitie 
and frailtie of their nature or sex : yet in this matter, one woman, 
though she be a partie, either accuser or accused, and be also 
infamous and impudent (for such are Bodins words) yea and alreadie 
condemned ; she may neverthelesse serve to accuse and condemne a 

Item, a witnesse uncited, and offering himselfe in this case is to be 
heard, and in none other. 

Item, a capitall enimie (if the enimitie be pretended to growe by 
24, meanes of witchcraft) may object against a witch ; and none / exception 
is to be had or made against him. 
Par. Ill L. Item, although the proofe of perjurie may put backe a witnesse in 

Bai .Spineus, 
&•, /. Bod. de 
damon. lib. 2. 
cap. 2. 

L. ubi nume- 
rus de testibus. 
J. Bod. de dae- 
mon, lib. 2. 
cap. 2. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 4 


all other causes ; yet in this, a perjured person is a good and lawful! post.h-gatum 

9. his, de us 


quibus ut indig. 
Alex. cap. 72. 
L. 2. (Jc. 

Item, the proctors and advocats in this case are compelled to be 
witnesses against their clients, as in none other case they are to be 
constrained there unto. 

Item, none can give evidence against witches, touching their 
assemblies, but witches onelie : bicause (as Bodin saith) none other 
can doo it. Howbeit, AV. Ga. writeth, that he came to the God speed, in his foolish 

',,,,,,,,,.,, , , , pamphlet of the 

and with his sword and buckler killed the divell ; or at the least he execution of 
wounded him so sore, that he made him stinke of brimstone. Windsor witches. 

Item, Bodin saith, that bicause this is an extraordinarie matter ; 
there must heerein be extraordinarie dealing : and all maner of waies 
are to be used, direct and indirect. 

The fourth Chapter. 

Confessions of witches, whereby they are condemned. 

|OME witches confesse (saith Bodin) that are desirous to 
die ; not for glorie, but for despaire : bicause they are 
tormented in their life time. But these may not be 
spared (saith he) although the lawe dooth excuse them. 

The best and surest confession is at shrift, to hir ghostlie father. 

Item, if she confesse manie things that are false, and one thing that 
may be true ; she is to be taken and executed upon that confession. / 

Item, she is not so guiltie that confesseth a falshood or lie, and 
denieth a truth ; as she that answereth by circumstance. 

Item, an equivocall or doubtfull answer is taken for a confession 
against a witch. / 

Item, Bodin reporteth, that one confessed that he went out, or 
rather up into the aire, and was transported manie miles to the fairies 
danse, onelie bicause he would spie unto what place his wife went to 
bagging, and how she behaved hir selfe. Whereupon was much a doo 
among the inquisitors and lawyers, to discusse whether he should be 
executed with his wife or no. But it was concluded that he must die, 
bicause he bewraied not his wife : the which he forbare to doo, 
Propter reverentiam honoris &^ families. 

Item, if a woman confesse freelie herein, before question be made; 
and yet afterward denie it : she is neverthelesse to be burned. 

Item, they affirme that this extremitie is herein used, bicause not 
one among a thousand witches is detected. And yet it is affirmed by 
Sprefiger, in M. Mai. that there is not so little a parish, but there are 
manie witches knowne to be therein. 

/. Bod. lib. 4. 
cap. 3. 

Is there anie 
probabilitie that 
such would con- 
tinue witches ? 
Idem Ibid. 

Joan. An. ad 
speculat. tit. » m 
de litis con- 
test, part. 2. 

L. nan alie- 
nuni eodem. 


L. de (Flat. 5. 
nihil eodem. 

I. Bod. de doe- 
mono, lib. 4. 
cap. 3. 


Chap. 5. 

The discoverie 

I. Bod. dc da- 
mono, lib. 4 
cap. 4. 


I. Bod. de dee- 
mono, lib. 4. 
cap. 4. 

L. decurionl 
de pisnis. 
Panorm. (sf 
Felin. in C. 
veniens. i. 
de testib. parsi 
causa. 154. 
Lib. 4. tiumero. 
12. usq; a 18. 


The fift Chapter. 

Presic/nptions, whereby witches are condemned. 

I F anie womans child chance to die at hir hand, so as no 
bodie knoweth how ; it may not be thought or presumed 
that the mother killed it, except she be supposed a witch : 
and in that case it is otherwise, for she must upon that 
presumption be executed ; except she can proove the negative or 

Item, if the child of a woman that is suspected to be a witch, be 
lacking or gone from hir ; it is to be presumed, that she hath sacrificed 
it to the divell : except she can proove the negati^ve or contrarie. 

Item, though in other persons, certeine points of their confessions 
may be thought erronious, and imputed to error : yet (in witches 
causes) all oversights, imperfections, and escapes must / be adjudged 
impious and malicious, and tend to hir confusion and condemnation. 

Item, though a theefe be not said in lawe to be infamous in any 
other matter than in theft ; yet a witch defamed of witchcraft is said 
to be defiled with all maner of faults and infamies universallie, 
though she were not condemned ; but (as I said) defamed with the 
name of a witch. For rumors and reports are sufficient (saith Boditi) 
to condemne a witch. 

Item, if any man, woman, or child doo saie, that such a one is a 
witch ; it is a most vehement suspicion (saith Bodin) and sufficient 
to bring hir to the racke : though in all other cases it be directlie 
against lawe. 

Item, in presumptions and suspicions against a witch, the common 
brute or voice of the people cannot erre. 

Item, if a woman, when she is apprehended, crie out, or saie ; I 
am undoone ; Save my life ; I will tell you how the matter standeth, 
&c : she is thereupon most vehementlie to be suspected and con- 
demned to die. / 

Item, though a conjurer be not to be condemned for curing the 
diseased by vertue of his art : yet must a witch die for the like case. 

Item, the behaviour, looks, becks, and countenance of a woman, 
are sufficient signes, whereby to presume she is a witch : for alwais 
they looke downe to the ground, and dare not looke a man full in 
the face. 

Item, if their parents were thought to be witches, then is it 
certeinlie to be presumed that they are so : but it is not so to be 
thought of whoores. 

Item, it is a vehement presumption if she cannot weepe, at the 

of Witchcraft, 

Chap. 6. 


time of hir examination : and yet Bodin saith, that a witch may shed 
three drops out of hir right eie. 

Item, it is not onelie a vehement suspicion, and presumption, but 
an evident proofe of a witch, if any man or beast die suddenhe where 
she hath beene seene latelie ; although hir witching stuffe be not 
found or espied. 

Item, if any bodie use familiaritie or companie with a witch 
convicted ; it is a sufficient presumption against that person to be 
adjudged a witch. / 

Item, that evidence that may serve to bring in any other person to 
examination, may serve to bring a witch to her condemnation. 

Item, herein judgment must be pronounced & executed (as Bodin 
saith) without order, and not like to the orderlie proceeding and forme 
of judgement in other crimes. 

Item, a witch may not be brought to the torture suddenlie, or before 
long examination, least she go awaie scotfree : for they feele no 
torments, and therefore care not for the same (as Bodin affirmeth.) 

Item, little children may be had to the torture at the first dash ; 
but so may it not be doone with old women : as is aforesaid. 

Item, if she have anie privie marke under hir arme pokes, under 
hir haire, under hir lip, or in hir buttocke, or in hir privities : it is a 
presumption sufficient for the judge to proceed and give sentence of 
death upon hir. 

The onlie pitie they shew to a poore woman in this case, is ; that 
though she be accused to have slaine anie bodie with her inchant- 
ments ; yet if she can bring foorth the partie alive, she shall not be 
put to death. Whereat I marvell, in as much as they can bring the 
divell in any bodies likenesse and representation. 

Item, their lawe saith, that an uncerteine presumption is sufficient, 
when a certeine presumption faileth. 

The sixt Chapter. 

Particular Interogatories icsed by the inquisitors against witches. 

NEEDE not stale to confute such parciall and horrible 
dealings, being so apparentlie impious, and full of tyrannic 
which except I should have so manifestlie detected, even 
with their owne writings and assertions, few or none 
would have beleeved. But for brevities sake I will passe over the 
same ; supposing that the ci / ting of such absurdities may stand for 
a suffici /ent confutation thereof. Now therefore I will proceed to a 
more particular order and maner of examinations, &c : used by the 
inquisitors, and allowed for the most part throughout all nations. 


L. 5. de adult. 
§. gl. &r Bart. 
c. veiicrabihs 
de electio. (^c 
I. Bod. de dce- 
viono. lib. 4. 
cap. 4. 

Idem Ibid. 

Cap. pmterea 
cum glos. exit a 
de test. 
Panormii. iu 
C. vencr. col. 
2. codem, (i/i . 



Chap. 7. 

The discoverie 

Mai. male/, 
super, inter- 

Semca in 

Mai. malef. 
fart. 3. queest 
15. act. 10. 

Num. II, 4. 

1. Sam. II, 4. 

2. Sa. 15,23. 
Mat. g. & 13 & 
22. & 24. & 25. 
Luke 3.&C. 

Seneca in 

Eccl. 35, 15. 


Triall of teares. 

Mai. Malef. 
qua. 15. pa. 3. 


First the witch must be demanded, why she touched such a child, 
or such a cow, &c : and afterward the same child or cow fell sicke 
or lame, &c. 

Item, why hir two kine give more milke than hir neighbors. And 
the note before mentioned is heere againe set downe, to be speciallie 
observed of all men : to wit ; that Though a witch cannot weepe, yet 
she may speake with a crieng voice. Which assertion of weeping is 
false, and contrarie to the saieng of Seneca., Cato, and manie others ; 
which affirme, that A woman weepeth when she meaneth most deceipt : 
and therefore saith AI. Mai. she must be well looked unto, otherwise 
she will put spettle privilie upon hir cheeks, and seeme to weepe : 
which rule also Bodin saith is infallible. But alas that teares should 
be thought sufficient to excuse or condemne in so great a cause, and so 
weightie a triall ! I am sure that the woorst sort of the children of 
Israel wept bitterlie : yea, if there were any witches at all in Israel, 
they wept. For it is written, that all the children of Israel wept. 
Finallie, if there be any witches in hell, I am sure they weepe : for 
there is weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth. 

But God knoweth, many an honest matrone cannot sometimes in 
the heavines of her heart shed teares ; the which oftentimes are 
more readie and common with craftie queanes and strumpets, than 
with sober women. For we read of two kinds of teares in a womans 
eie, the one of true greefe, the other of deceipt. And it is written, 
that Dediscere flet-e faininam est mendaciiivi : which argueth, that 
they lie which say, that wicked women cannot weepe. But let these 
tormentors take heed, that the teares in this case which runne downe the 
widowes cheeks, with their crie spoken of by Jesus Sirach, be not 
heard above. But lo what learned, godlie, and lawfull meanes these 
popish inquisitors have invented for the triall of true or false teares. / 

The seventh Chapter. 

The inquisitors triall of weeping by conjuration. 

CONJURE thee by the amorous teares, which Jesus 
Christ our Saviour shed upon the crosse for the salvation 
of the world ; and by the most earnest and burning teares 
of his mother the most glorious virgine Marie., sprinkled 
upon his wounds late in the evening ; and by all the teares, which 
everie saint and elect vessell of God hath powred out heere in the 
world, and from whose eies he hath wiped awaie all teares ; that if 
thou be without fault, thou maist powre downe teares aboundantlie ; 
and if thou be guiltie, that thou weepe in no wise : In the name of the 
father, of the sonne, and of the holie ghost ; Amen. And note (saith 
he) that the more you conjure, the lesse she weepeth. / 

of Witchcraft. chap. 8. 23 

The eight Chapter. 

Certaine cautions agaitist witches, and of their tortures to procure 

|UT to manifest their further follies, I will recite some of 
their cautions, which are published by the ancient inquisi- 
tors, for perpetuall lessons to their successors : as followeth. 
The first caution is that, which was last rehearsed con- 
cerning weeping ; the which (say they) is an infallible note. 

Secondlie, the judge must beware she touch no part of him, 
speciallie of his bare ; and that he alwaies weare about his necke 
conjured salt, palme, herbes, and waxe halowed : which (say they) are Ja. Sprenger. 
not onelie approoved to be good by the witches confessions ; but / also ' '" ' °^' 
by the use of the Romish church, which halloweth them onelie for 
that purpose. 

Item, she must come to hir arreignement backward, to wit, with hir Mai. male/. 
taile to the judges face, who must make manie crosses, at the time of ^*' ^' ^"'^' '^' 
hir approching to the barre. And least we should condemne that 
for superstition, they prevent us with a figure, and tell us, that the proUpsis or 
same superstition may not seeme superstitious unto us. But this P' inoccupation. 
resembleth the persuasion of a theefe, that dissuadeth his sonne from 
stealing ; and neverthelesse telleth him that he may picke or cut a 
pursse, and rob by the high waie. 

One other caution is, that she must be shaven, so as there remaine 
not one haire about hir : for sometimes they keepe secrets for tacitur- 
nitie, and for other purposes also in their haire, in their privities, and 
betweene their skinne and their flesh. For which cause I marvell 
they flea them not: for one of their witches would not burne, being in 
the middest of the flame, as M. Mai. reporteth ; untill a charme 3[al. male/. 
written in a little scroll was espied to be hidden betweene hir skin 
and flesh, and taken awaie. And this is so gravelie and faithfullie 
set downe by the inquisitors themselves, that one may beleeve it if 
he list, though indeed it be a verie lie. The like lie citeth Bodin, of John. Bod. 
a witch that could not be strangled by the executioner, doo what he ^.nno 14S5 a 
could. But it is most true, that the inquisitor Cumamcs in one yeare i^nave inquisi- 
did shave one and fourtie poore women, and burnt them all when he 
had done. 

Another caution is, that at the time and place of torture, the hal- Q. id.detem- 
lowed things aforesaid, with the seaven words spoken on the crosse, be ^inurrog^ " 
hanged about the witches necke ; and the length of Christ in waxe be 
knit about hir bare naked bodie, with relikes of saints, &c. All which 
stuffe (saie they) will so worke within and upon them, as when they 

24 Chap. g. The discoverie 

are racked and tortured, they can hardlie staie or hold themselves 

from confession. In which case I doubt not but that pope, which 

Blasphemous blasphemed Christ, and curssed his mother for a pecocke, and curssed 

thafname'the ^^"^ ^^'*-^^ great despights for a peece of porke, with lesse compulsion 

third. would have renounced the trinitie, and have worshipped the divell 

1. upon his knees./ 

Another caution is, that after she hath beene racked, and hath 

passed over all tortures devised for that purpose ; and after that she 

3^- hath beene compelled to drinke holie water, she be conveied / againe 

to the place of torture : and that in the middest of hir torments, hir 

accusations be read unto hir ; and that the witnesses (if they will) be 

brought face to face unto hir : and finallie, that she be asked, whether 

Mai. male/. for triall of hir innocencie she will have judgement, Candentis/errz, 

par. 3, qua. . ^y^jf^jj jg . '^q carrie a certeine weight of burning iron in hir bare hand. 

But that may not (saie they) in anie wise be granted. For both 

Af. Mai. and Bodin also affirme, that manie things may be promised, 

but nothing need be performed : for whie, they have authoritie to 

promise, but no commission to performe the same. 

Another caution is, that the judge take heed, that when she once 
beginneth to confesse, he cut not off hir examination, but continue it 
night and dale. For many-times, whiles they go to dinner, she re- 
turneth to hir vomit. 

Another caution is, that after the witch hath confessed the annoie- 
ing of men and beasts, she be asked how long she hath had Incicbiis, 
when she renounced the faith, and made the reall league, and what 
that league is, &c. And this is indeede the cheefe cause of all their 
incredible and impossible confessions : for upon the racke, when they 
have once begunne to lie, they will saie what the tormentor list. 

The last caution is, that if she will not confesse, she be had to some 
strong castle or gaole. And after certeine dales, the gaolor must 
make hir beleeve he goeth foorth into some farre countrie : and then 
some of hir freends must come in to hir, and promise hir, that if she 
will confesse to them, they will suffer hir to escape out of prison : 
which they may well doo, the keeper being from home. And this 
Mai. male/. waie (saith M. Mai.) hath served, when all other meanes have failed, 

fl^r^^"^ '^ "^"^ ^^ '•^'^ place it may not be omitted, that above all other times, 

they confesse upon fridaies. Now ssXih James Spretiger, and Henrie 
Instifor, we must saie all, to wit : If she confesse nothing, she should 
be dismissed by lawe ; and yet by order she may in no wise be bailed, 
but must be put into close prison, and there be talked withall by 
some craftie person (those are the words) and in the meane while 
there must be some eves-dropers with pen and inke behind the wall, 
to hearken and note what she confesseth : or else some of hir old 

of Witchcraft. chap. 9. 25 

companions and acquain /tance may come in and taike with hir of old 32. 
matters, and so by eves-droppers be also bewraied ; so as there shall 
be no end of torture before she have confessed what they will./ 22 

The Ninth Chapter. 

The fifteene crlvtes laid to the charge of witches, by witchmongers ; 
speciallie by Bodin, in Dccmonomania. 

HEY denie God, and all religion. I 

Aiistvere* Then let them die therefore, or at the least [*Rom.] 
be used like infidels, or apostataes. 

They cursse, blaspheme, and provoke God with all 2 

AnsTuere* Then let them have the law expressed in Levit. 24. and 
Deut. 13. & 17. 

They give their faith to the divell, and they worship and offer sacri- 3 
fice unto him. 

Atts. Let such also be judged by the same lawe. 

They doo solemnelie vow and promise all their progenie unto the 4 

Alls. This promise proceedeth from an unsound mind, and is not 
to be regarded ; bicause they cannot performe it, neither will it be 
prooved true. Howbeit, if it be done by anie that is sound of mind, 
let the cursse of Jefemie. 32. 36. light upon them, to wit, the sword, 
famine and pestilence. 

They sacrifice their owne children to the divell before baptisme, 5 
holding them up in the aire unto him, and then thrust a needle into 
their braines. 

Afis. If this be true, I maintaine them not herein : but there is a 
lawe to judge them by. Howbeit, it is so contrarie to sense and 
nature, that it were foUie to beleeve it ; either upon Bodins bare word, 
or else upon his presumptions ; speciallie when so small commoditie 
and so great danger and inconvenience insueth to the witches thereby. 

They burne their children when they have sacrificed them. 5 

A71S. Then let them have such punishment, as they that offered 
their children unto Moloch : Levit. 20. But these be meere / devises 33- 
of witchmoongers and inquisitors, that with extreame tortures 
have Avroong such confessions from them ; or else with false reports 
have beelied them ; or by flatterie & faire words and promises have 
woon it at their hands, at the length. 

They sweare to the divell to bring as manie into that societie as pr 
they can. 

Alls. This is false, and so prooved elsewhere. 



2. Booke. 

The discoverie 

8 They sweare by the name of the divell. 

Ans. I never heard anie such oth, neither have we warrant to kill 
them that so doo sweare ; though indeed it be verie lewd and impious. 

9 They use incestuous adulterie with spirits. 

Ans. This is a stale ridiculous lie, as is prooved apparentlie 

10 They boile infants (after they have murthered them unbaptised) 
untill their flesh be made potable. 

23. A7ts. This is untrue, incredible, and impossible./ 

1 1 They eate the ilesh and drinke the bloud of men and children 

Ans. Then are they kin to the Anthropophagi and Canibals. But 
I beleeve never an honest man in Englatid nor in France, will affirme 
that he hath seene any of these persons, that are said to be witches, 
do so ; if they shuld, I beleeve it would poison them. 

12 They kill men with poison. 

Ans. Let them be hanged for their labour. 

13 They kill mens cattell. 

Ans. Then let an action of trespasse be brought against them for 
so dooing. 

14 They bewitch mens corne, and bring hunger and barrennes into 
the countrie ; they ride and flie in the aire, bring stormes, make 
tempests, &c. 

Ans. Then will I worship them as gods ; for those be not the 
works of man, nor yet of witch : as I have elsewhere prooved at 

1 5 They use venerie with a divell called Incubus, even when they lie 
in bed with their husbands, and have children by them, which become 
the best witches. 

Ans. This is the last lie, verie ridiculous, and confuted by me else- 
34 where. / 

The tenth Chapter. 

A refutation of the former surmised crimes patched togither by 
Bodi7t, and the onelie waie to escape the inquisitors hands. 

IF more ridiculous or abhominable crimes could have 

beene invented, these poore women (whose cheefe fault 

is that they are scolds) should have beene charged with 


In this libell you dooe see is conteined all that witches are charged 

with ; and all that also, which anie witchmoonger surmiseth, or in 

malice imputeth unto witches power and practise. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 10. 


Some of these crimes may not onelie be in the power and will of a 
witch, but may be accomplished by naturall meanes : and therefore by 
them the matter in question is not decided, to wit ; Whether a witch 
can worke woonders supernaturallie ? For manie a knave and whore 
dooth more commonlie put in execution those lewd actions, than such 
as are called witches, and are hanged for their labour. 

Some of these crimes also laid unto witches charge, are by me 
denied, and by them cannot be prooved to be true, or committed by 
any one witch. Othersome of these crimes likewise are so absurd, 
supernaturall, and impossible, that they are derided almost of all men, 
and as false, fond, and fabulous reports condemned : insomuch as the 
very witchmoongers themselves are ashamed to heare of them. 

If part be untrue, why may not the residue be thought false 1 For 
all these things are laid to their charge at one instant, even by the 
greatest doctors and patrones of the sect of witchmongers, producing 
as manie proofs for witches supernaturall and impossible actions, as 
for the other. So as, if one part of their accusation be false, the other 
part deserveth no credit. If all be true that is alledged of their 
dooings, why should we beleeve in Christ, bicause of his miracles, 
when a witch dooth as great/ wonders as/ ever he did 1 

But it will be said by some ; As for those absurd and popish 
writers, they are not in all their allegations, touching these matters, to 
be credited. But I assure you, that even all sorts of writers heerein 
(for the most part) the very doctors of the church to the schoolemen, 
protestants and papists, learned and unlearned, poets and historio- 
graphers, Jewes, Christians, or Gentiles agree in these impossible 
and ridiculous matters. Yea and these writers, out of whome I gather 
most absurdities, are of the best credit and authoritie of all writers in 
this matter. The reason is, bicause it was never throughlie looked 
into ; but everie fable credited ; and the word (Witch) named so often 
in scripture. 

They that have scene further of the inquisitors orders and customes, 
sale also ; that There is no waie in the world for these poore women 
to escape the inquisitors hands, and so consequentlie burning : but to 
gild their hands with monie, wherb}^ oftentimes they take pitie upon 
them, and deliver them, as sufficientlie purged. For they have 
authoritie to exchange the punishment of the bodie with the punish- 
ment of the pursse, applieng the same to the office of their inquisi- 
tion ; whereby they reape such profit, as a number of 
these seelie women paie them yeerelie pen- 
sions, to the end they may 
not be punished 

The question 
or matter in 
controversie : 
that is to say, 
the proposition 
or theme. 



A generall errur. 

The onelie way 
for witches to 
avoid the in- 
quisitors handfc. 


2. Booke. 

The discoverie 

The eleventh Chapter. 



A bitter invec- 
tive against a 
cruell inquisitor. 

The opinion of Corjielius Agrippa concerning witches, of his 
pleading for a poore woman accused of witchcraft, and how he 
convinced the inquisitors. 

\ORNELIUS AGRIPPA saith, that while he was in 
Italic, mania inquisitors in the dutchie oiMillen troubled 
divers most honest & noble matrones, privilie wringing 
much monie from them, untill their knaverie was 
detected. Further he saith, that being an advocate or councellor 
in the Commonwelth of Maestriglit in Brabant, he had sore 
contention with an inquisitor, who through un/just accusations 
drew a poore woman of thp countrie into his butcherie, and to an unfit 
place ; not so much to examine hir, as to torment hir. Whom when 
C. Agrippa had undertaken to defend, declaring that in the things 
doone, there was no proofe, no signe or token that could cause hir to 
be tormented ; the inquisitor stoutlie denieng it, said ; One thing 
there is, which is proofe and matter sufficient : for hir mother was in 
times past burned for a witch. Now when Agrippa replied, affirming 
that this article was impertinent, and ought to be refused by the judge, 
as being the deed of another ; alledging to the inquisitor, reasons and 
lawe for the same : he replied againe that this was true, bicause they 
used to sacrifice their children to the divell, as soone as they were 
borne ; and also bicause they usuallie conceived by spirits transformed 
into mans shape, and that thereby witchcraft was naturallie ingraffed 
into this child, as a disease that commeth by inheritance. / 

C. Agrippa replieng against the inquisitors foUie & superstitious 
blindnesse, said ; O thou wicked preest ! Is this thy divinitie.'' Doost 
thou use to drawe poore guiltlesse women to the racke by these forged 
devises ? Doost thou with such sentences judge others to be heretikes, 
thou being a more heretike than either Faiistiis or Donatus ? Be it 
as thou saiest, dooest thou not frustrate the grace of Gods ordinance ; 
namelie baptisme? Are the words in baptisme spoken in vaine? Or 
shall the divell rem.aine in the child, or it in the power of the divell, 
being there and then consecrated to Christ Jesus, in the name of the 
father, the sonne, and the holie ghost ? And if thou defend their 
false opinions, which affirm, that spirits accompanieng with women, 
can ingender ; yet dotest thou more than anie of them, which never 
beleeved that anie of those divels, togither with their stolne seed, doo 
put part of that their seed or nature into the creature. But though 
indeed we be borne the children of the divell and damnation, yet 
in baptisme, through grace in Christ, sathan is cast out, and we are 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 12. 



John Fo.x in 
the acts and 

made new creatures in the Lord, from whome none can be separated 
by another mans deed. The inquisitor being hereat offended, 
threatened the advocate to proceed against him, as a supporter of 
heretikes or witches ; yet neverthelesse he ceased not to defend the 
seehe woman, and through the power of the lawe he deHvered hir / 
from the clawes of the bloodie moonke, who with hir accusers, were 
condemned in a great summe of monie to the charter of the church 
oi Mentz, and remained infamous after that time almost to all men. 

But by the waie you must understand, that this was but a petie in- 
quisitor, and had not so large a commission as Ctunanns, Sprenger, 
and such other had ; nor yet as the Spanish inquisitors at this dale 
have. For these will admit no advocats now unto the poore soules, 
except the tormentor or hangman may be called an advocate. You 
may read the summe of this inquisition in few words set out by M. 
John Fox in the Acts and monuments. For witches and heretikes 
are among the inquisitors of like reputation ; saving that the ex- 
tremitie is greater against witches, bicause through their simplicitie, 
they may the more boldlie tyrannize upon them, and triumph over 

The twelfe Chapter. 

What the feare of death and feeling of torments may force one to 
doo, and that it is no marvell though witches condemne the7nselves 
by their owne confessions so tyrannicallie extorted. 

E that readeth the ecclesiasticall histories, or remembreth 
the persecutions in Queene Maries time, shall find, that 
manie good men have fallen for feare of persecution, and 
returned unto the Lord againe. What marvell then, 
though a poore woman, such a one as is described else-where, & 
tormented as is declared in these latter leaves, be made to confesse 
such absurd and false impossibilities ; when flesh and bloud is 
unable to endure such triall ? Or how can she in the middest of such 
horrible tortures/ and torments, promise unto hir selfe constancie ; or 34. 
forbeare to confesse anie thing ? Or what availeth it hir, to persevere 
in the deniall of such matters, as are laid to her charge unjustlie ; 
when on the one side there is never anie end of hir torments ; on 
the other side, / if she continue in hir assertion, they saie she hath 38. 
charmes for taciturnitie or silence ? 

Peter the apostle renounced, curssed, and forsware his maister and Peters apostacie 
our Saviour Jesus Christ, for feare of a wenches manaces ; or rather of Christ. 
at a question demanded by hir, wherein he was not so circumvented, 
as these poore witches are, which be not examined by girles, but by 

30 2. BooUe. TJie discoverie 

cunning inquisitors, who having the spoile of their goods, and bringing 
with them into the place of judgement minds to maintaine their bloudie 
purpose, spare no maner of aUurements, thretenings, nor torments, 
untill they have wroong out of them all that, which either maketh 
to their owne desire, or serveth to the others destruction. 

Peter (I sale) in the presence of his Lord and maister Christ, who 
had instructed him in true knowledge manie yeares, being fore- 
warned, not passing foure or five houres before, and having made a 
reall league and a faithfull promise to the contrarie, without anie 
other compulsion than (as hath beene said) by a question proposed by 
a girle, against his conscience, forsooke, thrise denied, and aban- 
doned his said maister : and yet he was a man illuminated, and placed 
in dignitie aloft, and neerer to Christ by manie degrees, than the 
witch, whose fall could not be so great as Peters ; bicause she never 
ascended halfe so manie steps. A pastors declination is much more 
abhominable that the going astraie of anie of his sheepe : as an ambas- 
sadors conspiracie is more odious than the falshood of a common 
person : or as a capteins treason is more mischeevous than a private 
soldiers mutinie. If you saie, Peter repented ; I answer that the 
witch dooth so likewise sometimes, and I see not in that case, but 
mercie may be emploied upon hir. It were a mightie temptation to a 
seelie old woman, that a visible divell (being in shape so ugglie, as 
Danceus in DaucEus and Others saie he is) should assalt hir in maner and forme 

as is supposed, or rather avowed ; speciallie when there is promise 
I Cor. 10. made that none shall be tempted above their strength. The poore 

old witch is commonlie unlearned, unwarned, and unprovided of 
counsell and freendship, void of judgement and discretion to moderate 
hir life and communication, hir kind and gender more weake and 
fraile than the masculine, and much more subject to melancholie ; hir 
39- bringing up and companie is so base, that nothing is to be / looked for 
in hir speciallie of these extraordinarie qualities ; hir age also is com- 
monlie such, as maketh her decrepite, which is a disease that mooveth 
them to these follies. 

Finallie, Christ did cleerelie remit Peter, though his offense were 
committed both against his divine and humane person : yea after- 
wards he did put him in trust to feed his sheepe, and shewed 
great countenance, freendship and love unto him. And there- 
fore I see not, but we may shew compassion upon 
these poore soules ; if they shew themselves 
sorrowfull for their misconceipts 
and wicked imagina- 

of Witchcraft. ciwp. i. 3 1 

\ The third Booke. 

The first Chapter. 

40. 35. 

The witches bargaine with the divell, according to M. Mai. Bodin, 
Nider, Dmiaus, Pselltts, Erasfies, Hemingins, Ct<jnantes, Aqitifias, 
Bartholomaus Spinetes, ^'c. 

|HAT which in this matter of witchcraft hath abused so 
mania, and seemeth both so horrible and intollerable, is 
a plaine bargaine, that (they saie) is made betwixt the 
divell and the witch. And manie of great learning con- 
ceive it to be a matter of truth, and in their writings publish it 
accordinglie : the which (by Gods grace) shall be prooved as vaine 
and false as the rest. 

The order of their bargaine or profession is double ; the one The double 
solemne and publike ; the other secret and private. That which is witches with 
called solemne or publike, is where witches come togither at certeine ''^® ti'vell. 
assemblies, at the times prefixed, and doo not onelie see the divell in 
visible forme ; but confer and talke familiarlie with him. In which 
conference the divell exhorteth them to observe their fidelitie unto 
him, promising them long life and prosperitie. Then the witches 
assembled, commend a new disciple (whom they call a novice) unto 
him : and if the divell find that yoong witch apt and forward in re- 
nunciation of christian faith, in despising anie of the seven sacra- 
ments, in treading upon crosses, in spetting at the time of the 
elevation, in breaking their fast on fasting dales, and fasting on sun- 
daies ; then the divell giveth foorth / his hand, and the novice joining 41. 
hand in hand with him, promiseth to observe and keepe all the divels 

This done, the divell beginneth to be more bold with hir, telling 
hir plainlie, that all this will not serve his turne ; and there- 
fore requireth homage at hir hands : yea he also telleth hir, that she ■^^«^- male/. 
must grant him both hir bodie and soule to be tormented in ever- fesTionis.'^ 
lasting fire : which she yeeldeth unto. Then he chargeth hir, to pro- 
cure as manie men, women, and children also, as she can, to enter 
into this societie. Then he teacheth them to make ointments of the 
bowels and members of children, whereby they ride in the aire, and 
accomplish all their desires. So as, if there be anie children unbap- 
tised, or not garded with the signe of the crosse, or orizons ; then the 
witches may and doo catch them from their mothers sides in the 
night, or out of their cradles, or otherwise kill them with their cere- 


3- Booke. 

77/6' discoverie 


Homage of 
witches to the 


Bat. Sfineus, 
cap. I. in novo 
Mai. male/. 

Idem Ibid. 

I. Bod. de 
damon. lib. 
cap. 4. 

monies ; and after buriall steale them out of their graves, and seeth 
them in a caldron, untill their flesh be made potable. Of the thickest 
whereof they make ointments, whereby they ride in the aire ; but the 
thinner potion they put into flaggons, whereof whosoever drinketh, 
observing certeine ceremonies, immediatlie becommeth a maister or 
rather a mistresse in that practise and facultie./ 

The second Chapter. 

The order of the witches homage done {as it is written by lewd 
inquisitors and peevish witchmoongers) to the divell in person ; of 
their songs and danses, and nanielie of La volta, and of other 
ceremonies, also of their exconrses. 

[jOMETIMES their homage with their oth and bai'gaine 
is received for a certeine terme of yeares ; sometimes for 
ever. Sometimes it consisteth in the deniall of the 
whole faith, sometimes in part. The first is, when the 
soule is absolutelie yeelded to the divell and hell fier : the other is, 
when they have but bargained [not] to / observe certeine ceremonies 
and statutes of the church ; as to conceale faults at shrift, to fast on 
sundaies, &c. And this is doone either by oth, protestation of words, 
or by obligation in writing, sometimes sealed with wax, sometimes 
signed with bloud, sometimes by kissing the divels bare buttocks ; as 
did a Doctor called Edliti, who as {Bodift saith) was burned for 

You must also understand, that after they have delicatlie banketted 
with the divell and the ladie of the fairies ; and have eaten up a fat 
oxe, and emptied a butt of malmesie, and a binne of bread at some 
noble mans house, in the dead of the night, nothing is missed of all 
this in the morning. For the ladie Sibylla, Minerva, or Diana with 
a golden rod striketh the vessell & the binne, and they are fuUie re- 
plenished againe. Yea, she causeth the bullocks bones to be brought 
and laid togither upon the hide, and lappeth the foure ends thereof 
togither, laieng her golden rod thereon ; and then riseth up the bul- 
locke againe in his former estate and condition : and yet at their 
returne home they are like to starve for hunger ; as Spineus saith. And 
this must be an infallible rule, that everie fortnight, or at the least everie 
moneth, each witch must kill one child at the least for hir part. 

And here some of Monsieur Bodins lies may be inserted, who saith 
that at these magicall assemblies, the witches never faile to danse ; 
and in their danse they sing these words ; Har har, divell divell, 
danse here, danse here, plaie here, plaie here. Sabbath, sabbath. And 
whiles they sing and danse, everie one hath a broome in hir hand, 

of Witchcraft. chap. 3. 33 

and holdeth it up aloft. Item he saith, that these night-walking or 
rather night-dansing witches, brought out of Italie into France, that 
danse, which is called La volta. 

A part of their league is, to scrape off the oile, which is received Mai. maUf. 
in extreame follie (unction I should have said). But if that be so 
dangerous, they which socke the corps had neede to take great 
care, that they rub not off the oile, which divers other waies may 
also be thrust out of the forehead ; and then I perceive all the ver- 
tue thereof is gone, and farewell it. But I marvell how they 
take on to preserve the water powred on them in baptisme, 
which I take to be largelie of as great force as the other ; and yet 
I thinke is commonlie wiped and washed off, within foure and 
twentie houres / after baptisme : but this agreeth with the residue / ST. 43- 
of their follie. 

And this is to be noted, that the inquisitors affirme, that during the 
whole time of the witches excourse, the divell occupieth the roome 
and place of the witch, in so perfect a similitude, as hir husband in 
his bed, neither by feeling, speech, nor countenance can discerne hir 
from his wife. Yea the wife departeth out of her husbands armes 
insensiblie, and leaveth the divell in hir roome visiblie. Wherein their 
incredulitie is incredible, who will have a verie bodie in the feined 
plaie, and a phantasticall bodie in the true bed : and yet (forsooth) at 
the name of Jesus, or at the signe of the crosse, all these bodihe Griiiandus. 
witches (they saie) vanish awaie. tofiraci'' 

The third Chapter. 

How witches are staufiioned to appeere before the divell, of their 
ridinff in the aire, of their accornpis, of their co?ifere>ice with the 
divell, of his supplies, and their coiiference, of their farewell and 
sacrifices : according to DancBiis, Pselliis, Gr^c. 

'ITHERTO, for the most part, are the verie words 
conteined in M. Mai. or Bodin, or rather in both ; 
or else in the new M. Mai. or at the least-wise of 
some writer or other, that mainteineth the almightie 
power of witches. But Danceus saith, the divell oftentimes in Danausin 
the likenes of a sumner, meeteth them at markets and faires, '^'■'^'■°&- '^"■f" 4 
and warneth them to appeere in their assemblies, at a certeine 
houre in the night, that he may understand whom they have slaine, 
and how they have profited. If they be lame, he saith the divell 
delivereth them a staffe, to conveie them thither invisiblie through the 
aire ; and that then they fall a dansing and singing of bawdie songs, 
wherein he leadeth the danse himselfe. Which danse, and other 
conferencies being ended, he supplieth their wants of powders and 



3. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Ide. Ibidem. 

Idem, in dia- 
log, cap. 3. 

Card. lib. de 
var. rerum. 
15. cap.%0. 

Mai. Male/, 
par. 2. quoe.y. 
cap. i. 

roots to intoxicate withall ; and giveth to everie novice a marke, either 
with his teeth or with his clawes, and so they kisse the divels bare 

44. buttocks, and depart : / not forgetting every daie afterwards to offer to 
him, dogs, cats, hens, or bloud of their ovvne. And all this dooth 
DancEUS report as a troth, and as it were upon his owne knowledge. 
And yet else-where he saieth ; In these matters theydoo but dreame, 
and doo not those things indeed, which they confesse through their 
distemperature, growing of their melancholike humor : and there- 
fore (saith he) these things, which they report of themselves, are but 
meere illusions. 

Psellus addeth hereunto, that certeine magicall heretikes, to wit ; 
the Eutychians, assemblie themselves everie good fridaie at night ; 
and putting out the candles, doo commit incestuous adulterie, the 
father with the daughter, the sister with the brother, and the sonne 
with the mother ; and the ninth moneth they returne and are delivered ; 
and cutting their children in peeces, fill their pots with their bloud ; 
then burne they the carcases, and mingle the ashes therewith, and so 
preserve the same for magicall purposes. Cardamis writeth (though 

38. in mine opinion not verie/ probablie) that these excourses, dansmgs, 
&c : had their beginning from certeine heretikes called Dukinz, vvho 
devised those feasts of Bacchus which are named Orgi'a, whereunto 
these kind of people openlie assembled ; and beginning with riot, 
ended with this follie. Which feasts being prohibited, they never- 
theles hanted them secretlie ; and when they rould not doo so, then 
did they it in cogitation onelie, and even to this daie (saith he) there 
remaineth a certeine image or resemblance thereof among our 
melancholike women. 

The fourth Chapter. 

That there cajt no reall league be made with the divell the first 
author of the league.^ and the iveake proof es of the adi'crsaries for 
the same. 

If the league be untrue, as are the residue of their 
confessions, the witchmongers arguments fall to the 
ground : for all the writers herein hold this bargaine 
for certeine, good, and granted, and as their onelie 
43. maxime. But surelie the/ indentures, conteining those covenants, 
are sealed with butter ; and the labels are but babies. What firme 
bargaine can be made betwixt a carnall bodie and a spirituall } Let 
any wise or honest man tell me, that either hath beene a partie, or a 
witnesse ; and I will beleeve him. But by what authoritie, proofe, or 
testimonie ; and upon what ground all this geere standeth, if you read 
M. Mai. you shall find, to the shame of the reporters (who doo so 

of Witchcraft. chap. 5. 35 

varie in their tales, and are at such contrarietie :) and to the reproch 
of the beleevers of such absurd lies. 

For the beginning of the credit hereof, resteth upon the confession Upon what 
of a baggage yoong fellow condemned to be burnt for witchcraft ; feaUeague 
who said to the inquisitors, of likelihood to prolong his life, (if at 'o<^&^ 50 

. , ^ , . growe in 

leastwise the storie be true, which is taken out of Nider ;) If I wist credit. 
(quoth he) that I might obteine pardon, 1 would discover all that I 
knowe of witchcraft. The which condition being accepted, and 
pardon promised (partlie in hope thereof, and partlie to be rid of his 
wife) he said as followeth. 

The novice or yoong disciple goeth to some church, togither with 
the mistresse of that profession, upon a sundaie morning, before the 
conjuration of holie water, &^ there the said novice renounceth the 
faith, promiseth obedience in observing, or rather omitting of 
ceremonies in meetings, and such other follies ; and finallie, that 
they doo homage to their yoong maister the divell, as they covenanted. 

But this is notable in that storie, that this yoong witch, doubting 
that his wives examination would bewraie his knaverie, told the 
inquisitor; that in truth his wife was guiltie as well as he, but she will 
never, I am sure (quoth he) though she should be burned a thousand 
times, confesse any of these circumstances. 

And this is in no wise to be forgotten, that notwithstanding his 
contrition, his confession, and his accusation of his owne wife (con- 
trarie to the inquisitors / promise and oth) he and his wife were both 39- 
burned at a stake, being the first discoverers of this notable league, 
whereupon the fable of witchcraft is mainteined ; and whereby such 
other confessions have beene from the like persons, since that time, 
extorted and augmented. / 

The fift Chapter. 46- 

Of the private league, a notable tale of Bodins concerning a French 
ladie, with a confutation. 

HE maner of their private league is said to be, when Themanerof 
the divell invisible, and sometimes visible, in the J^agurwUh^ * 
middest of the people talketh with them privatelie; the divell. 
promising, that if they will followe his counsell, he 
will supplie all their necessities, and make all their endevors 
prosperous : and so beginneth with small matters : whereunto they 
consent privilie, and come not into the fairies assemblie. 

And in this case (mee thinks) the divell sometimes, in such exlernall 
or corporall shape, should meete with some that would not consent to 
his motions (except you will saie he knoweth their cogitations) and so 


3- Booke. 

The discoverie 

J. Bod. lib. 2. 
de dcemono- 
mania. cap. 4. 

This agreeth 
not with their 
that saie, this 
is onlie done .^ 
by vertue of ^1 ' 
the legue ; nor 
yet to them 
that referre it 
unto words: 
quoth nota. 


C. Agrippa. 
cap. 51. 

should be bewraied. They also (except they were idiots) would spie 
him, and forsake him for breach of covenants. But these bargaines, 
and these assemblies doo all the writers hereupon mainteine : and 
Bodin confirmeth them with a hundred and odd lies ; among the 
number whereof I will (for diverse causes) recite one. 

There was (saith he) a noble Gentlewoman at Lions, that being in 
bed with a lover of hirs, suddenlie in the night arose up, and lighted 
a candle : which when she had done, she tooke a box of ointment, 
wherewith she annointed her bodie ; and after a few words spoken, 
she was carried awaie. Hir bedfellow seeing the order hereof, lept 
out of his bed, tooke the candle in his hand, and sought for the ladie 
round about the chamber, and in everie corner thereof But though 
he could not find hir, yet did he find hir box of ointment : and being 
desirous to know the vertue thereof, besmeered himselfe therewith, 
even as he perceived hir to have done before. And although he were 
not so superstitious, as to use anie words to helpe him forward in his 
busines, yet by the vertue of that ointment (saith Bodhi) he was 
immediatlie conveied / to Lorreine, into the assemblie of witches. 
Which when he sawe, he was abashed, and said ; In the name of 
God, what make I heere? And upon those words the whole assemblie 
vanished awaie, and left him there alone starke naked ; and so was 
he faine to returne to Lions. But he had so good a conscience (for 
you may perceive by the first part of the historie, he was a verie 
honest man) that he accused his true lover for a witch, and caused 
hir to be burned. But as for his adulterie, neither M. Mai. nor Bodin 
doo once so much as speake in the dispraise thereof 

It appeareth throughout all Bodins booke, that he is sore offended 
with Cornelius Agrippa, and the rather (as I suppose) bicause the 
said C. Agrippa recanted that which Bodin mainteineth, who thinketh 
he could worke wonders by magicke, and speciallie by his blacke dog. 
It should seeme he/ had prettie skill in the art of divination. For 
though he wrote before Bodin mania a yeare, yet uttereth he these 
words in his booke De vanitate scientiarum : A certeine French 
protonotarie (saith he) a lewd fellow and a coosener, hath written 
a certeine fable or miracle done at Lions, &^c. What 
Bodin is, I knowe not, otherwise than by report ; but 
I am certeine this his tale is a fond fable : and 
Bodin saith it was performed at Lions ; 
and this man (as I under- 
stand) by profession 
is a civill 

of VVitcJicraJt. 

Ch;ip. 6. 


The sixt Chapter. 

A disproof e of their assemblies, and of their bargaifte. 

Tatianus 4' 
co?iira Grcpcos. 

HAT the joining of hands with the divell, the kissing 
of his bare buttocks, and his scratching and biting 
of them, are absurd lies ; everie one having the gift 
of reason may plainHe perceive : in so much as it 
is manifest unto us by the word of God, that a spirit hath no 
flesh, bones, nor sinewes, whereof hands, buttocks, claws, teeth, 
and lips doo consist. For admit that the constitution of a divels 
bodie (as Tatian and other afifirme) consisteth in spirituall / congela- 
tions, as of fier and aire ; yet it cannot be perceived of mortall 
creatures. What credible witnesse is there brought at anie time, of 
this their corporall, visible, and incredible bargaine ; saving the con- 
fession of some person diseased both in bodie and mind, wilfuUie 
made, or injuriouslie constrained? It is mervell that no penitent 
witch that forsaketh hir trade, confesseth not these things without 
compulsion. Mee thinketh their covenant made at baptisme with 
God, before good witnesses, sanctified with the word, confirmed with 
his promises, and established with his sacraments, should be of more 
force than that which they make with the divell, which no bodie 
seeth or knoweth. For God deceiveth none, with whom he bargaineth ; 
neither dooth he mocke or disappoint them, although he danse not 
among them. 

Their oth, to procure into their league and fellowship as manie as 
they can (whereby everie one witch, as Bodin afifirmeth, augmenteth 
the number of fiftie) bewraieth greatlie their indirect dealing. 
Hereof I have made triall, as also of the residue of their coosening The author 
devices ; and have beene with the best, or rather the woorst of them, u^^n^d* 
to see what might be gathered out of their counsels; and have proofeand 
cunninglie treated with them thereabouts : and further, have sent 
certeine old persons to indent with them, to be admitted into their 
societie. But as well by their excuses and delaies, as by other 
circumstances, I have tried and found all their trade to be meere 

I praie you what bargaine have they made with the divell, that 
with their angrie lookes beewitch lambs, children, &c? Is it not 
confessed, that it is naturall, though it be a lie? What bargaine 
maketh the soothsaier, which hath his severall kinds of witchcraft 
and divination expressed in the scripture? Or is it not granted that 
they make none? How chanceth it that we heare not of this bargaine 
in the scriptures?/ 


3. Booke. 

The discoverie 

49- 41. 

compulsorie ; 
as by Hispani- 
call inquisition : 
Looke Mai. 
malef. 6^ Jo. 
persuasorie ; as 
by flatterie : 
Looke Bry. 
ZJarr/i" against 
Ursu. Kempe. 

John. Bod. 
Mai. Malef. 

L. absent, de 
poenis. cq^ 

L. 2. cumglos. 
de Us, qui ante 
sentent. mor- 
tui sunt, sibi 
necem con- 
sciscentes . 

The seventh Chapter, 

A confutation of the objection concerning witches confessions. 

It is confessed (saie some by the waie of objection) 
even of these women themselves, that they doo these 
and such other horrible things, as deserveth death, 
with all extremitie, &c. Whereunto I answer, that 
whosoever consideratelie beholdeth their confessions, shall perceive 
all to be vaine, idle, false, inconstant, and of no weight; except their 
contempt and ignorance in religion : which is rather the fault of the 
negligent pastor, than of the simple woman. 

First, if their confession be made by compulsion, of force or 
authoritie, or by persuasion, and under colour of freendship, it is not 
to be regarded ; bicause the extremitie of threts and tortures pro- 
vokes it ; or the qualitie of faire words and allurements constraines it. 
If it be voluntarie, manie circumstances must be considered, to wit ; 
whether she appeach not hir selfe to overthrow hir neighbour, which 
manie times happeneth through their cankered and malicious melan- 
cholike humor : then ; whether in that same melancholike mood 
and frentike humor, she desire not the abridgment of hir owne dales. 
Which thing Aristotle saith dooth oftentimes happen unto persons 
subject to melancholike passions : and (as Bodin and Sprenger saie) 
to these old women called witches, which manie times (as they 
affirme) refuse to live ; thretning the judges, that if they may not be 
burned, they will laie hands upon themselves, and so make them 
guiltie of their damnation. 

I my selfe have knowne, that where such a one could not prevaile, 
to be accepted as a sufficient witnesse against himselfe, he presentlie 
went and threw himselfe into a pond of water, where he was drowned. 
But the lawe saith ; Volenti niori non est habenda fides, that is ; 
His word is not to be credited that is desirous to/ die. Also some- 
times (as else-where I have prooved) they confesse that whereof they 
were never guiltie ; supposing that they did that which they did not, 
by meanes of certeine circumstances. And as they sometimes con- 
fesse impossibilities, as that they flie in the aire, transubstantiate 
themselves, raise tempests, transfer or remoove corne, &c : so doo 
they also (I saie) confesse voluntarilie, that which no man could 
proove, and that which no man would ghesse, nor yet beleeve, except 
he were as mad as they ; so as they bring death wilfullie upon them- 
selves : which argueth an unsound mind. 

If they confesse that, which hath beene indeed committed by them, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 7. 


as poisoning, or anie other kind of murther, which falleth into the 
power of such persons to accomplish ; I stand not to defend their 
cause. Howbeit, I would wish that even in that case there be not too 
rash credit given, nor too hastie proceedings used against them: but 
that the causes, properties, and circumstances of everie thing be dulie 
considered, and diligentlie examined. For you shall understand, that 
as sometimes they confesse they have murthered their neighbours with 
a wish, sometimes with a word, sometimes with a looke, &c: so they 
confesse, that with/ the delivering of an apple, or some such thing, to 
a woman with child, they have killed the child in the mothers wombe, 
when nothing was added thereunto, which naturallie could be noisome 
or hurtfull. 

In like maner they confesse, that with a touch of their bare hand, 
they sometimes kill a man being in perfect health and strength of 
bodie ; when all his garments are betwixt their hand and his flesh. 

But if this their confession be examined by divinitie, philosophie, 
physicke, lawe or conscience, it will be found false and insufficient. 
First, for that the working of miracles is ceased. Secondlie, no 
reason can be yeelded for a thing so farre beyond all reason. Third- 
lie, no receipt can be of such efficacie, as when the same is touched 
with a bare hand, from whence the veines have passage through the 
bodie unto the hart, it should not annoie the poisoner ; and yet reteine 
vertue and force enough, to pearse through so manie garments and 
'the verie flesh incurablie, to the place of death in another person. 
Cid ari^ionefito (saith Bodin) nescio qtdd / 7'esponderi possit. Fourth- 
lie, no lawe will admit such a confession, as yeeldeth unto im- 
possibilities, against the which there is never any lawe provided ; 
otherwise it would not serve a mans turne, to plead and proove that 
he was at Berwicke that dale, that he is accused to have doone a 
murther in Cajihirdurie ; for it might be said he was conveied to 
Berwicke, and backe againe by inchantment. Fiftlie, he is not by con- 
science to be executed, which hath no sound mind nor 
perfect judgement. And yet forsooth we read, that 
one mother Stile did kill one Saddocke with a touch 
on the shoulder, for not keeping promise with 
hir for an old cloake, to make hir a 
safegard ; and that she was 
hanged for hir 

in witches 


J. Bod. de 
deejnon. lib, 
2.t-ap. 8. 


In a little pam- 
phlet of the 
acts and hang- 
ing of foure 
witches, in 
anno. 1579. 


3. Booke. 

The discoverie 

John Bod. 52 

L. si per crro- 
rem jurisd, 
omni cum 

C. sed hoc d. 

defubl. be. 

Bal. ill leg. 

The eight Chapter. 

IVliat follie it were for witches to enter into such desperate per ill, 
and to endure such intolterable tortures for no gaine or commodi- 
tie, and how it comes to passe that witches are overthrowne by 
their cofifessions. 

LAS ! if they were so subtill, as witchmongers make 
them to be, they would espie that it were meere follie 
for them, not onelie to make a bargaine with the 
divell to throw their soules into hell fire, but their 
bodies to the tortures of temporall fire and death, for the accom- 
plishment of nothing that might benefit themselves at all : but 
they would at the leastwise indent with the divell, both to inrich 
them, and also to enoble them ; and finallie to endue them with all 
worldlie felicitie and pleasure : which is furthest from them of all 
other. Yea, if they were sensible, they would saie to the divell ; Whie 
should I hearken to you, when you will deceive me ? Did you not 
promise my neighbour mother Button to save and rescue hir ; and yet 
lo she is hanged 1 Surelie this would appose the divell verie sore. 
And it is a woonder, that none, from the beginning of the world, till 
this dale, hath made this and such like objections, whereto the divell 
could never / make answer. But were it not more madnes for them 
to serve the divell, under these conditions ; and yet to endure/ 
43. whippings with iron rods at the divels hands ; which (as the witch- 
mongers write) are so set on, that the print of the lashes remaine 
upon the witches bodie ever after, even so long as she hath a daie 
to live ? 

But these old women being daunted with authoritie, circumvented 
with guile, constrained by force, compelled by feare, induced by error, 
and deceived by ignorance, doo fall into such rash credulitie, and so 
are brought unto these absurd confessions. Whose error of mind and 
blindnes of will dependeth upon the disease and infirmitie of nature : 
and therefore their actions in that case are the more to be borne 
withall ; bicause they, being destitute of reason, can have no consent. 
For, Delictum sine consensu non potest coinmitti., neque injuria 
sine animo iitjuriandi ; that is. There can be no sinne without 
consent, nor injurie committed without a mind to doo wrong. 
Yet the lawe saith further, that A purpose reteined in mind, dooth 
nothing to the privat or publike hurt of anie man ; and much more 
that an impossible purpose is unpunishable. Sance mentis voluntas., 
volimtas rei possibilis est ; A sound mind willeth nothing but that 
which is possible. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 9. 41 

The ninth Chapter. 

How melancholie abuseih old wojnen, and of the effects thereof by 
sundrie examples. 

F anie man advisedlie marke their words, actions, cogi- 
tations, and gestures, he shall perceive that melancholie 
abounding in their head, and occupieng their braine, hath 
deprived or rather depraved their judgements, and all their 
senses: I meane not of coosening witches, but of poore melancholike 
women, which are themselves deceived. For you shall understand, that 
the force which melancholie hath, and the effects that it worketh in the 
bodie of a man, or rather of a woman, are almost incredible. For as 
some of these melancholike persons imagine, they are witches/ and by 53' 
witchcraft can worke woonders, and doo what they list : so doo other, 
troubled with this disease, imagine manie strange, incredible, and im- 
possible things. Some, that they are monarchs and princes, and that all 
other men are their subjects : some, that they are brute beasts : some, 
that they be urinals or earthen pots, greatlie fearing to be broken : some, 
that everie one that meeteth them, will conveie them to the gallowes ; 
and yet in the end hang themselves. One thought, that Atlas, whome 
the poets feigne to hold up heaven with his shoulders, would be 
wearie, and let the skie fall upon him : another would spend a 
whole dale upon a stage, imagining that he both heard and saw 
interludes, and therewith made himselfe great sport. One Theophilus 
a physician, otherwise sound inough of mind (as it is said) imagined 
that he heard and sawe musicians continuallie plaieng on instruments, 
in a certeine place of his house. 0's\t.Bessus, that had killed his father, 
was notablie detected ; by imagining that a swallowe upraided him 
therewith : so as he himselfe thereby revealed the murther. 

But the notablest example heereof is, of one that was in great 44. 
perplexi/tie, imagining that his nose was as big as a house ; insomuch Of one that 
as no freend nor physician could deliver him from this conceipt, nor meSlfchoiie 
yet either ease his greefe, or satisfie his fansie in that behalfe : till at ^^s induced 

•' . . to thinke that 

the last, a physician more expert in this humor than the rest, used he had a nose 
this devise following. First, when he was to come in at the chamber house, X-c. 
doore being wide open, he suddenlie staled and withdrew himselfe ; 
so as he would not in any wise approch neerer than the doore. The 
melancholike person musing heereat, asked him the cause why he so 
demeaned himselfe ? Who answered him in this maner : Sir, your 
nose is so great, that I can hardlie enter into your chamber but I 
shall touch it, and consequentlie hurt it. Lo (quoth he) this is the 
man that must doo me good ; the residue of my freends flatter me, 



^. Booke. 

The discoverie 


Danceus in 
dialog, cap. 3. 

J. Baptist. P, 
N. cap. 2. 
Card, de 
var. rerum. 
prestigiis dce- 
rno7ium, is'c, 
A ristotle. 

John. Bod. 



and would hide mine infirmitie from me. Well (said the physician) I 
will cure you, but you must be content to indure a little paine in the 
dressing : which he promised patientlie to susteine, and conceived 
certeine hope of his recoverie. Then entred the physician into the 
chamber, creeping close by the walles, seeming to feare the touching 
and hurting of his nose. Then did he blindfold him, which / being 
doone, he caught him by the nose with a paire of pinsors, and threw 
downe into a tub, which he had placed before his patient, a great 
quantitie of bloud, with manie peeces of bullocks livers, which he had 
conveied into the chamber, whilest the others eies were bound up, 
and then gave him libertie to see and behold the same. He having 
doone thus againe twoo or three times, the melancholike humor was 
so qualified, that the mans mind being satisfied, his greefe was eased, 
and his disease cured. 

Thrasibuhis, otherwise called Thrasilhis, being sore oppressed 
with this melancholike humor, imagined, that all the ships, which 
arrived at port Pyrcetts, were his : insomuch as he would number 
them, and command the mariners to lanch, &c : triumphing at their 
safe returnes, and moorning for their misfortunes. The Italian, whom 
we called here in England, the Monarch, was possessed with the like 
spirit or conceipt. Danceus him.selfe reporteth, that he sawe one, that 
affirmed constantlie that he was a cocke ; and saith that through 
melancholie, such were alienated from themselves. 

Now, if the fansie of a melancholike person may be occupied in 
causes which are both false and impossible ; why should an old witch 
be thought free from such fantasies, who (as the learned philosophers 
and physicians sale) upon the stopping of their monethlie melancholike 
flux or issue of bloud, in their age must needs increase therein, as 
(through their weaknesse both of bodie and braine) the aptest 
persons to meete with such melancholike imaginations : with whome 
their imaginations remaine, even when their senses are gone. "Which 
Bodin laboureth to disproove, therein shewing himselfe as good a 
physician, as else-where a divine. 

But if they may imagine, that they can transforme their owne 
bodies, which neverthelesse remaineth in the former shape : how 
much more credible is it, that they may falselie suppose they can hurt 
and infeeble other mens bodies ; or which is lesse, hinder the com- 
ming of butter ? &c. But what is it that they will not imagine, and 
consequentlie confesse that they can doo ; speciallie being so earnestlie 
persuaded thereunto, so sorelie tor/mented, so craftilie examined, 
with such promises of favour, as wherby they imagine, that they shall 
ever after live in great credit & welth ? &c. 

If you read the executions doone upon witches, either in times/ past 

of Witchcraft. chap. lo. 41 

in other countries, or latelie in this land ; you shall see such im- 
possibilities confessed, as none, having his right wits, will beleeve. 
Among other like false confessions, we read that there was a witch Ant.Houin. 
confessed at the time of hir death or execution, that she had raised 
all the tempests, and procured all the frosts and hard weather that 
happened in the winter 1565 : and that manie grave and wise men 
beleeved hir. 

The tenth Chapter. 

That voluniarie confessions may be unirulie made, to the tindooing 
of the confessors, and of the strana^e operation of melattcholie, 
prooved by a familiar and late example. 

UT that it may appeere, that even voluntarie confession 
(in this case) may be untrulie made, though it tend to the 
destruction of the confessor ; and that melancholic may 
nioove imaginations to that effect : I will cite a notable 
instance concerning this matter, the parties themselves being yet 
alive, and dwelling in the parish of Sellenge in Kent, and the matter 
not long sithence in this sort performed. 

One Ade Davie, the wife of Simon Davie, husbandman, being a Kentish 
reputed a right honest bodie, and being of good parentage, grew Lte'Lcident. 
suddenlie (as hir husband informed mee, and as it is well knovvne in 
these parts) to be somewhat pensive and more sad than in times past. 
Which thing though it greeved him, yet he was loth to make it so 
appeere, as either his wife might be troubled or discontented there- 
with, or his neighbours informed thereof ; least ill husbandrie should 
be laid to his charge (which in these quarters is much abhorred.) But 
when she grew from pensivenes, to some perturbation of mind ; so as 
hir accustomed rest began in the night season to be withdrawne from 
hir, through sighing and secret lamentation ; and that, not without 
teares, hee could not but demand the cause of hir conceipt and extra- 
ordina/rie moorning. But although at that time she covered the same, ^6. 
acknowledging nothing to be amisse with hir : soone after notwith- 
standing she fell downe before him on hir knees, desiring him to 
forgive hir, for she had greevouslie offended (as she said) both God 
& him. Hir poore husband being abashed at this hir behaviour, 
comforted hir, as he could ; asking hir the cause of hir trouble & 
greefe : who told him, that she had, (contrarie to Gods lawe) & to 
the offense of all good christians, to the injurie of him, & speciallie to 
the losse of hir owne soule, bargained and given hir soule to the 
divell, to be delivered unto him within short space. Whereunto hir didstian 
husband answered, saieng ; Wife, be of good cheere, this thybargaine comfort of the 

• J 1 r rr r , , .,,.-,■ , husbad to 

IS void and of none effect : for thou hast sold that which is none of his wiio. 


3. Boolie. 

The discoverie 

thine to sell ; sith it belongeth to Christ, who hath bought it, and 
''deerelie paid for it, even with his bloud, which he shed upon the 
46. crosse ; so as the divell hath no interest in thee./ After this, with like 
submission, teares, and penitence, she said unto him ; Oh husband, I 
have yet^^mmitted another fault, and doone you more injurie : for I 
have bewitched you and your children. Be content (quoth he) by the 
grace of God, Jesus Christ shall unwitch us : for none evill can 
happen to them that feare God. 

And (as trulie as the Lord liveth) this was the tenor of his words 
unto me, which I knowe is true, as proceeding from unfeigned lips, 
and from one that feareth God. Now when the time approched that 
the divell should come, and take possession of the woman, according 
to his bargaine, he watched and praied earnestlie, and caused his wife 
to read psalmes and praiers for mercie at Gods hands : and suddenlie 
about midnight, there was a great rumbling beelowe under his 
chamber windowe, which amazed them exceedinglie. For they con- 
ceived, that the divell was beelowe, though he had no power to come 
up, bicause of their fervent praiers. 
Confutation. He that noteth this womans first and second confession, freelie and 

voluntarilie made, how everie thing concurred that might serve to 
adde credit thereunto, and yeeld matter for hir condemnation, would 
not thinke, but that if Bodhi were foreman of hir inquest, he would 
crie ; Guiltie : & would hasten execution upon hir ; who would have 
57- said as much before any judge in/ the world, if she had beene 
examined ; and have confessed no lesse, if she had beene arraigned 
therupon. But God knoweth, she was innocent of anie these crimes : 
howbeit she was brought lowe and pressed downe with the weight of 
this humor, so as both hir rest and sleepe were taken awaie from hir ; 
& hir fansies troubled and disquieted with despaire, and such other 
cogitations as grew by occasion thereof. And yet I beleeve, if any 
mishap had insued to hir husband, or his children ; few witchmongers 
would have judged otherwise, but that she had bewitched them. And 
she (for hir part) so constanthe persuaded hir selfe to be a witch, 
that she judged hir selfe worthie of death ; insomuch as being reteined 
in hir chamber, she sawe not anie one carrieng a faggot to the fier, 
but she would saie it was to make a fier to burne hir for witcherie. 
But God knoweth she had bewitched none, neither insued there anie 
hurt unto anie, by hir imagination, but unto hir selfe. 

And as for the rumbling, it was by occasion of a sheepe, which was 
flawed, and hoong by the wals, so as a dog came and devoured it ; 
whereby grew the noise which I before mentioned : and she being 
now recovered, remaineth a right honest woman, far from such 
impietie, and ashamed of hir imaginations, which she perceiveth to 
have growne through melancholie. 

A comicall 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. II. 


The eleventh Chapter. 

The strange and divers effects of melancholie, and how the same 
humor abounding in witches, or rather old women, Jilleth them 
fill of tnervellous imagitiations, and that their confessions are 
not to be credited. 

H. Card, de 
var. rerum, 
cap. 8. 

Jo. IVierus 47. 
de prcest. lib. 6. 
cap. 8. 


H. Card. lib. 8 
dc var. rer. 

fUT in truth, this melancholike humor (as the best phy- 
sicians affirme) is the cause of all their strange, impossible, 
and incredible confessions :/ which are so fond, that I 
woonder how anie man can be abused thereby. Howbeit, 
these affections, though they appeare in the mind of man, yet are they 
bred in the bodie, and proceed from this humor, which is the verie 
dregs of bloud, nourishing and feeding those places, from whence pro- 
ceed feares, co/gitations, superstitions, fastings, labours, and such like. 

This maketh sufferance of torments, and (as some sale) foresight of Aristotle de 
things to come, and preserveth health, as being cold and drie : it ^<-'""''°- 
maketh men subject to leanenesse, and to the quartane ague. They 
that are vexed therewith, are destroiers of themselves, stout to suffer 
injuries, fearefuU to offer violence ; except the humor be hot. They 
learne strange toongs with small Industrie (as Aristotle and others 

If our witches phantasies were not corrupted, nor their wils con- 
founded with this humor, they would not so voluntarilie and readilie 
confesse that which calleth their life in question ; whereof they could 
never otherwise be convicted. J. Bodin with his lawyers physicke 
reasoneth contrarilie ; as though melancholic were furthest of all 
from those old women, whom we call witches : deriding the most 
famous and noble physician _/(?/;« JVier for his opinion in that behalfe. 
But bicause I am no physician, I will set a physician to him ; namelie 
Erastus, who hath these words, to wit, that These witches, through 
their corrupt phantasie abounding with melancholike humors, by 
reason of their old age, doo dreame and imagine they hurt those 
things which they neither could nor doo hurt ; and so thinke they 
knowe an art, which they neither have learned nor yet understand. 

But whie should there be more credit given to witches, when they 
saie they have made a reall bargaine with the divell, killed a cow, be- 
witched butter, infeebled a child, forespoken hir neighbour, &c : than 
when she confesseth that she transubstantiateth hir selfe, maketh it 
raine or haile, flieth in the aire, goeth invisible, transferreth corne in 
the grasse from one field to another? &:c. If you thinke that in the 
one their confessions be sound, whie should you saie that they are 
corrupt in the other ; the confession of all these things being made at 

Jo. Bod. con- 
tra Jo. Wie- 


August, lib. 
cle Tritiit. 3. 
Idem, de ci- 
vil . Dei. 
Clemens, re- 
eogn. 3 
Jo. Wienis. 
Pamfia- Cs'c 


3. Booke. 

The discove7'ie 


one instant, and affirmed with like constancie, or rather audacitie ? 
But you see the one to be impossible, and therefore you thinke 
thereby, that their confessions are vaine and false. The other you 
thinke may be doone, and see them confesse it, and therefore you 
conclude, A posse ad esse ; as being persuaded it is so, bicause you 
thinke it may be so. But I sale, both with the divines, and 
philosophers, that that which is imagined of witchcraft, hath no truth 
of action ; or being besides their ima/gination, the which (for the most 
part) is occupied in false causes. For whosoever desireth to bring to 
passe an impossible thing, hath a vaine, an idle, and a childish per- 
suasion, bred by an unsound mind : for Sana vientis vobaitas, 
vohcntas rei possibilis est ; The will of a sound mind, is the desire 
of a possible thing./ 

The twelfe Chapter. 

An objection. 

The resolution. 

A forged 


A confutation of witches confessions, especiallie concerning their 


[UT it is objected, that witches confesse they renounce the 
faith, and as their confession must be true (or else they 
would not make it :) so must their fault be worthie of 
\ death, or else they should not be executed. Whereunto 
I answer as before ; that their confessions are extorted, or else pro- 
ceed from an unsound mind. Yea I saie further, that we our selves, 
which are sound of mind, and yet seeke anie other waie of salvation 
than Christ Jesus, or breake his commandements, or walke not in 
his steps with a livelie faith, &c : doo not onlie renounce the faith, 
but God himselfe : and therefore they (in confessing that they forsake 
God, and imbrace sathan) doo that which we all should doo. As 
touching that horrible part of their confession, in the league which 
tendeth to the killing of their owne and others children, the seething 
of them, and the making of their potion or pottage, and the effects 
thereof ; their good fridaies meeting, being the dale of their deliver- 
ance, their incests, with their returne at the end of nine moneths^ 
when commonlie women be neither able to go that journie, nor ro 
returne, &c ; it is so horrible, unnaturall, unlikelie, and unpossible ; 
that if I should behold such things with mine eies, I should rather 
thinke my selfe dreaming, dronken, or some waie deprived of my 
senses ; than give credit to so horrible and filthie matters. 

How hath the oile or pottage of a sodden child such vertue, as that 
a staffe annointed therewith, can carrie folke in the aire.' Their 
potable liquor, which (they saie) maketh maisters of that fa/cultie, is it 
not ridiculous 'i And is it not, by the opinion of all philosophers, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. u. 


physicians, and divines, void of such vertue, as is imputed there- 
unto ? 

Their not fasting on fridaies, and their fasting on sundaies, their 
spetting at the time of elevation, their refusall of holie water, their 
despising of superstitious crosses, &c : which are all good steps 
to true christianitie, helpe me to confute the residue of their con- 

The xiii. Chapter. 

A confutation of witches confessions^ conce7'ning vialcing of tempests 
and raine : of the naturall cause of raine, a7id that witches or 
divels have no power to doo such things. 

InD to speake more generallie of all the impossible actions 
referred unto them, as also of their false confessions ; I 
saie, that there is none which acknowledgeth God to be 
onlie omnipotent, and the onlie worker of all miracles, 
nor anie other indued with meane sense, but will denie that the 
elements are obedient to witches, and at their commandement ; or 
that they may at their pleasure send raine, haile, tempests, thunder, 
lightening ; when she being but an old doting woman, casteth a flint 
stone o/ver hir left shoulder, towards the west, or hurleth a little sea T^^ "'?*'^^ ^^" 

' . ' , , . . , that witches 

sand up mto the element, or wetteth a broome sprig m water, and use to make 
sprinkleth the same in the aire ; or diggeth a pit in the earth, and "^^.me.&^c. 
putting water therein, stirreth it about with hir finger ; or boileth hogs ^'f^^S' ^j'^Bod 
bristles, or laieth sticks acrosse upon a banke, where never a drop Frier Barth. 
of water is ; or burieth sage till it be rotten : all which things are i)a'>"J'ifs,&'c. 
confessed by witches, and affirmed by writers to be the meanes that 
witches use to moove extraordinarie tempests and raine, &c. 

We read in M. Maleficarum, that a little girle walking abroad 
with hir father in his land, heard him complaine of drought, wishing 
for raine, &c. Whie father (quoth the child) I can make it raine/ 6i. 
or haile, when and where I list ? He asked where she learned it. 
She said, of hir mother, who forbad hir to tell anie bodie thereof. He 
asked hir how hir mother taught hir? She answered, that hir mother 
committed hir to a maister, who would at anie time doo anie thing 
for hir. Whie then (said he) make it raine but onlie in my field. And 
so she went to the streame, and threw up water in hir maisters name, 
and made it raine presentlie. And proceeding further with hir father, 
she made it haile ni another field, at hir fathers request. Hereupon 
he accused his wife, and caused hir to be burned ; and then he new 
christened his child againe : which circumstance is common among 
papists and witchmongers. And howsoever the first part hereof was 

Itlal. Male/. 
par. 2. quce. ) 
cap. 12. 

48 3 Booke. The dtscoverie 

prooved, there is no doubt but the latter part was throughlie executed. 
He that can If they could indeed bring these things to passe at their pleasure, then 

arheThat^cln might they also be impediments unto the course of all other naturall 
worke can piaie. things, and Ordinances appointed by God: as, to cause it to hold up, 
when it should raine ; and to make midnight, of high noone : and by 
those meanes (I saie) the divine power should beecome servile to the will 
of a witch, so as we could neither cat nor drinke but by their permission. 
Me thinks Seneca might satisfie these credulous or rather idolatrous 
people, that runne a whorehunting, either in bodie or phansie, after 
these witches, beleeving all that is attributed unto them, to the deroga- 
tion of Gods glorie. He saith, that the rude people, and our ignorant 
predecessors did beleeve, that raine and showers might be procured 
and staled by witches charmes and inchantments : of which kind of 
things that there can nothing be wrought, it is so manifest, that we need 
not go to anie philosophers schoole, to learne the confutation thereof, 
jere. 16, 22. 'But Jerenue, by the word of God, dooth utterlie confound all that 

which may be devised for the maintenance of that foolish opinion, 
Dii gentium saicug ; Are there any among the gods of the gentiles, that sendeth 
d^monia, raine, or giveth showers from heaven 1 Art not thou the selfe same 

T he gods of the > e> 

gentiles are our Lord God ? We will trust m thee, for thou dooest and makest 

'''^^ ^' all these things. I may therefore with Brentius boldlie saie, that It 

is neither in the power of witches nor divels, to accomplish that 
matter ; but in God onelie. For when exhalations are drawne and 
62. lifted up from out of the earth, by the power/ of the sunne, into the 
The naturall middle region of the aire, the coldnes thereof constreineth and 

hai'kand" °fn thickeucth those vapours ; which being beecome clouds, are dissolved 
againe by the heate of the sunne, wherby raine or haile is ingendred ; 
50. raine, if by the waie the drops be not frosen and made haile. These/ 
circumstances being considered with the course of the whole scrip- 
ture, it can neither be in the power of witch or divell to procure raine, 
or faire weather 

And whereas the storie of Job in this case is alledged against me 
(wherein a witch is not once named) I have particularlie answered it 
else-where. And therefore thus much onelie I sayheere ; that Even 
there, where it pleased God (as Calvhie saith) to set downe circum- 
stances for the instruction of our grosse capacities, which are not able 
to conceive of spirituall communication, or heavenlie affaires ; the 
Job 1, II. divell desireth God to stretch out his hand, and touch all that yic^^ 

hath. And though he seemeth to grant sathans desire, yet God him- 
selfe sent fire from heaven, &c. Where, it is to be gathered, that 
although God said, He is in thine hand : it was the Lords hand that 
lb verse 16. punished /^<^, and not the hand of the divell, who said not, Give me 
leave to plague him ; but, Laie thine hand upon him. And \\\i^n Job 

of Witchcraft. 

Clnp. 14. 


continued faithfull notwithstanding all his afflictions, in his children, 

bodie and goods ; the divell is said to come againe to God, and to 

sale as before, to wit : Now stretch out thine hand, and touch his Job 2, 5. 

bones and his flesh. Which argueth as well that he could not doo it, 

as that he himselfe did it not before. And be it here remem- 

bred, that M. Mai. and the residue of the witchmongers denie, ,, , ,, 

that there were any witches in Jobs time. But see more hereof pa. i, qua. 2. 


The xiiii. Chapter. 

What would ens7ie, if witches confessiofis or iui\t'\chmongers opiiiions 
ivere triie, coiiccrnitig the effects of witchcraft, inchantments, Ssr^c. 

iF it were true that witches confesse, or that all writers 
write, or that witchmongers report, or that fooles 
belceve, we should never have butter in the chearne, 
nor cow in the close, nor corne in the field, nor 
faire weather abroad, nor health within doores. Or if that which 
is conteined in M. Mai. Bodin, &c : or in the pamphlets late set 
foorth in English, of witches executions, shuld be true in those 
things that witches are said to confesse, what creature could live in 
securitie 1 Or what needed such preparation of warres, or such trouble, 
or charge in that behalfe .'' No prince should be able to reigne or live 
in the land. For (as Danceus saith) that one Marline a witch killed 
the emperour of Gennanie with witchcraft : so would our witches (if 
they could) destroie all our magistrates. One old witch might over- 
throwe an armie roiall : and then what needed we any guns, or wild 
fire, or any other instruments of warre ? A witch might supplie all 
wants, and accomplish a princes will in this behalfe, even without 
charge or bloudshed of his people. 

If it be objected, that witches worke by the divell, and christian 
princes are not to deale that way ; I answer, that few princes disposed 
to battell would make conscience therin, speciallie such as take unjust 
wars in hand, using other helpes, devises, & engines as unlawful! 
and divelish as that ; in whose campe there is neither the rule of 
religion or christian order observed : insomuch as ravishments, 
murthers, blasphemies and / thefts are there most commonlie and 
freelie committed. So that the divell is more feared, and better 
served in their camps, than God almightie. 

But admit that souldiers would be scrupulous herein, the pope 
hath authoritie to dispense therewith ; as in like case he hath / doone, 
by the testimonie of his owne authors and friends. Admit also, that 
throughout all christendome, warres were justly mainteined, and 


But these 
are false, Ergo 
the consequen- 
cies are not 


Mai. Male/. 
J. Bodin. 



3- Booke. 

TJic discoverie 

Witches in 


Pumher an 




religion dulie observed in their camps ; yet would the Turke 
and other infidels cut our throtes, or at least one anothers throte, 
with the helpe of their witches ; for they would make no conscience 

The XV. Chapter. 

Examples of forrett tiations, tvho in their warres used the assist- 
ance of witches; of eybiting witches in Irela7id, of two archers 
that shot with familiars. 

!!n the warres between the kings of Dejimarke and Sueve- 
land, is6j. the Danes doo write, that the king of 
Siievelattd caried about with him in his campe, foure 
old witches, who with their charms so qualified the 
they were thereby disabled to annoie their enimies : 
insomuch as, if they had taken in hand anie enterprise, they were 
so infeebled by those witches, as they could performe nothing. 
And although this could have no credit at the first, yet in the end, 
one of these witches was taken prisoner, and confessed the whole 
matter ; so as (saith he) the thrtds, the line, and the characters were 
found in the high waie and water plashes. 

The Irishmen addict themselves wonderfullie to the credit and 
practise hereof; insomuch as they affirme, that not onelie their children, 
but their cattell, are (as they call it) eybitten, when they fall suddenlie 
sicke, and terme one sort of their witches eybiters ; onelie in that 
respect : yea and they will not sticke to affirme, that they can rime 
either man or beast to death. Also the West hidians and Mttscovits 
doo the like : and the Hunnes (as Gregorie Tttronctisis writeth) used 
the helpe of witches in time of war. 

I find another storie written in M. Mai. repeated by Bodin ; that 
one souldier called Pumher, dailie through witchcraft killed with his 
bowe and arrowes three of the enimies, as they stood peeping over 
the walles of a castell besieged : so as in the end he killed them 
all quite, saving one. The triall of the archers sinister / dealing, 
and a proofe thereof expressed, is ; for that he never lightly failed 
when he shot, and for that he killed them by three a dale ; and had 
shot three arrowes into a rood. This was he that shot at a pennie on 
his sonnes head, and made readie another arrow, to have slaine the 
duke Remgrave that commanded it. And doubtlesse, bicause of his 
singular dexteritie in shooting, he was reputed a witch, as dooing that 
which others could not doo. nor thinke to be in the power of man to 
doo : though indeed no miracle, no witchcraft, no impossibilitie nor 
difficultie consisted therein./ 

of Ult the raft. 

Chip. i6. 

But this latter storie I can requite with a famihar example. For at 
Towne Mailing in kent, one of O. Maries justices, upon the com- 
plaint of many wise men, and a few foolish boies, laid an archer by 
the heeles ; bicause he shot so neere the white at buts. For he was 
informed and persuaded, that the poore man plaied with a flie, other- 
wise called a divell or familiar. And bicause he was certified that the 
archer aforesaid shot belter than the common shooting, which he 
before had heard of or scene, he conceived it could not be in Gods 
name, but by inchantment : whereby this archer (as he supposed by 
abusing the Oueenes liege people) gained some one daie two or three 
shillings, to the detriment of the commonwealth, and to his owne 
inriching. And therefore the archer was severelie punished, to the 
great encom-agement of archers, and to the wise example of justice ; 
but speciallie to the overthrowe of witchcraft. And now againe to 
our matter. 

The xvi. Chapter. 

Authorities condeinnimj; tkefaniasticall coii/essiofis of luitches, and 
Jwiu a popish doctor taketh upon him to disproove the same. 

ERTEIXE generall councels, by their decrees, have 
condemned the confessions and erronious credulitie 
of witches, to be vaine, fantasticall and fabulous. 
And even those, which are parcell of their league, 
whenipon our witchmongers doo so build, to wit ; their night 
walkings and meetings with Herodias, and / the Pagatt gods : at 
which time they should passe so farre in so little a space on cock- 
horsse ; their transubstantiation, their eating of children, and their 
pulling of them from their mothers sides, their entring into mens 
houses, through chinks and little holes, where a flie can scarselie 
wring out, and the disquieting of the inhabitants, &€: all which are 
not onelie said by a generall councell to be meere fantasticall, and 
imaginations in dreames ; but so affirmed by the ancient writers. 
The words of the councell are these ; It may not be omitted, that 
certeine wicked women following sathans provocations, being seduced 
by the illusion of divels, beleeve and professe, that in the night times 
they ride abroad with Diana, the goddesse of the Pagans, or else with 
Herodias, with an innumerable multitude, upon certeine beasts, and 
passe over manie countries and nations, in the silence of the night, 
and doo whatsoever those fairies or ladies command, &c. And it 
followeth even there ; Let all ministers therefore in their severall cures, 
preach to Gods people, so as they may knowe all these things to be 
false, &c. It followeth in the same councell; Therefore, whosoever 
beleeveth that any creature may be either created by them, or else 

A skih'u!! 
archer punished 
by an unskilfull 


Co « i'll^-i cq u in lis 
5. can. efiscopi. 
August, de spiri- 
tu S^ anima cap. 
8. Franc. Pon- 
zivib. tract de 
lam. numcro 49. 
Grillandus de 
sort, numero. 6. 


3- Booke. 

The discoverie 

In histor. vel 
vita sancti Ger- 


Novus Mai. 
Mai in qvce. de 
strigib. cap. 2i. 
22. 23, St'c. 


Bar. Spineus. 
Mai. Male/, 
lap. 2-?. in qzicv. 
de sirigib. 

changed into better or worsse, or be any way transformed into any 
other kind or likenes of any, but of the creator himselfe, is assurcdlie 
an infidel], and woorsse than a Pagan. 

And if this be credible, then all these their bargaines and assem- 
blies, &c : are incredible, which are onelie ratified by certeine foolish 
and extorted confessions ; and by a fable of S. Germane., who 
watched the fairies or witches, being at a reere banket, and through 
his holinesse/ staled them, till he sent to the houses of those neigh- 
bours, which seemed to be there, and found them all in bed ; and so 
tried, that these were divels in the likenesse of those women. Which 
if it were as true, as it is false, it might serve well to confute this 
their meeting and night-walking. For if the divels be onlie present 
in the likenesse of witches, then is that false, which is attributed to 
witches in this behalfe. 

But bicause the old hammar of Sprcnger and Institor, in their 

old Malleo Alalejicarum, was insufficient to knocke downe this 

councell ; a yoong beetle-head called Frier BariJioloviccns Spineus 

hath made a new leaden beetle, to beate downe the councell, and 

to kill these old women. Wherein he counterfeiting / Aesops asse, 

claweth the pope with his heeles : affirming upon his credit, that the 

councell is false and erronious ; bicause the doctrine swarveth from 

the popish church, and is not authenticall but apocryphall ; saieng 

(though untrulie) that that councell was not called by the commande- 

ment and pleasure of the pope, nor ratified by his authoritie, which 

(saith he) is sufficient to disanuU all councels. For surelie (saith this 

frier, which at this instant is a cheefe inquisitor) if the words of this 

councell were to be admitted, both I, and all my predecessors had 

published notorious lies, and committed manie injurious executions ; 

whereby the popes themselves also might justlie be detected of error, 

contrarie to the catholike beleefe in that behalfe. Alarrie he saith, 

that although the words and direct sense of this councell be quite 

contrarie to truth and his opinion ; yet he will make 

an exposition thereof, that shall somewhat mitigate 

the lewdnes of the same ; and this he saith 

is not onlie allowable to doo, but 

also meritorious. Marke 

the mans words, 

and judge his 


of WitcJicyaft. chap. !«. 53 

The xvii. Chapter. 

Witchtnojigers reasons, to proove that witches can worke wonders, 
Bodlns tale of a Friseland preest ti'atisported, that imaginations, 
proceeding of melancholie doo cause illiisio7is. 

LD M. Maleficartim also saith, that the councels and ^^'^^l^ Mah-f. 
doctors were all deceived heerein, and alledging authoritie Guu'. Parisl. 
therfore, confuteth that opinion by a notable reason, 
called Petitio principii, or rather, Ignotuni per igno- 
tiiis, in this maner : They can put changlings in the place of 
other children ; Ergo they can transferre and transforme them- 
selves and others, &c : according to their confession in that behalfe. 
Item he saith, and Bodiji justifieth it, that a preest in Friseland 
was corporallie transferred into a farre countrie, as witnessed 
another preest of Oberdorf his companion, who saw him aloft 
in the aire : Ergo saith M. Mai. they have all beene decei/ved 6S. 
hitherto, to the great impunitie of horrible witches. Wherein he 
opposeth his follie against God and his church, against the truth, and 
against all possibilitie. But surelie it is almost incredible, how 
imagination shall abuse such as are subject unto melancholie ; so as 
they shall beleeve they see, heare, and doo that, which never was 
nor shall be ; as is partlie declared, if you read Galen De locis 
affectis, and may more / plainelie appeere also if you read Aristotle 54- 
De somnio. 

And thereof S. Augustine saith well, that he is too much a foole Aupist. de 
and a blockhead, that supposeth those things to be doone indeed, ^^"' " 
and corporallie, which are by such persons phantasticallie imagined : 
which phantasticall illusions do as well agree and accord (as Algerus Lib. i. caf. 7. 
saith) with magicall deceipts, as the veritie accompanieth divine '^"'''""^"""'• 

The xvlii. Chapter. 

That the confession of witches is ijtsufficient in civil I and common 
lawe to take azuaie life. What the sounder divines, and decrees 
of councels determine in this case. 

|LAS ! what creature being sound in state of mind, li is not likeiie 
would (without compulsion) make such maner of con- d''ou':'£ri^''a'iie. 
fessions as they do ; or would, fo. a trifle, or nothing 

. make a perfect bargaine with the divell for hir soule, 

to be yeelded up unto his tortures and everlasting flames, and 
that within a verie short time ; speciallie being through age most 


3- Booke. 

The discoveric 


August, de civit. 
Dei. Is id or. lib. 
(«. cap. 9.) 
Etymol. 26. qua:. 
5. ca. 7iec 
Ponzivibius de 
la mi is, voluvi. 

L. error, &= L. 
cum post. c. de 
juris (sf facti 
ignor. ac in L. 
de cetat. §. item 
de inter rag. 

Per glos. Bal. 
(^ alios in L. 
\. c. de confes. 
glos. nee. si de 
confes. in 6. § ad 
leg. Aquil L. 
Neracius. 5. fiti. 
Ut per Bald. &- 
A ugust. in L. I. 
c. de confess, 
presumt<. litems. 
Per Bald, in d. 
leg. ijc. 
Extra, de test 
cum Uteris. 
3 quasi. 5- 55. 
cap. II. 

commonlie unlike to live one whole yeare ? The terror of hell 
fire must needs be to them diverslie manifested, and much more 
terrible ; bicause of their weaknesse, nature, and kind, than to any 
other : as it would appeere, if a witch were but asked, Whether 
she would be contented to be hanged one yeare hence, upon 
condition hir displesure might be wreked upon hir enimie pre- 
sentlie. As for theeves, & such other, they thinke not to go 
to hell fire; but are either persuaded there is no hell, or that 
their crime deserveth it not, or else that they have time e/nough 
to repent : so as, no doubt, if they were perfectlie resolved heereof, 
they would never make such adventures. Neither doo I thinke, that 
for any summe of monie, they would make so direct a bargaine to go 
to hell fire. Now then I conclude, that confession in this behalf is 
insufficient to take awaie the life of any body ; or to atteine such 
credit, as to be beleeved without further proofe. For as Augustine 
and Isidore., with the rest of the sounder divines sale, that these 
prestigious things, which are wrought by witches are fantasticall : so 
doo the sounder decrees of councels and canons agree, that in that 
case, there is no place for criminall action. And the lawe saith, that 
The confession of such persons as are illuded, must needs be 
erronious, and therefore is not to be admitted ; for, Confessio 
debet tenere verum dr' possibile. But these things are opposite 
both to lawe and nature, and therfore it followeth not; Bicause these 
witches confesse so. Ergo it is so. For the confession ditfereth 
from the act, or from the possibilitie of the act. And whatsoever is 
contrarie to nature faileth in his principles, and therefore is naturallie 

The lawe also saith. In criminalibus regiilaritcr non statur 
soli confessioni rei, In criminall cases or touching life, we must not 
absolutelie stand to the confession of the accused partie : but in 
these matters proofes must be brought more cleare than the light it 
selfe. And in this crime no bodie must be condemned upon pre- 
sumptions. And where it is objected and urged, that Since God 
onelie knoweth the thoughts, therefore there is none other %vaie of 
proofe/ but by confession : It is answered thus in the lawe, to wit: 
Their confession in this case conteineth an outward act, and the same 
impossible both in lawe and nature, and also unlikelie to be true ; 
and therefore Quod verisiniile non est, attendi non debet. So 
as, though their confessions may be worthie of punishment, as 
whereby they shew a will to commit such mischeefe, yet not worthie 
of credit, as that they have such power. For, Si factum absit, 
soldque opinione laborent., e stultoruni genere sunt ; If they con- 
fesse a fact performed but in opinion, they are to be reputed 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. iq. 


among the number of fooles. Neither may any man be by lawe con- 
demned for criminall causes, upon presumptions, nor yet by single 
witnesses : neither at the accusation of a capitall enimie, who indeed 
is not to be admitted to give evidence in this case ; though it please/ 70, 
M. Mai. and Bodin to affirme the contrarie. But beyond all equitie, 
these inquisitors have shifts and devises enow, to plague and kill 
these poore soules : for (they say) their fault is greatest of all others ; 
bicause of their carnall copulation with the divell, and therefore they 
are to be punished as heretikes, foure maner of waies : to wit ; with 
excommunication, deprivation, losse of goods, and also with death. 

And indeede they find lawe, and provide meanes thereby to 
mainteine this their bloudie humor. For it is written in their popish 
canons, that As for these kind of heretikes, how much soever they affirmed by 
repent and returne to the faith, they may not be retemed alive, or kept 
in perpetuall prison ; but be put to extreame death. Yea, M. Mai. 
writeth, that A witches sinne is the sinne against the Holie-ghost ; to 
wit, irremissible : yea further, that it is greater than the sinne of the 
angels that fell. In which respect I wonder, that Moses delivered not 
three tables to the children of Israeli ; or at the leastwise, that he ex- 
hibited not commandements for it. It is not credible that the greatest 
should be included in the lesse, (S:c. 

But when these witchmongers are convinced in the objection 
concerning their confessions ; so as thereby their tyrannicall argu- 
ments cannot prevaile, to imbrue the magistrates hands in so much 
bloud as their appetite requireth : they fall to accusing them of other 
crimes, that the world might thinke they had some colour to 
mainteine their malicious furie against them. 

Mai. male/. 
i;tue J. 14. pa. 

C. de male/. L. 
nullus. Lnemo. 
is L. culpa, and 

Mai. male/, 
quasi. 17. 

The xix. Chapter. 

Of fotci-e capitall crimes objected against zuiiches, allfullie ansicered 
and confuted as frivolous. 

IRST therefore they laie to their charge idolatrie. But 
alas without all reason : for such are properlie knowne 
to us to be idolaters, as doo externall worship to idols 
or strange gods. The furthest point that idolatrie can 
be stretched unto, is, that they, which are culpable therein, are 
such as hope for and seeke salvation at / the hands of idols, or of 7^ 
anie other than God ; or fix their whole mind and love upon 
anie creature, so as the power of God be neglected and con- 
temned thereby. But witches nei/ther seeke nor beleeve to have 
salvation at the hands of divels, but by them they are onlie 
deceived ; the instruments of their phantasie being corrupted, and 

I. Idolatrie, con- 



56 3. Booke. TJie di score He 

so infatuated, that they suppose, confesse, and saie they can doo 
that, which is as farre beyond their power and nature to doo, as to 
kill a man at Yorke before noone, when they have beene scene at 
Lotidon in that morning, &c. But if these latter idolaters, whose 
idolatrie is spirituall, and committed onelie in mind, should be 
punished by death ; then should everie covetous man, or other, that 
setteth his affection anie waie too much upon an earthlie creature, be 
executed, and yet perchance the witch might escape scotfree. 
Apostasie, Sccondlic, apostasie is laid to their charge, whereby it is inferred, 

that they are worthie to die. But apostasie is, where anie of sound 
judgement forsake the gospell, learned and well knowne unto them ; 
and doo not onelie imbrace impietie and infidelitie ; but oppugne and 
resist the truth erstwhile by them pi-ofessed. But alas these poore 
women go not about to defend anie impietie, but after good ad- 
monition repent. 

3. Seducing of Thirdlic, they would have them executed for seducing the people, 
the people, g^j. Qq^ knowcth they have small store of Rhetorike or art to seduce : 

contutea. ■' _ ' 

except to tell a tale of Robin good-fellow be to deceive and seduce. 
Neither may their age or sex admit that opinion or accusation to be 
just : for they themselves are poore seduced soules. I for my part 
(as else-where I have said) have prooved this pomt to be false in 
most apparent sort. 

4. Carnaii copu- Fourthlie, as touching the accusation, which all the writers use 

lation with In- , . .' , ^ ^ . . ,, ' , . . , ^ , , 

cubus, confuted, herem agamst them for then- carnall copulation with riicJibiis : the 
follie of mens credulitie is as much to be woondered at and derided, as 
the others vaine and iinpossible confessions. For the divell is a 
spirit, and hath neither flesh nor bones, which were to be used in the 
performance of this action. And since he also lacketh all instruments, 
substance, and seed ingendred of bloud ; it were follie to stale over- 
long in the confutation of that, which is not in the nature of things. 
And yet must I saie somewhat heerein, bicause the opinion hereof is 
72. so stronglie and universallie received, / and the fables hereupon so in- 
numerable ; wherby M. Mai. Bodi'n, Heminguis, Hyperuis, Danccus, 
Jtrasfi^s, and others that take upon them to write heerein, are so abused, 
or rather seeke to abuse others ; as I woonder at their fond credulitie 
in this behalfe. For they affirme undoubtedlie, that the divell plaieth 

How the divell Siiccubtis to the man, and carrieth from him the seed of generation, 

plaieth Succubus ■,■■<■,■, t- ^ t i i i 

and Incubus. which he delivcreth as Incitbus to the woman, who manie 

times that waie is gotten with child ; which will 

verie naturallie (they saie) become a 

witch, and such a one they 

affirme Merline 

of Witchcraft. cimp. 20. 57 

The XX. Chapter. 

A request to such readers as loath to hcare or read Jilthic and 
bawdie matters (zvhicii of iiecessitie are heere to be inserted) to 
passe over eight chapters. 

'UT in so much as I am driven (for the more manifest A peroration to 

^ _ _ the readers. 

bewraieng and displaieng of this most filthie and 

horrible error) to staine my paper with / writing thereon 57- 

certeine of their beasthe and bawdie assertions and 

examples, whereby they confirme this their doctrine (being my 

selfe both ashamed, and loth once to thinke upon such filthi- 

nesse, although it be to the condemnation thereof) I must intreat 

you that are the readers hereof, whose chaste eares cannot well 

endure to heare of such abhominable lecheries, as are gathered out of 

the bookes of those witchmongers (although doctors of divinitie, and 

otherwise of great authoritie and estimation) to turne over a few 

leaves, wherein (I sale) I have like a groome thrust their bawdie 

stufife (even that which I my selfe loath) as into a stinking 

corner : howbeit, none otherwise, I hope, but 

that the other parts of my writing 

shall remaine sweet, and 

this also covered as 

close as may 



4. Buoks. 

The discoverie 

73- 85. 

3fa/. male/, 
par. 2. cap. 4. 
gufFst. I. 

If his bodilie 
eies were out, he 
would see but 


Nider in forni- 


T. Brabant in 

lib. de apib. 

If The fourth Booke. 

The first Chapter. 

Of ivitcJanongers opinions coficernifig evill spirits, how they frame 
themselves in more excellent sort than God made us. 

AMES SPRENGER and Henrie Institor, in M. Mai. 
agreing with Bodin, Earth. Spineus, Danaus, Eras- 
tus, Hemingius, and the rest, doo make a bawdie 
discourse ; labouring to proove by a fooHsh kind of 
philosophie, that evill spirits cannot onlie take earthlie forms 
and shapes of men ; but also counterfeit hearing, seeing, &c ; and 
likewise, that they can eate and devoure meats, and also reteine, 
digest, and avoid the same : and finalHe, use diverse kinds of activi- 
ties, but speciallie excell in the use and art of venerie. For M. Mai. 
saith, that The eies and eares of the mind are farre more subtill than 
bodilie eies or carnall eares. Yea it is there affirmed, that as they 
take bodies, and the likenesse of members ; so they take minds and 
similitudes of their operations. But by the way, I would have them 
answer this question. Our minds and soules are spirituall things. If 
our corporall eares be stopped, what can they heare or conceive of 
anie externall wisedome? And truelie, a man of such a constitution 
of bodie, as they imagine of these spirits, which make themselves, 
&c : were of farre more excellent substance, &c : than the bodies of 
them that God made in paradise ; and so the divels workmanship 
should exceed the handle worke of God the father and creator of all 
things. / 

The second Chapter. 

Of bawdie Incubus and Siiccubus, and whether the action of 
venerie may be performed bctweene witches and divels, and when 
witches first yeelded to hicubus. 

JERETOFORE (they saie) Incubus was faine to ravish 
women against their will, untill Anno. 1400 : but now 
since that time witches consent willinglie to their 
desires : in so much as some one witch exerciseth 

that trade of lecherie with Incubus twentie or thirtie yeares togither ; 

as was confessed by fourtie and eight witches burned at Ravcnspurge. 

of ]]'itcJicraft. chap. 2. 59 

But what goodlie fellowes Incubus begetteth upon these witches, 

is prooved by TJiouias of Aquine, Bodiu, M. Mai. Hypetius, in. scn.dist. ^. 

^ art. 4. 

This is prooved first by the divels cunning, in discerning the dif- Gen, 6, 4. 
ference of the seed which falleth from men. Secondlie, by his under- 
standing of the aptnes of the women for the receipt of such seed. 
ThirdUe by his knowledge of the constellations, which are freendlie to 
such corporall effects. And lastlie, by the excellent complexion of 
such as the divell maketh choice of, to beget such notable personages 
upon, as are the/ causes of the greatnesse and excellencie of the child 59. 
thus begotten. 

And to proove that such bawdie dooings betwixt the divell and Mai. maUf. 
witches is not fained, S. Augustine is alledged, who saith, that All ^^!^-^;J"f; ' 
superstitious arts had their beginning of the pestiferous societie doctrina Chrht. 
betwixt the divell and man. Wherein he saith truelie ; for that in 
paradise, betwixt the divell and man, all wickednes was so contrived, 
that man ever since hath studied wicked arts : yea and the divell will 
be sure to be at the middle and at both ends of everie mischeefe. 
But that the divell ingendreth with a woman, in maner and forme 
as is supposed, and naturallie begetteth the wicked, neither is it true, 
nor Augtistines meaning in this place. 

Howbeit M. Mai. proceedeth, affirming that All witches take/ their 75. 
beginning from such filthie actions, wherein the divell, in likenes of 
a prettie wench, lieth prostitute as Succubics lo the man, and reteining 
his nature and seede, conveieth it unto the witch, to whome he deli- 
vereth it as Incubus. Wherein also is refuted the opinion of them 
that hold a spirit to be unpalpable. M. Mai. saith, There can be nai male/. 
rendred no infallible rule, though a probable distinction may be set i"^- '•/■'«'• '• 
downe, whether Incubus in the act of venerie doo alwaies powre seed 
out of his assumed bodie. And this is the distinction ; Either she is 
old and barren, or yoong and pregnant. If she be barren, then dooth 
Incubus use hir without decision of seed ; bicause such seed should 
serve for no purpose. And the divell avoideth superfluitie as much 
as he may ; and yet for hir pleasure and condemnation togither, he 
goeth to worke with hir. But by the waie, if the divell were so com- 
pendious, what should he need to use such circumstances, even in 
these verie actions, as to make these assemblies, conventicles, cere- 
monies, &c : when he hath alreadie bought their bodies, and bar- 
gained for their soules ? Or what reason had he, to make them kill 
so manie infants, by whom he rather loseth than gaineth any thing ; 
bicause they are, so farre as either he or we knowe, in better case than 
we of riper yeares by reason of their innocencie ? Well, if she be not 
past children, then stealeth he seed awaie (as hath beene said) from 



The discoveric 

Mai. nialef. 
par. I. quce. i. 
Da7ttfus hi 
dialog, de 

Ja. St'rengtr 
in Mai. male. 

some wicked man being about that lecherous busines, and therewith 
getteth yoong witches upon the old. 

And note, that they affirme that this businesse is better accomplished 
with seed thus gathered, than that which is shed in dremes, through 
superfluitie of humors : bicause that is gathered from the vertue of the 
seed generative. And if it be said that the seed will wax cold by the 
waie, and so lose his natural! heate, and consequentlie the vertue : 
M. Mai. DancEus, and the rest doo answere, that the divell can so 
Carrie it, as no heate shall go from it, &c. 

Furthermore, old witches are sworne to procure as manie yoong 
virgins for Inciibus as they can, whereby in time they growe to be 
excellent bawds : but in this case the preest plaieth Incubus. For 
you shall find, that confession to a preest, and namelie this word 
Befiedicite., driveth hicubus awaie, when Ave Maries, crosses, and all 
other charmes faile./ 

This was doone 
at Ravenspurge. 

60. yd. The third Chapter. 

Of the divels visible fir* invisible dealitig with ivitches in the waie 
of lecher ie. 

lUT as touching the divels visible or invisible execution 
of lecherie, it is written, that to such witches, as before 
have made a visible legue with the preest, (the divell 
I should saie) there is no necessitie that Incubus should 
appeere invisible : marrie to the standers by hee is for the most 
part invisible. For proofe hereof fames Sprenger and Institor 
affirme, that Manie times witches are seene in the fields, and 
woods, prostituting themselves uncovered and naked up to the navill, 
wagging and mooving their members in everie part, according to the 
disposition of one being about that act of concupiscence, and yet no- 
thing seene of the beholders upon hir ; saving that after such a con- 
venient time as is required about such a peece of worke, a blacke 
vapor of the length and bignesse of a man, hath beene seene as it 
were to depart from hir, and to ascend from that place. Neverthe- 
Mal. Male/. lesse, manie times the husband seeth Incubus making him cuckhold, 
in the likenesse of a man, and sometimes striketh off his head with 
his sword : but bicause the bodie is nothing but aire, it closelh 
togither againe : so as, although the goodwife be some times hurt 
thereby ; yet she maketh him beleeve he is mad or possessed, & that 
he dooth he knoweth not what. For she hath more pleasure and 
delight (they say) with Incubus that waie, than with anie mortall 
man : whereby you may perceive that spirits are palpable. / 

of Witchcraft. chap. 4. 61 

The fourth Chapter. 77. 

That the power ofgenefation is both outwardlie and inwardlie itn- 
peached by witches, and of divers that had their genitals taken 
from tJiem by witches, and by the same vieanes againe restored. 

IJHEY also affirme, that the vertue of generation is 
impeached by witches, both inwardHe, and outward- 
lie : for intrinsecallie they represse the courage, and 
LJS^ I they stop the passage of the mans seed, so as it may 
not descend to the vessels of generation : also they hurt extrinse- 
callie, with images, hearbs, &c. And to proove this true, you shall 
heare certeine stories out of M. Mai. worthie to be noted. 

A yoong priest at Mesptirge in the diocesse of Co7istance was be- Mai. Male/. 
witched, so as he had no power to occupie any other or mo women ^"A^^- ?'"*■■ •• 
than one ; and to be delivered out of that thraldom, sought to flie into 
another countrie, where he might use that preestlie occupation more 
freelie. But all in vaine ; for evermore he was brought as far back- 
ward by night, as he went forward in the daie before ; sometimes by 
land, sometimes in the aire, as though he flew. And if this be not 
true, I am sure that fames Sprenger dooth lie. 

For the further confirmation of our beleefe in Incubtts, M. Mai. 
citeth a storie of a notable matter executed at Ravensptirge, as true 
and as cleanlie/ as the rest. A yoong man lieng with a wench in that 61. 
towne (saith he) was faine to leave his instruments of venerie behind 
him, by meanes of that prestigious art of witchcraft : so as in that 
place nothing could be scene or felt but his plaine bodie. This yoong 
man was willed by another witch, to go to hir whom he suspected, 
and by faire or fowle meanes to require hir helpe : who soone after 
meeting with hir, intreated hir faire, but that was in vaine ; and there- 
fore he caught hir by the throte, and with a towell strangled hir, 
saieng : Restore me my/ toole, or thou shalt die for it : so as she being yS. 
swolne and blacke in the face, and through his boisterous handling 
readie to die, said ; Let me go, and I will helpe thee. And whilest he 
was loosing the towell, she put hir hand into his codpeece, and 
touched the place ; saieng ; Now hast thou thy desire : and even at 
that instant he felt himselfe restored. 

Item, a reverend father, for his life, holinesse, and knowledge 7'2- Sfimger. in 
notorious, being a frier of the order and companie of Spire, reported, far.2"qt/^.i. 
that a yoong man at shrift made lamentable moane unto him for the 
like losse : but his gravitie suffered him not to beleeve lightlie any 
such reports, and therefore made the yoong man untrusse his cod- 
peece point, and sawe the complaint to be true and just. Whereupon 


4. Booke. 

The discovei'ie 

Mai. male/. 
cap. 7. par. 2. 
quast. 1. 


62. 79- 

In vita Hie- 

Sainctsas holie 
and chaste as 
horsses &" 

he advised or rather injoined the youth to go to the witch whome he 
suspected, and with flattering words to intreat hir, to be so good unto 
him, as to restore him his instrument : which by that meanes he ob- 
teined, and soone after returned to shew himselfe thankfull ; and told 
the holie father of his good successe in that behalfe : but he so be- 
leeved him, as he would needs be Oailatits testis., and made him pull 
downe his breeches, and so was satisfied of the troth and certeintie 

Another yoong man being in that verie taking, went to a witch for 
the restitution thereof, who brought him to a tree, where she shewed 
him a nest, and bad hint clime up and take it. And being in the top 
of the tree, he tooke out a mightie great one, and shewed the same to 
hir, asking hir if he might not have the same. Naie (cjuoth she) 
that is our parish preests toole, but take anie other which thou wilt. 
And it is there affirmed, that some have found 20. and some 30. of 
them in one nest, being there preserved with provender, as it were 
at the racke and manger, with this note, wherein there is no con- 
tradiction (for all must be true that is written against witches) that 
If a witch deprive one of his privities, it is done onlie by prestigious 
meanes, so as the senses are but illuded. Marie by the divell it is 
reallie taken awaie, and in like sort restored. These are no jestes, for 
they be written by them that were and are judges upon the lives and 
deaths of those persons. / 

The fift Chapter. 

Of bishop Sylvanus his leacherie opetted and covered againe, Jiow 
maides having yellow haire are most combred with Incubus, how 
inaried men are bewitched to t(se other metis wives, and to 
refuse their own. 

OU shall read in the legend, how in the night time 
Incubus came to a ladies bed side, and made hot loove 
unto hir : whereat she being offended, cried out so lowd, 
that companie came and found him under hir bed in the 
likenesse of the holie bishop Sylvanus, which holie man was much 
defamed therebie, untill at the length this infamie was purged by the 
confession of a divell made at S. Jeroms toombe. Oh excellent 
peece of witchcraft or cousening wrought by Sylvanus ! Item, S. 
Christine would needes take unto hir another maides Incubus, and 
lie in hir roome : and the storie saith, that she was shrewdlie accloied. 
But she was a shrew indeed, that would needes change beds with 
hir fellow, that was troubled everie night with Incubus, and deale 
with him hir selfe. But here the inquisitors note maie not be for- 

of Witchc7'aft. 

Chap. 6. 

gotten, to wit : that Maides having yellow haire are most molested Maides having 

.... . . . , . . . . , 1 ,- ^. T. » yellow haire. 

With this spirit. Also it is written in the Legend, of S. Barfiara, 

that a pretie wench that had had the use of Inaebns his bodie by the 

space of six or seven yeares in Aquitania (being beelike wearie of 

him for that he waxed old) would needes go to S. Barnard another 

while. But Inaibus told hir, that if she would so forsake him, being 

so long hir true loover, he would be revenged upon hir, &c. But 

befall what would, she went to S. Barnard^ who tooke hir his staffe, 

and bad her laie it in the bed besides hir. And indeed the divell 

fearing the bedstaffe, or that S. Barnard laie there himselfe, durst 

not approch into hir chamber that night : what he did afterwards, 

I am uncerteine. Marrie you may find other circumstances hereof, 

and manie other like bawdie lies in the golden Legend. But here 

againe we maie not forget the in/quisitors note, to wit; that manie Mal.MaUf.8o. 

are so bewitched that they cannot use their owne wives : but anie ^^^; j" '^""^' ^' 

other bodies they maie well enough away withall. Which witchcraft 

is practised among manie bad husbands, for whom it were a good 

excuse to saie they were bewitched. 

The sixt Chapter. 

How to p7'ocure the dissolving of bewitched love, also to enforce 
a man (how proper so ever he be) to love an old hag : and of a 
bawdie tricke of a priest in Gelderland. 

!|HE priests saie, that the best cure for a woman thus 
molested, nex', to confession, is excommunication. But 
to procure the dissolving of bewitched and constrained 
love, the partie bewitched must make a jakes of the 
lovers shooe. And to enforce a man, how proper so ever he be, to 
love an old hag, she giveth unto him to eate (among other meates) 
hir owne doong : and this waie one old witch made three abbats of 
one house succes/sivelie to die for hir love as she hir selfe confessed, 63. 
by the report of M. Mai. In 6*d'/rt'^r/rt:;/c/ a priest persuaded a sicke of a bawdie 
woman that she was bewitched ; and except he might sing a masse 
upon hir bellie, she could not be holpen. Whereunto she consented, 
and laie naked on the altar whilest he sang masse, to the satis- 
fieng of his lust ; but not to the ^release of hir greefe. 
Other cures I will speake of in other places more 
civill. Howbeit, certeine miraculous 
cures, both full of bawderie and 
lies, must either have 
place here, or 
none at all.,' 

priest in Gelder- 

[* ? releate.] 


4- Booke. 

The discoverie 


In coll. pairuni. 

Gregor. lib. i. 
dial. 2. 

In vitis fatrum. 
Heraclides in 


Nidi-t in forni- 

The seventh Chapter. 

Of divers saincts and holie persons, which 'we?-e exceeding bawdie 
and lecherous, and by cerieitie miraculous weaties becatne chaste. 

ASSIANUS writeth, that S. Syren being of bodie verie 

lecherous, and of mind woonderfull religious, fasted and 

praied ; to the end his bodie might be reduced miracu- 

louslie to chastitie. At length came an angell unto him 

by night, and cut out of his flesh certeine kernels, which were the 

sparkes of concupiscence ; so as afterwards he never had anie more 

motions of the flesh. It is also reported, that the abbat Eqiiicius 

being naturallie as unchast as the other, fell to his beads so devoutlie 

for recoverie of honestie, that there came an angell unto him in an 

apparition, that seemed to geld him ; and after that (forsooth) he 

was as chaste as though he had had never a stone in his breech ; and 

before that time being a ruler over monkes, he became afterwards a 

governour over nunnes. Even as it is said Helias the holie monke 

gathered thirtie virgins into a monasterie, over whom he ruled and 

reigned by the space of two yeares, and grew so proud and hot in the 

codpeece, that he was faine to forsake his holie house, and flie to a 

desert, where he fasted and praied two daies, saieng ; Lord quench 

my hot lecherous humors, or kill me. Whereupon in the night 

following, there came unto him three angels, and demanded of him 

why he forsooke his charge : but the holie man was ashamed to tell 

them. Howbeit they asked him further, saieng ; Wilt thou returne 

to these damsels, if we free thee from all concupiscence ? Yea (quoth 

he) with all my heart. And when they had sworne him solemnelie so 

to doo, they tooke him up, & gelded him ; and one of them holding 

his hands, and another his feete, the third cut out his stones. But the 

storie saith it was not so ended, but in a vision. Which I beleeve, 

because within five daies he returned to his minions, who pitiouslie 

moorned for him all this/ while, and joyfullie embraced his sweete 

companie at his returne. The like storie dooth Nider write 

of Thomas, whome two angels cured of that 

lecherous disease ; by putting about 

him a girdle, which they 

brought downe with 

them from 


oj Witchcraft. 

Chap. 8. 


The eight Chapter. 

Certeine popish and Jiiagicall cures, for them that are hewitcJied in 
their privities. 

I OR direct cure to such as are bewitched in the privie 
members, the first and speciall is confession : then follow 
in a row, holie water, and / those ceremoniall trumperies, 64- 
Ave Maries, and all maner of crossings ; which are all 
said to be wholesome, except the witchcraft be perpetuall, and in 
that case the wife maie have a divorse of course. 

Item, the eating of a haggister or pie helpeth one bewitched in AUter. 
that member. 

Item, the smoke of the tooth of a dead man. Aiiter. 

Item, to annoint a mans bodie over with the gall of a crow. Aiiter. 

Item, to fill a quill with quicke silver, and laie the same under the 
cushine, where such a one sitteth, or else to put it under the threshold 
of the doore of the house or chamber where he dwelleth. 

Item, to spet into your owne bosome, if you be so bewitched, is Aiiter. 
verie good. 

Item, to pisse through a wedding ring. If you would know who is AUter. 
hurt in his privities by witchcraft ; and who otherwise is therein 
diseased, Hostiensis answereth : but so, as I am ashamed to english 
it : and therefore have here set downe his experiment in Latine ; 
Quando virga nullateniis inovein?; 6~» nunquam potuit cognoscere ; 
hoc est sig7ium frigiditatis : sed quando niovetiir &^ erigitur, perficere 
atitem non potest, est signuin maleficii. 

But Sir Th. Moore hath such a cure in this matter, as I am 
ashamed to write, either in Latine or English : for in filthie baw- 
derie it passeth all the tales that ever I heard. But that is / rather 
a medicine to procure generation, than the cure of witchcraft, though 
it serve both turnes. 

Item, when ones instrument of venerie is bewitched, certeine AUter. 
characters must be written in virgine parchment, celebrated and 
holied by a popish priest ; and thereon also must the 141. Psalme be 
written, and bound Ad viri fascinati coxani. 

Item, one Katharine Loe (having a husband not so readilie disposed AUter. 
that waie as she wished him to be) made a waxen image to the 
likenes of hir husbands bewitched member, and offered it up at S. 
Atithonies altar; so as, through the holinesse of the masse it might be 
sanctified, to be more couragious, and of better disposition and 
abihtie, &c. 


S. Thomas 
Moores, medicin- 
able receipt, &c. 



4. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Jaso. PraUnsh 
de cerebri morbo, 
ca. i6. 



The priest is 
opinionative in 
the error of his 

The ninth Chapter. 

A strange cure doone to one that was molested with Incubiis. 

OW being wearied with the rehearsall of so mania 

lecheries most horrible, and very filthie and fabulous 

actions and passions of witches, together with the spirit 

Inaibus, I will end with a true storie taken out of Jason 

Pratensis, which though it be rude, yet is it not altogither so 

uncleane as the rest. 

There came (saith he) of late a masse priest unto me, making 
pitious moane, and saieng, that if I holpt him not, he should be 
undoone, and utterlie overthrowne ; so great was his infirmitie : for 
(saith he) I was woont to be faire and fat, and of an excellent com- 
plexion ; and lo how I looke, being now a verie ghost consisting of 
skinne and bone, &c. What is the matter (quoth Jason ?) I will 
shew you sir, said the priest. There commeth unto mee, almost 
everie night, a certeine woman, unknowne unto me, and/ lieth so 
heavie upon my brest, that I cannot fetch rny breath, neither have 
anie power to crie, neither doo my hands serve me to shoove hir 
awaie, nor my feete to go from hir. I smiled {(]}xo\\\ Jasoii) and told 
him that he was vexed with a disease called In\ciibns, or the mare ; 
and the residue was phantasie and vaine imagination. Naie (said 
the priest) it cannot be so: for by our blessed ladie, I tell you 
nothing but that with waking I saw with mine eies, "and felt with 
mine hands. I see hir when she commeth upon me, and strive to 
repell hir; but I am so infeebled that I cannot: and for remedie I 
have runne about from place to place, but no helpe that I could get. 
At length I went to an old frier that was counted an od fellow ; arid 
thought to have had help at his hands, but the divell a whit had I of 
him ; saving that for remedie he willed me to praie to God ; whome I 
am sure I wearied with my tedious praiers long before. Then went I 
unto an old woman (quoth the priest) who was said to be a cunning 
witch : and she willed me, that the next morning, about the dawning 
of the daie, I should pisse, and immediatlie should cover the pispot, 
or stop it with my right netherstocke, and before night the witch 
should come to visit me. And although (quoth he) the respect of 
mine orders somewhat terrified me from the execution of hir advise; 
yet my necessities diverse waies, and speciallie my paines moved 
me to make triall of hir words. And by the masse (quoth the priest) 
hir prophesie fell out as sure as a club. For a witch came to my 
house, and complained of a greefe in hir bladder, and that she could 
not pisse. But I could neither by faire nor fowle meanes obteine at 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 10. 


Merlin begotten 
of Incubus. 

hir hands, that she would leave molesting me by night; but she 
keepeth hir old custome, determining by these filthie meanes to 
dispatch me. I could hardlie (saith Jason) reclaime him from this The priest 
mad humor ; but by that time he had beene with me three or foure ^^'^°^^''^ • 
times, he began to comfort himselfe, and at last perceiving it, he 
acknowledged his disease, and recovered the same./ 

The tenth Chapter. ^^^^ 

A confutation of all the former follies touching Incubus, which 
by examples and proof es of like stuffe is shewed to be flat knaverie, 
zi'herein the carnall coptilation with spirits is overthrowtie. 

IHUS are lecheries covered with the cloke of Incubus 
and witchcraft, contrarie to nature and veritie : and 
with these fables is mainteined an opinion, that men have 
beene begotten without carnall copulation (as Hyperiics 
and others write that Merlin was, An. 440.) speciallie to excuse and 
mainteine the knaveries and lecheries of idle priests and bawdie 
monkes ; and to cover the shame of their lovers and concubines. 

And alas, when great learned men have beene so abused, with the 
imagination of Incubus his carnall societie with women, miscon- 
struing the scriptures, to wit, the place in Genesis 6. to the seducing 
of manie others ; it is the lesse woonder, that this error hath passed so 
generallie among the common people./ 66. 

But to use few words herein, I hope you understand that they 
affirme and saie, that Incubus is a spirit ; and I trust you know that a 
spirit hath no flesh nor bones, &c: and that he neither dooth eate 
nor drinke. In deede your grandams maides were woont to set aboil 
of milke before him and his cousine Robin good-fellow, for grinding 
of malt or mustard, and sweeping the house at midnight : and you 
have also heard that he would chafe exceedingly, if the maid or 
good-wife of the house, having compassion of his nakednes, laid anie 
clothes for him, beesides his messe of white bread and milke, which 
was his standing fee. For in that case he saith ; What have 
we here .-' Hemton hamten, here will I never more tread nor 

But to proceed in this confutation. Where there is no meate eaten, Q"hi humor 
there can be no seed which thereof is ingendred : although it be ^ "'"" -"^"^ '-^ 
granted, that Robin could both eate and drinke, as being a/ cousening 
idle frier, or some such roge, that wanted nothing either belonging to 
lecherie or knaverie, &c. Item, where the genitall members want, 
there can be no lust of the flesh : neither dooth nature give anie desire 
of generation, where there is no propagation or succession recjuired. 



4. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Ad facultatcm 
gL'tierandi tarn 
intt-r>ia quam 
ex/t-rnu orgaiia 

And as spirits cannot be greeved with hunger, so can they not be 
inflamed with lustes. And if men should hve ever, what needed 
succession or heires ? For that is but an ordinance of God, to supplie 
the place, the number, the world, the time, and speciallie to ac- 
complish his will. But the power of generation consisteth not onlie 
in members, but chieflie of vitall spirits, and of the hart : which 
spirits are never in such a bodie as hictibus hath, being but a bodie 
assumed, as they themselves sale. And yet the most part of writers 
herein afifirme, that it is a palpable and visible bodie ; though all be 
phansies and fables that are written hereupon. 

What Incubus is, 
<5r= who be most 
troubleii ther- 



[ ? him. MS.] 

M. maltfic 

The eleventh Chapter. 

That Incubus is a naturall disease, with remedies for the same, 
besides magicall cures herewithall expressed. 

|UT in truth, this Incubus is a bodilie disease (as hath 
beene said) although it extend unto the trouble of the 
mind: which of some is called The mare, oppressing 
manie in their sleepe so sore, as they are not able to 
call for helpe, or stir themselves under the burthen of that heavie 
humor, which is ingendred of a thicke vapor proceeding from 
the cruditie and rawnesse in the stomach : which ascending up 
into the head oppresseth the braine, in so much as manie are much 
infeebled therebie, as being nightlie haunted therewith. They 
are most troubled with this disease, that being subject thereunto, 
lie right upward : so as, to turne and lie on the one side, is present 
remedie. Likewise, if anie heare the groning of the partie, speake 
unto him, so as he wake him, he is presentlie releeved. Howbeit, 
there are magicall cures for it, as for example./ 

S. George, S. George, otir ladies k7iight, 
He walkt by daie, so did he by night : / 
Untill such time as he hir fouiid. 
He hir beat and he Mr bound, 
Untill hir troth she to him plight, 
She would 7iot come to hir''' that night. 
Whereas S. George our ladies knight, was named three times 
S. George. 

Item, hang a stone over the afflicted persons bed, which stone hath 
naturallie such a hole in it, as wherein a string may be put through 
it, and so be hanged over the diseased or bewitched partie ; be it 
man, woman, or horsse. 

Item, you shall read in M. Malefic, that excommunication is verie 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 12. 


notable, and better than any charme for this purpose. There are also 
other verses and charmes for this disease devised, which is the 
common cloke for the ignorance of bad physicians. But Leonard 
Fuchsius in his first booke, and 31. chapter, dooth not onelie describe 
this disease, and the causes of it ; but also setteth downe verie 
learnedlie the cure thereof, to the utter confusion of the witchmongers 
follie in this behalfe. Hyperms being much bewitched and blinded 
in this matter of witchcraft, hoovering about the interpretation of 
Genesis 6. from whence the opinion of Inaebits and Siiccitbus 
is extorted, Viderunt filii Dei filias hominufu, quod elegantes 
essent, acceperiint sibi in nxores ex omnibus^ quas elegeraut, &=€ : 
seemeth to mainteine upon heare-saie, that absurd opinion ; and 
yet in the end is driven to conclude thus, to wit : Of the evill 
spirits Incubus and Succubus there can be no firme reason or 
proofe brought out of scriptures, using these verie words ; 
Hcec ut probabilia dicta su7ito, quandoquident scripturarutn prcB- 
sidio hac in causa destituimur. As if he should sale. Take this 
as spoken probablie ; to wit, by humane reason, bicause we are 
destitute of scriptures to mainteine the goodnesse of the cause. 

Tertullian and Sulpicius Severus doo interpret Filios Dei in that 
place to be angels, or evill spirits, and to have beene enamored with 
the beautie of those wenches ; and finallie, begat giants by / them. 
Which is throughlie confuted by Chrysostonie, Horn. 22. in Gen : but 
speciallie by the circumstance of the text. 

par. 2. quce. 2. 
cap. I. col, 2. 

Leon. Fuchsius 
dc curandi 

Tertull. hi 
libro dc habilu 
Sulp. Sever, in 
epitome hist. S8. 

The twelfe Chapter. 

The censure of G. Chaucer, tepon the knaverie of Incttbus. 

pW will I (after all this long discourse of abhominable 
^1 cloked knaveries) here conclude with certeine of G. 
Chancers verses, who as he smelt out the absurdities 
fi| of poperie, so found he the priests knaverie in this 
matter of Incttbus, and (as the time would suffer him) he derided 
their follie and falshood in this wise : 

* For now the great charitie and praiers 
Of limitors and other hoiie friers, 
That searchen everie land and everie streaine 
As thicke as motes in the sunne beanie, \ 
Blissing halles, kitchens, chambers &• bowers, 
Cities, borroghes, caste Is ajtd hie towers, 
Thropes, barnes, shepens, and dairies, 
This makcth that there beene now no fairies ; 

Geffr. Chaic. in 
the beginning of 
the wile of Baths 


[» Ital.\ 

70 4 Booke. The discoverie 

For there as ivootit to ivalken was an elfe^ 
There lualketh now the li7nitor himself e, 
■ In U7iderfneales, and in mornings, 
And saitli his mattens and his holie things 
As hegoeth in his limitatiowne, 
Women may go safelie tip and downe, 
In everie btish, and under everie tree, 
[• Text j.i There nis none other * Incubus but hee, &^c.j / 

of Witchcraft. 



^f The fft Booke. sg. 69. 

The first Chapter. 

Of traiisformatio7is, ridiculous examples bj-ottght by the adver- 
saries for the confirmation of their foolish doctrine. 

|0W that I may with the verie absurdities, conteined 
in their owne authors, and even in their principall 
doctors and last writers, confound them that main- 
teine the transubstantiations of witches ; I will shew 
you certeine proper stuffe, which Bodin (their cheefe champion of J- ^°'^- ^'*- ^■ 
this age) hath gathered out of AI. Mai. and others, whereby he cap, 6. 
laboureth to establish this impossible, incredible, and supernaturall, 
or rather unnaturall doctrine of transubstantiation. 

First, as touching the divell {Rodin saith) that he dooth most J- Bodin 

,. -, ,. , , i_' ir • i J r ■ abuseth scripture 

properlie and commonlie transiorme himselie mto a gote, connrmmg to proove a He. 
that opinion by the 2)3- and 34. oi Esaie : where there is no one title* [* = tittle.] 
sounding to anie such purpose. Howbeit, he sometimes alloweth 
the divell the shape of a blacke Moore, and as he saith he used to 
appeare to Maivd Cruse, Kate Darey, and fane Harviller. But I 
mervell, whether the divell createth himselfe, when he appeareth in 
the likenesse of a man ; or whether God createth him, when the 
divell wisheth it. As for witches, he saith they speciallie transub- 
stantiate themselves into wolves, and them whom they bewitch into 
asses : though else-where he differ somewhat herein / from himselfe. go. 
But though he afifirme, that it may be naturallie brought to passe, Pudendis tunc 
that a girle shall become a boie ; and that anie female may be turned pentil'us^.'''""' 
into the male : yet he saith the same hath no afifinitie with Lycan- 
thropia ; wherein he saith also, that men are wholie transformed, and 
citeth infinite examples hereof. 

First, that one Garner in the shape of a woolfe killed a girle of the 
age of twelve yeares, and did eat up hir armes and legges, and carried 
the rest home to his wife. Item, that Peter Bur get, and Michael 
Werdon, having turned themselves with an ointment into woolves, 
killed, and finallie did eate up an infinite number of people. Which 
lie Wierus dooth sufficientlie confute. But until! you see and read jo. ivier. Ub. 6. 
that, consider whether Peter could eate rawe flesh without sur- '^'' '""^ '^"' '^" 
fetting, speciallie flesh of his owne kind. Item, that there was an 
arrowe shot into a woolves thigh, who afterwards being turned into his 


5. Booke. 

The discoverie 

J. Bodinus 
[»Text hduo.1 


A warme season 
to swim in. 

I mervell that 
they forsake not 
the divell, who 
punisheth them 
so sore : ywis 
they get not so 
much at his n/. 


Leviti. i6. [26,22] 
Deut. 32. [v. 24] 

former shape of a man, was found in his bed, with the arrowe in his 
thigh, which the archer that shot it knew verie well. Item, that 
another being Lycanthropus in the forme of a woolfe, had his woolves 
feet cut off, and in a moment he became a man without hands or 

He accuseth also one of the mightiest princes in christendome, 
even of late daies, to be one of those kind of witches (so as he could, 
when he list, turne himselfe to a woolfe) affirming that he was espied 
and oftentimes scene to performe that villanie ; bicause he would be 
counted the king of all witches. He saith that this transubstantiation 
is most common in Greece ^l and through out all Asia^ as merchant 
strangers have reported to him. For Anno Doinini. 1542, when 
Sultan Soliinon reigned, there was such force and multitude of 
these kind of woolves in Constantinople^ that the emperour drave 
togither in one flocke 150. of them, which departed out of the citie in 
the presence of all the people. 

To persuade us the more throughlie heerein, he saith, that in 
Livonia, yearelie (about the end of December) a certeine knave or 
divell warneth all the witches in the countrie to come to a certeine 
place : if they faile, the divell commeth and whippeth them with an 
iron rod ; so as the print of his lashes remaine upon their bodies for 
ever. The capteine witch leadeth the waie through a /great poole of 
water : manie millians of witches swim after. They are no 'sooner 
passed through that water, but they are all transformed into woolves, 
and flie upon and devoure both men, women, cattell, &c. After twelve 
daies they returne through the same water, and so receive humane 
shape againe. 

Item, that there was one Bajaniis a. Jew, being the sonne of Simeon, 
which could, when he list, turne himselfe into a woolfe ; and by that 
meanes could escape the force and danger of a whole armie of men. 
Which thing (saith Bodin) is woonderfull: but yet (saith he) it is much 
more marvelous, that men will not beleeve it. For manie poets 
affirme it ; yea, and if you looke well into the matter (saith he) you 
shall find it easie to doo. Item, he saith, that as naturall woolves per- 
secute beasts; so doo these magicall woolves devoure men, women, and 
children. And yet God saith to the people (I trowe) and not to the 
cattell of Israeli ; If you observe not my commandements, I will send 
among you the beasts of the feeld, which shall devoure both you and 
your cattell. Item, I will send the teeth of beasts upon you. Where is 
Bodins distinction now become ? He never saith, I will send witches 
in the likenes of wolves, &c : to devoure you or your cattell. 
Nevertheles, Bodin saith it is a cleare case : for the matter was dis- 
puted upon before pope Leo the seventh, and by him all these matters 

of Witchcraft. 


were judged possible : and at that time (saith he) were the transforma- 
tions of Ltician and Apideius made canonicall. 

Furthermore he saith, that through this art they are so cunning that 
no man can apprehend them, but when they are a sleepe. Item, he 
nameth another witch, that (as M. Mai. saith) could not be caught, 
bicause he would transforme himselfe into a mouse, and runne into 
everie little hole, till at length he was killed comming out of the hole of 
a jamme in a windowe : which indeed is as possible, as a camell to go 
through a needels eie. Item, he saith, that diverse witches at Vernon 
turned themselves into cats, and both committed and received much 
hurt. But at Argentine there was a wonderfull matter done, by three 
witches of great wealth, who transforming themselves into three cats, 
assalted a faggot-maker : who having hurt them all with a faggot 
sticke, was like to have beene put to death. But he was miraculouslie 
delivered, and they worthilie punished ; as the storie saith, from 
whence/ Bodin had it. 

After a great manie other such beastlie fables, he inveieth against 
such physicians, as sale that Lycanthropia is a disease, and not a 
transformation. Item, he mainteineth, as sacred and true, all Homers 
fables of Circes and/ Ulyffes his companions : inveieng against Cliry- 
sosionie, who rightlie interpreteth *//omers meaning to be, that Ulyffes 
his people were by the harlot Circes made in their brutish maners to 
resemble swine. 

But least some poets fables might be thought lies (whereby the 
witchmongers arguments should quaile) he mainteineth for true the 
most part of Ovids Metamorphosis., and the greatest absurdities and 
impossibilities in all that booke : marie he thinketh some one tale 
therein may be fained. Finallie, he confirmeth all these toies by the 
storie of Nabuchadnez-znr. And bicause (saith he) Nabuchadnes-sar 
continued seven yeres in the shape of a beast, therefore may witches 
remaine so long in the forme of a beast ; having in all the meane 
time, the shape, haire, voice, strength, agilitie, swiftnes, food and 
excrements of beasts, and yet reserve the minds and soules of 
women or men. Howbeit, S. Aiigtestitte (whether to confute or con- 
firme that opinion judge you) saith ; Nan est credendum, hianamtm 
corpus dcBVionum arte vel potestate in bestialia lineamenta 
converti posse : We may not beleeve that a mans bodie may be 
altered into the lineaments of a beast by the divels art or power. 
Item, Bodin saith, that the reason whie witches are most commonlie 
turned into woolves, is ; bicause they usuallie eate children, as 
woolves eate cattell. Item, that the cause whie other are truelie 
turned into asses, is ; for that such have beene desirous to understand 
the secrets of witches. Whie witches are turned into cats, he 


Stasus a witch 
could not be 
and why ? 

J. Bodin. 
Mai. male/. 

John. Bodin. 
Mai. male/. 
Barth. Spin. 

Mai. viaUf. 
fart. 3. 

An error abont 



A?/ gust lib. 8 
dc civil. Dei. 
cap. 18. 
Idem. lib. de 
spiritu &='anima, 
cap. 26. 


5. Booke. 

The discoverie 



J. Bod. lib. 2. 
de viag. diemon. 
cap. 6. 

Gen. 19, 24. lyp 
&^26. &27. ''*• 

y. Bod lib. de 
dcevion. 2. 
cap. 20. 
M. Mai. pa. 1. 
qua. 9. 


John. Bodin. lib. 
de dcemon. 2. 
cap. I. 

alledgeth no reason, and therefore (to helpe him foorth with that 
paraphrase) I saie, that witches are curst queanes, and manie times 
scratch one another, or their neighbours by the faces ; and therefore 
perchance are turned into cats. But I have put twentie of these 
witchmongers to silence with this one question ; to wit. Whether a 
witch that can turne a woman into a cat, &c : can also turne a cat 
into a woman ?/ 

The second Chapter. 

Absurd reasons brought by Bodin., and stcch others, for confirmation 
of transfortiiations. 

HESE Examples and reasons might put us in doubt, that 
everie asse, woolfe, or cat that we see, were a man, a 
woman, or a child. I marvel! that no man useth this 
distinction in the definition of a man. But to what end 
should one dispute against these creations, and recreations ; when 
Bodifi washeth away all our arguments with one word, confessing that 
none can create any thing but God ; acknowledging also the force of 
the canons, and imbracing the opinions of such divines, as write 
against him in this behalfe ? Yea he dooth now (contrarie to him- 
selfe elsewhere) afifirme, that the divell cannot alter his forme. And 
lo, this is his distinction, Non essentialis forma {id est ratio) sedfigura 
solitm penmitatnr : The essential! forme (to wit, reason) is not 
changed, but the shape or figure. And thereby he prooveth it easie 
enough to create men or beasts with life, so as they remaine without 
reason. Howbeit, I thinke it is an easier matter, to turne Bodins 
reason into the reason of an asse, than his bodie into the shape of a 
sheepe : which he saith is an easie matter ; bicause Lots / wife was 
turned into a stone by the divell. Whereby he sheweth his grosse 
ignorance. As though God that commanded Zf/ upon paine of death 
not to looke backe, who also destroied the citie of Sodome at that 
instant, had not also turned hir into a salt stone. And as though 
all this while God had beene the divels drudge, to go about this 
businesse all the night before, and when a miracle should be wrought, 
the divell must be faine to doo it himselfe. 

Item, he affirmeth, that these kind of transfigurations are more 
common with them in the west parts of the world, than with us here 
in the east. Howbeit, this note is given withall ; that that is ment of 
the second persons, and not of the first : to wit, of the bewitched, and 
not of the witches. For they can trans/forme themselves in everie 
part of the world, whether it be east, west, north, or south. Marrie he 
saith, that spirits and divels vex men most in the north countries, as 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 3. 


Nonvay, Finland, &^c : and in the westerne Hands, as in the west 
Indta : but among the heathen speciaUie, and wheresoever Christ is 
not preached. And that is true, though not in so foolish, grosse, and 
corporall a sense as Bodz'n taketh it. One notable instance of a 
witches cunning in this behalfe touched by Bodin in the chapter 
aforesaid, I thought good in this place to repeat : he taketh it out of 
M. Mai. which tale was delivered to Sprenger by a knight of the 
Rhods, being of the order of S. Jones at Jertisalem ; and it followeth 

The third Chapter. 

Of a man turned into an asse, and returned againe into a man by 
one 0/ Bodins witches : S. Augustines opi7iio7i thereof. 

T happened in the city of Salamin., in the kingdome of 
Cyp7-us (wherein is a good haven) that a ship loaden with 
merchandize staled there for a short space. In the meane 
time many of the souldiers and mariners went to shoare, 
to provide fresh victuals. Among which number, a certaine English 
man, being a sturdie yoong fellowe, went to a womans house, a little 
waie out of the citie, and not farre from the sea side, to see whether 
she had anie egs to sell. Who perceiving him to be a lustie yoong 
fellowe, a stranger, and farre from his countrie (so as upon the losse 
of him there would be the lesse misse or inquirie) she considered 
with hir selfe how to destroie him ; and willed him to stale there 
awhile, whilest she went to fetch a few egs for him. But she tarried 
long, so as the yoong man called unto hir, desiring hir to make hast : 
for he told hir that the tide would be spent, and by that meanes his 
ship would be gone, and leave him behind. Howbeit, after some 
detracting of time, she brought him a few egs, willing him to returne to 
hir, if his ship were gone when he came. The young fel/lowe returned 
towards his ship : but before he went aboord, hee would needs eate 
an eg or twaine to satisfie his hunger, and within short space he 
became dumb and out of his wits (as he afterwards said.) When he 
would have entred into the ship, the mariners beat him backe with a 
cudgell, saieng ; What a murren lacks the asse ? Whi/ther the divell 
will this asse ? The asse or yoong man (I cannot tell by which name 
I should terme him) being many times repelled, and understanding 
their words that called him asse, considering that he could speake 
never a word, and yet could understand everie bodie ; he thought 
that he was bewitched by the woman, at whose house he was. And 
therefore, when by no meanes he could get into the boate, but was 
driven to tarrie and see hir departure ; being also beaten fiom place 

Mai. malefic, 
far. 2. quce. 2. 
cap. 4. 

What the divel 
shuld the witch 
meane to make 
chois of the 
English man ? 


A stran<;e meta- 
morphosis, of 
bodie, but not 
of mind. 


76 .sBooke. The discoverif 

to place, as an asse : he remembred the witches words, and the 
words of his owne fellowes that called him asse, and returned to the 
witches house, in whose service hee remained by the space of three 
yeares, dooing nothing with his hands all that while, but carried such 
burthens as she laied on his backe ; having onelie this comfort, that 
although he were reputed an asse among strangers and beasts, yet 
that both this witch, and all other witches knew him to be a man. 

After three yeares were passed over, in a morning betimes he went 

to towne before his dame ; who upon some occasion (of like to make 

water) staied a little behind. In the meane time being neere to a 

Note the devo- church, he heard a little saccaring bell ring to the elevation of a 

tion of the asse. ' & & 

morrowe masse, and not daring to go into the church, least he should 
have beene beaten and driven out with cudgels, in great devotion he 
fell downe in the churchyard, upon the knees of his hinder legs, and 
did lift his forefeet over his head, as the preest doth hold the sacra- 
ment at the elevation. Which prodigious sight when certeine 
merchants of Genua espied, and with woonder beheld ; anon commeth 
the witch with a cudgell in hir hand, beating foorth the asse. And 
bicause (as it hath beene said) such kinds of witchcrafts are verie 
usuall in those parts ; the merchants aforesaid made such meanes, as 
both the asse and the witch were attached by the judge. And she 
being examined and set upon the racke, confessed the whole matter, 
and promised, that if she might have libertie to go home, she would 
g6. restore him to his old/ shape : and being dismissed, she did according- 
lie. So as notwithstanding they apprehended hir againe, and burned 
hir: and the yoong man returned into his countrie with a joifull and 
merrie hart. 
August lib. 18. Upon the advantage of this storie M. Mai. Bodin, and the residue 

f^i/'i7 &-'i8. of the witchmongers triumph; and speciallie bicause S, Ati^a^nstme 
subscribeth thereunto; or at the least to the verie like. Which I 
must confesse I find too common in his books, insomuch as I judge 
them rather to be foisted in by some fond papist or witchmonger, than 
so learned a mans dooings. The best is, that he himselfe is no eie- 
witnesse to any of those his tales; but speaketh onelie by report; 
wherein he uttereth these words : to wit, that It were a point of great 
incivilitie, (S:c: to discredit so manie and so certeine reports. And in 
that respect he justifieth the corporall transfigurations of Ulysses his 
mates, throgh the witchcraft of Circes : and that foolish fable of 
Prcestantius his father, who (he saith) did eate provender and haie 
At the alps in among other horsses, being himselfe turned into an horsse. Yea he 
^*^^ ''^' verifieth the starkest lie that ever was invented, of the two alewives 

that used to transforme all their ghests into horsses, and to sell them 
awaie at markets and faires. And therefore I saie with Cardamis, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap, 4. 


that how much Augustin saith he hath seen with his eies, so much I 
am/ content to beleeve. Howbeit S. Augiistin concludeth against 
Bodin. For he affirmeth these transubstantiations to be but fantas- 
tical!, and that they are not according to the veritie, but according to 
the appearance. And yet I cannot allow of such appearances made 
by witches, or yet by divels : for I find no such power given by God 
to any creature. And I would wit of S. Augustine, where they be- 
came, whom Bodins transformed woolves devoured. But 

6 qucim 

Credula metis hofinnis, Sr' erectcB fabtilis aures ! 

* Good Lord ! how light of credit is 

the waveriug mind of matt ! 
How unto tales and lies his eares 

attentive all they can ?l 
Generall councels, and the popes canons, which ^^^/« so regardeth, 
doo condemne and pronounce his opinions in this behalfe to be 
absurd; and the residue of the witchmongers, with himselfe in the 
number, to be woorsse than infidels. And these are the verie words 
of the canons, which else-where I have more largelie repeated; Who- 
soever beleeveth, that anie creature can be made or changed into 
better or woorsse, or transformed into anie other shape, or into anie 
other similitude, by anie other than by God himselfe the creator of all 
things, without all doubt is an infidell, and woorsse than a pagan. 
And therewithall this reason is rendered, to wit : bicause they 
attribute that to a creature, which onelie belongeth to God the creator 
of all things. 

The fourth Chapter. 

A sum marie of the former fable, with a refutation thereof, after due 
exatnination of the same. 

ONCERNING the veritie or probabilitie of this enterlude, 
betwixt Bodin, M. Alal. the witch, the asse, the masse, 
the merchants, the inquisitors, the tormentors, &c: First 
I woonder at the miracle of transubstantiation: Secondlie 

Card, de Var. 
reruni. lib. 15 
cap. 80. 74. 

August. Lib. 18. 
de civit. Dei. 

Englished by 


Canon. 26. 
quce. 5. episcopi 
ex con. acquir, 

at the impudencie of Bodin and fames Sprenger, for affirming so 
grosse a lie, devised beelike by the knight of the Rhodes, to make a 
foole of Sprenger, and an asse of Bodin : Thirdlie, that the asse had 
no more wit than to kneele downe and hold up his forefeete to a peece 
of starch or flowre, which neither would, nor could, nor did helpehim: 
Fourthlie, that the masse could not reforme that which the witch 
transformed: Fiftlie, that the merchants, the inquisitors, and the tor- 
mentors, could not either severallie or jointlie doo it, but referre the 
matter to the witches courtesie and good pleasure. 


5- Booke. 

The discoverie 

Hisshnpe was 
in the woods : 
where else 
should it be f 


Mai. maUf. 
par. I. qua. 2, 

In my discourse 
of spirits and 
divels, being the 
17 booke of this 

Dan. in dialog. 
cap. J. 


August, lib. de 
civit. Dei. cap. 

But where was the yoong mans ovvne shape all these three yeares, 
wherein he was made an asse .'' It is a certeine and a general! rule, 
that two substantial! formes cannot be in one subject Simul &^ seinel, 
both at once: which is confessed by themselves. The/ forme of the 
beast occupied some/ place in the aire, and so I thinke should the 
forme of a man doo also. For to bring the bodie of a man, without 
feeling, into such a thin airie nature, as that it can neither be seene 
nor felt, it may well be unlikelie, but it is verie impossible: for the 
aire is inconstant, and continueth not in one place. So as this airie 
creature would soone be carried into another region: as else-where I 
have largelie prooved. But indeed our bodies are visible, sensitive, 
and passive, and are indued with manie other excellent properties, 
which all the divels in hell are not able to alter: neither can one haire 
of our head perish, or fall awaie, or be transformed, without the 
speciall providence of God almightie. 

But to proceed unto the probabilitie of this storie. What lucke was 
it, that this yoong fellow of Etigland, landing so latelie in those parts, 
and that old woman of Cyprus, being both of so base a condition, 
should both understand one anothers communication; Englaiid and 
Cyprus being so manie hundred miles distant, and their languages so 
farre differing ? I am sure in these daies, wherein trafificke is more 
used, and learning in more price; few yong or old mariners in this 
realme can either speake or understand the language spoken at 
Salamin in Cyprus, which is a kind of Grecke; and as few old women 
there can speake our language. But BodinwiW saie; You heare, that 
at the inquisitors commandement, and through the tormentors correc- 
tion, she promised to restore him to his owne shape: and so she did, 
as being thereunto compelled. I answer, that as the whole storie is 
an impious fable; so this assertion is false, and disagreeable to their 
owne doctrine, which mainteineth, that the witch dooth nothing but 
by the permission and leave of God. For if she could doo or undoo 
such a thing at hir owne pleasure, or at the commandement of the 
inquisitors, or for feare of the tormentors, or for love of the partie, or 
for remorse of conscience: then is it not either by the extraordinarie 
leave, nor yet by the like direction of God; except you will make him 
a confederate with old witches. I for my part woonder most, how 
they can turne and tosse a mans bodie so, and make it smaller and 
greater, to wit, like a mowse, or like an asse, &c: and the man all this 
while to feele no paine. And I am not alone in this maze: for 
DancEtts a special mainteiner of their fol/lies saith, that although 
Augustine and Apuleius doo write verie crediblie of these matters ; 
yet will he never beleeve, that witches can change men into other 
formes ; as asses, apes, woolves, beares, mice, &c. 

of Witchc7'aft, chap. 5. 79 

The fift Chapter. 

That the bodie of a man cannot be turned into the bodie of a beast by 
a witch, is grooved by strong reasons, scriptures, attd authorities. 

|UT was this man an asse all this while? Or was this 
asse a man ? Bodin saith (his reason onelie reserved) he 
was trulie transubstantiated into an asse ; so as there 
must be no part of a man, but reason remaining in this 
asse. And yet Hermes Trisinegistus \}cv\vik^'Ci\ he hath good authoritie Hermes Ttisme 
and reason to saie ; A Hud corpus qud.m htimanum non capere animam 'Jlv!'" 
humanam ; necjfas esse in corpus aninice ratione carentis animam 76. 
rationalcni corrtiere ; that is ; An humane soule cannot receive anie 
other than an humane bodie, nor yet canne light into a bodie that 
wanteth reason of mind. But S.yaw^fJ saith; the bodie without the Jam. 3, 26. 
spirit is dead. And surelie, when the soule is departed from the 
bodie, the life of man is dissolved: and therefore Patde wished to be Phiii. i, 23. 
dissolved, when he would have beene with Christ. The bodie of man 
is subject to divers kinds of agues, sicknesses, and infirmities, where- 
unto an asses bodie is not inclined: and mans bodie must be fed with 
bread, &c : and not with hay. Bodiiis asseheaded man must either 
eate haie, or nothing: as appeareth in the storie. Mans bodie also is 
subject unto death, and hath his dales numbred. If this fellowe had 
died in the meane time, as his houre might have beene come, for anie 
thing the divels, the witch, or Bodin knew; I mervell then what would 
have become of this asse, or how the witch could have restored him 
to shape, or whether he should have risen at the dale of judgement in 
an asses bodie and shape. For Paule saith, that that verie bodie iCor. 15. 44. 
which is sowne and buried a naturall bodie, is raised/ a spirituall bodie. 100. 
The life of Jesus is made manifest in our mortall flesh, and not in the 
flesh of an asse. 

God hath endued everie man and everie thing with his proper 
nature, substance, forme, qualities, and gifts, and directeth their 
waies. As for the waies of an asse, he taketh no such care : howbeit, 
they have also their properties and substance severall to themselves. 
For there is one flesh (saith Paule) of men, another flesh of beasts, i. Cor. 15, 39. 
another of fishes, another of birds. And therefore it is absolutelie 
against the ordinance of God (who hath made me a man) that I should 
flie like a bird, or swim like a fish, or creepe like a worme, or become 
an asse in shape: insomuch as if God would give me leave, I cannot 
doo it; for it were contrarie to his ovvne order and decree, and to the 
constitution of anie bodie which he hath made. Yea the spirits them- Psal. 119. 


5. Booke. 

The discover ie 

I. Cor. 6, 19 
verse. 15, &^c 
verse. 2. 
verse. 13. 


Psalm. 8. 

verses 5, 6, 7, 8. 


selves have their lawes and limits prescribed, beyond the which they 
cannot passe one haires breadth; otherwise God should be contrarie 
to himselfe: which is farre from him. Neither is Gods omnipotencie 
hereby qualified, but the divels impotencie manifested, who hath none 
other power, but that which God from the beginning hath appointed 
unto him, consonant to his nature and substance. He may well be 
restreined from his power and will, but beyond the same he cannot 
passe, as being Gods minister, no further but in that which he hath 
from the beginning enabled him to doo: which is, that he being a 
spirit, may with Gods leave and ordinance viciat and corrupt the spirit 
and will of man : wherein he is verie diligent. 

What a beastlie assertion is it, that a man, whom GOD hath made 
according to his owne similitude and likenes, should be by a witch 
turned into a beast .? What an impietie is it to affirme, that an asses 
bodie is the temple of the Holy-ghost.'' Or anasseto be the child of 
God, and God to be his father ; as it is said of man ? Which Paule 
to the Corinthiatis so divinelie confuteth, who saith, that Our bodies 
are the members of Christ. In the which we are to glorifie God: for 
the bodie is for the Lord, and the Lord is for the bodie. Surelie he 
meaneth not for an asses bodie, as by this time I hope appeareth: in 
such wise as Bodin may go hide him for / shame; especiallie when he 
shall understand, that even into these our bodies, which God hath 
framed after his owne like/nesse, he hath also brethed that spirit, which 
Bodm saith is now remaining within an asses bodie, which God hath 
so subjected in such servilitie under the foote of man; Of whom God is 
so mindfull, that he hath made him little lower than angels, yea than 
himselfe, and crowned him with glorie and worship, and made him to 
have dominion over the workes of his hands, as having put all things 
under his feete, all sheepe and oxen, yea woolves, asses, and all other 
beasts of the field, the foules of the aire, the fishes of the sea, &c. 
Bodins poet, Ovid, whose MetamorpJiosis make so much for him, 
saith to the overthrow of this phantasticall imagination : 
Os homini sublime dedif, cceh'imque vide re 
Jnssit, &= erectos ad sydera tollere vultus. 
The effect of which verses is this ; 
* The Lord did set mans face so hie, 
That he the heavens might behold, 
And looke tip to the starrie skie. 
To see his woo7iders manifold. 

Now, if a witch or a divell can so alter the shape of a man, as con- 
trarilie to make him looke downe to hell, like a beast ; Gods works 
should not onelie be defaced and disgraced, but his ordinance should 
be woonderfullie altered, and thereby confounded. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chnp. 6. 

The sixt Chapter. 

The witchmoiigers objections, concerning Nabuchadnes-zar an- 
swered, a7id their errour concei'uing Lycanthro-pia confuted. 

ALLEUS MALEFICARUM, Bodin, and manie other of 
them that mainteine witchcraft, triumph upon the storie of 
Nabuchadttes-sar ; as though Circes had transformed him 
with hir sorceries into an oxe, as she did others into 
swine, (ic. I answer, that he was neither in bodie nor shape trans- 
formed at all, accor/ding to their grosse imagination ; as appeareth 
both by the plaine words of the text, and also by the opinions of the 
best interpretors thereof : but that he was, for his beastlie government 
and conditions, throwne out of his kingdome and banished for a 
time, and driven to hide himselfe in the wildernesse, there in exile to 
lead his life in beastlie sort, among beasts of the field, and fowles of 
the aire (for by the waie I tell you it appeareth by the text, that he 
was rather turned into the shape of a fowle than of a beast) untill he 
rejecting his beastlie conditions, was upon his repentance and amend- 
ment called home, and restored unto his kingdome. Howbeit, this 
(by their confession) was neither divels nor witches dooing ; but a 
miracle wrought by God, whom alone I acknowledge to be able to 
bring to passe such workes at his pleasure. Wherein I would know 
what our witchmongers have gained./ 

I am not ignorant that some write, that after the death of Nabuchad- 
nez-sar, his sonne *Eilnmorodath gave his bodie to the ravens to be 
devoured, least afterwards his father should arise from death, who of 
a beast became a man againe. But this tale is meeter to have place 
in the Cabalisticall art, to wit : among unwritten verities than here. 
To conclude, I sale that the transformations, which these witch- 
mongers doo so rave and rage upon, is (as all the learned sort of 
physicians afifirme) a disease proceeding partlie from melancholie, 
wherebie manie suppose themselves to be woolves, or such ravening 
beasts. For Lycanthropia is of the ancient physicians called Liipina 
melancholia, or Lnpina insania. J. Wierus declareth verie learnedlie, 
the cause, the circumstance, and the cure of this disease. I have 
written the more herein ; bicause hereby great princes and 
potentates, as well as poore women and innocents, 
have beene defamed and accounted 
among the number 
of witches./ 

worke is 
as sure as 
to hold a 
quick eele 
by the 

an. 4. 


Cor. A grip, de 
vanit. scient. 
cap. 44. 

[* tr. of Euill 

Paul. Aegi- 
net. It. 3. c. 16, 
Aetius. lib. 6. 
cap. II. 
J. IVicr. de 
prcest. dam. 
lib. 4. cap. 23, 



=;. Booke. 

The discove7'ie 


Matth. 4, 8. 
Luk. 3, 9. 

Answer to 
the former 

Matt. 26, 53. 

Job. I, II. 
Job. 2, 5. 



J. Calvin e in 
harmon. E- 
vang. in 
Matth. 4. <&^ 
L7tk. 4. 

The seventh Chapter. 

A speciall objection answered concernitig tra7isportations, with the 
consent of diverse writers thereupon. 

I OR the maintenarice of witches transportations, they 
object the words of the Gospell, where the divell is said to 
take up Christ, and t© set him on a pinnacle of the 
temple, and on a mountaine, &c. Which if he had doone 
in maner and forme as they suppose, it followeth not therefore that 
witches could doo the like ; nor yet that the divell would doo it for 
them at their pleasure ; for they know not their thoughts, neither can 
otherwise communicate with them. But I answer, that if it were so 
grosselie to be understood, as they imagine it, yet should it make 
nothing to their purpose. For I hope they will not saie, that Christ 
had made anie ointments, or entred into anie league with the divell, 
and by vertue thereof was transported from out of the wildernes, unto 
the top of the temple of Jerusalem ; or that the divell could have 
maisteries over his bodie, whose soule he could never laie hold upon ; 
especiallie when he might (with a becke of his finger) have called unto 
him, and have had the assistance of manie legions of angels. Neither 
(as I thinke) will they presume to make Christ partaker of the divels 
purpose and sinne in that behalfe. If they saie ; This was an action 
wrought by the speciall providence of God, and by his appointment, 
that the scripture might be fulfilled : then what gaine our witch- 
mongers by this place ? First, for that they maie not produce a par- 
ticular example to prove so generall an argument. And againe, if it 
were by Gods speciall providence and appointment ; then why should 
it not be doone by the hand of God, as it was in the storie of Job ? 
Or if it were Gods speciall purpose and pleasure, that there should be 
so extraordinarie a matter brought to passe by the hand of the divell; 
could not God have given to the wicked angell extraordinarie power, 
and cloathed him with extraordinarie shape ; where/by he might be 
made an instrument able to accomplish that matter, as he did to his 
angell that carried Abacuck to Dmiiell, and to them that he sent to 
destroie Sodome ? But you shall understand, that / this was doone in 
a vision, and not in veritie of action. So as they have a verie cold 
pull of this place, which is the speciall peece of scripture alledged of 
them for their transportations. 

Heare therefore what Calvine saith in his commentarie upon that 
place, in these words ; The question is, whether Christ were carried 
aloft indeed, or whether it were but in a vision .'' Manie affirme verie 

of Witchcraft. chap.7. 83 

obstinatlie, that his bodie was trulie and realHe as they sale taken 
up : bicause they thinke it too great an indignitie for Christ to be 
made subject to sathans ilkisions. But this objection is easihe washed 
avvaie. For it is no absurditie to grant all this to be wrought through 
Gods permission, or Christes voluntarie subjection : so long as we 
yeeld not to thinke that he suffered these temptations inwardlie, that 
is to saie, in mind or soule. And that which is afterwards set downe 
by the Evangelist, where the divell shewed him all the kingdoms of 
the world, and the glorie of the same, and that to be doone (as it is 
said in Luke) in the twinkling of an eie, dooth more agree with a 
vision than with a reall action. So farre are the verie words of 
Calvhie. Which differ not one syllable nor five words from that 
which I had written herein, before I looked for his opinion in the 
matter. And this I hope will be sufficient to overthrow the assertions 
of them that laie the ground of their transportations and flieng in the 
aire hereupon. 

He that will saie, that these words ; to wit, that Christ was taken 
up, &c : can hardlie be applied to a vision, let him turne to the 
prophesie oi EzecJiicIl, and see the selfe-same words used in a vision : iczec. 3, 12. 
saving that where Christ is said to be taken up by the divell, Ezechiell '"'"'^ '"*" 
is taken up, and lifted up, and carried by the spirit of God, and yet 
in a vision. But they have lesse reason that build upon this sandie 
rocke, the supernaturall frame of transubstantiation ; as almost all our 
witching writers doo. For Sprenger Sc Institor saie, that the divell Mai. male/. 
in the likenesse of a falcon caught him up. DancEUs saith, it was in 
the similitude of a man ; others saie, of an angell painted with wings ; 
others, invisiblie : Ergo the di/vell can take (saie they) what shape he lOj. 
list. But though some may cavill upon the divels transforming of 
himselfe ; yet, that either divell or witch can transforme or transub- 
stantiat others, there is no tittle nor colour in the scriptures to helpe 
them. If there were authoritie for it, and that it were past all perad- 
venture, lo, what an easie matter it is to resubstantiate an asse into a 
man. For Bodm saith upon the word of Apuleius, that if the asse j. Bod. lib. d<- 
eate new roses, anise, or baie leaves out of spring water, it '''^'"' ^' '"^' ^' 

will presentlie returne him into a man. Which thing 

Sprenger saith male be doone, by washing the in Mai. mai. 

asse in faire water : yea he sheweth an 

instance, where, by drinking of 

water an asse was turned 

into a man, 



The disc over ie 

The eight Chapter. 

The tuitch)noftgers object ioti concerning the historic of Job answered. 

HESE witchmongers, for lacke of better arguments, doo 
manie times object Job against me ; although there be 
never a word in that storie, which either maketh for 
80. [yssgpgg^g j them, or against me : in so much as there is not/ the 
name of a witch mentioned in the whole booke. But (I praie you) 
what witchmonger now seeing one so afflicted as Job, would not 

» Job. I. 14. saie he were bewitched, as Job never saith ? ^For first there came a 

messenger unto him, and said ; Thy oxen were plowing, and thy 

b verse, 15. asses were feeding in their places, '^and the Sabeans came violentlie 

and tooke them ; yea they have slaine thy servants with the edge of 

c verse, 16. the sword ; but I onelie am escaped to tell thee. "And whilest he was 

yet speaking, another cam.e, and said ; The tier of God is fallen from 
the heaven, & hath burnt up thy sheepe and thy servants, and de- 

»! verse, 17. voured them ; but I onlie am escaped to tell thee. ''And while he 

was yet speaking, another came, and said ; The Chalda;ans set out 

their bands, and fell upon thy camels, and have taken them, and have 

106. slaine thy servants with the edge of the sword ; but I onelie am/ 

« verse, 18. escaped alone to tell thee. ''And whilest he was yet speaking, came 

another, and said ; Thy sonnes and thy daughters were eating and 
drinking wine in their elder brothers house, ^and behold there came a 
great wind from beyond the wildernesse, and smote the foure corners 
of the house, which fell upon thy children, and they are dead ; and I 
onlie am escaped alone to tell thee. ^Besides all this, he was smitten 
with biles, from the sole of his foote to the crowne of his head. If 
anie man in these dales called Job should be by the appointment or 
hand of God thus handled, as this Job was ; I warrant you that all 
the old women in the countrie would be called Coram nobis : warrants 
would be sent out on everie side, publike and private inquirie made 
what old women latelie resorted to Jobs house, or to anie of those 
places, where these misfortunes fell. If anie poore old woman had 
chanced within two or three moneths to have borrowed a curtsie of 

[»?searsing] *seasing, Or to have fetcht from thence a pot of milke, or had she 
required some almes, and not obteined it at Jobs hand ; there had 
beene argument enough to have brought hir to confusion : and to be 
more certeine to have the right witch apprehended, figures must have 
beene cast, the sive and sheares must have beene set on worke; 
yea rather than the witch should escape, a conjuror must have earned 
a little monie, a circle must have beene made, and a divell raised to 

f verse, 19. 

Sibid. ca. 2 
vers. 7. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 8. 


J. Calvin, in 
Job. cap. I. 21. 

*y. Calvin, in 
fob, cap. 2. 
Sermon. 8. 
Miiscul. in TQ-j 
loc. comm. ' ' 
Idem, ibidem. 

tell the truth : mother Bungle must have been gon unto, and after 
she had learned hir name, whom Job most suspected, she would 
have confirmed the suspicion with artificiall accusations : in the 
end, some woman or other must have beene hanged for it. But as 
Jo!) said ; Domitius dedit : so said he not ; Diabolus vel Lamia scd 
Dominus abstidit. Which agreeth with the tenor of the text, where 
it is written, that the divell at everie oi Jobs afflictions desired God 
to laie his hand upon him. Insomuch sls Job imputed no part of his 
calamitie unto divels, witches, nor yet unto conjurors, or their 
inchantments ; as we have learned now to doo. Neither sinned he, 
or did God any wrong, when he laid it to his charge : but we dis- 
honour God greatlie, when we attribute either the power or proprietie 
of God the creator unto a creature. 

^Calvine saith ; We derogate much from Gods glorie and omnipo- 
tencie, when we sale he dooth but give sathan leave to doo it : which 
is (saith he) to m.ocke Gods justice ; and so fond an asser/tion, that if 
asses could speake, they would speake more wiselie than so. For a 
temporall judge saith not to /the hangman ; I give thee leave to hang 81. 
this oiTender, but commandeth him to doo it. But the mainteiners of 
witches omnipotencie, saie ; Doo you not see how reallie and pal- 
pablie the divell tempted and plagued Job ? I answer first, that there 
is no corporall or visible divell named nor seene in any part of that 
circumstance ; secondlie, that it was the hand of God that did it ; 
thirdlie, that as there is no communitie betweene the person of a 
witch, and the person of a divell, so was there not any conference or 
practise betwixt them in this case. 

And as touching the communication betwixt God and the divell, j.Calvincin 
behold what Calvine saith, writing or rather preaching of purpose ''"/^^^'"/'^ 
upon that place, wherupon they thinke they have so great advantage; 
When sathan is said to appeere before God, it is not doone in some 
place certeine, but the scripture speaketh so to applie it selfe to our 
rudenes. Certeinlie the divell in this and such like cases is an in- 
strument to worke Gods will, and not his owne : and therefore it is 
an ignorant and an ungodlie saieng (as Calvifie judgeth it) to affirme, 
that God dooth but permit and suffer the divell. For if sathan were 
so at his owne libertie (saith he) we should be overwhelmed at a 
sudden. And doubtlesse, if he had power to hurt the bodie, there 
were no waie to resist : for he would come invisiblie upon us, and 
knocke us on the heads ; yea hee would watch the best and dispatch 
them, whilest they were about some wicked act. If they saie ; God 
commandeth him, no bodie impugneth them : but that God should 
give him leave, I saie with Calviiw, that the divell is not in such 
favour with God, as to obteine any such request at his hands. 


5- Booke. 

The discoverie 

J. Calvine in 
Job. cap. I. 
sermon, 5. 

Mai. male/, 
pa. I. qua-st. I. 
Idem part. i. 
quast. 4. 108. 

Note what 
is said tou- 
ching the 
booke of 


In hgenda 

And wheras by our witchmongers opinions and arguments, the 
witch procureth the divell, and the divell asketh leave of God to 
plague whom the witch is disposed : there is not (as I have said) any 
such corporall communication betweene the divell and a witch, as 
witchmongers imagine. Neither is God mooved at all at sathans sute, 
who hath no such favour or grace with him, as to obteine any thing 
at his hands. 

But M. Mai. and his friends denie, that there were any witches in 
Jobs time : yea the witchmongers are content to sale, that/ there were 
none found to exercise this art in Christs time, from his birth to his 
death, even by the space of thirtie three yeares. If there had beene 
anie (saie they) they should have beene there spoken of. As touching 
the authoritie of the booke of Job, there is no question but that it is 
verie canonicall and authentike. Howbeit, manie writers, both of the 
Jewes and others, are of opinion, that Moses was the author of this 
booke ; and that he did set it as a looking glasse before the people : 
to the intent the children of Abraham (of whose race he himselfe 
came) might knowe, that God shewed favour to others that were not 
of the same line, and be ashamed of their vvickednesse : seeing an 
uncircumcised Painime had so well demeaned himselfe. Upon which 
argument Calvine (though he had written upon the same) saith, that 
Forsomuch as it is uncerteine, whether it were Res gesta or Exempli 
gratia., we must leave it in suspense. Nevertheles (saith he) let us 
take that which is out of all doubt ; namelie, that the Holy-ghost 
hath indited the booke, to the end that the Jewes should knowe that 
God hath had a people alwaies to serve him throughout the world, 
even of such as were no/ Jewes, nor segregated from other nations. 

Howbeit, I for my part denie not the veritie of the storie ; though 
indeed I must confesse, that I thinke there was no such corporall 
enterlude betweene God, the divell, and Job, as they imagine : neither 
anie such reall presence and communication as the witchmongers 
conceive and mainteine ; who are so grosse herein, that they doo not 
onlie beleeve, but publish so palpable absurdities concerning such 
reall actions betwixt the divell and man, as a wise man would be 
ashamed to read, but much more to credit : as that S. Dunstan lead 
the divell about the house by the nose with a paire of pinsors or tongs, 
and made him rore so lowd, as the place roong thereof, &c : with a 
thousand the like fables, without which neither the art of poperie 
nor of witchcraft could stand. But you may see more of this matter 
else-where, where in few words (which I thought good here to omit, 
least I should seeme to use too manie repetitions) I answer effectuallie 
to their cavils about this place./ 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 9. 


The ninth Chapter. 

What several I sorts of witches are mentio7ied in the scriptures, and 
how the word witch is there applied. 

UT what sorts of witches so ever M. Mai. or Bodin saie 
there are ; Moses spake onlie of foure kinds of impious 
couseners or witches (whereof our witchmongers old 
I women which danse with the fairies, &c ; are none.) The 
first were Prcestii^iatores Pharaotiis, which (as all divines, both 
Hebrues and others conclude) were but couseners and jugglers, 
deceiving the kings eies with illusions and sleights ; and making false 
things to appeare as true : which nevertheles our witches cannot 
doo. The seconu is Mecasapha, which is she that destroieth with 
poison. The third are such as use sundrie kinds of divinations, and 
hereunto perteine these words, Kasam, Onen, Ob, Idoni. The fourth 
is Habar, to wit : when magicians, or rather such, as would be re- 
puted cunning therein, mumble certeine secret words, wherin is 
thought to be great efficacie. 

These are all couseners and abusers of the people in their severall 
kinds. But bicause they are all termed of our translators by the 
name of witches in the Bible : therefore the lies of M. Mai. and 
Bodin, and all our old wives tales are applied unto these names, and 
easilie beleeved of the common people, who have never hitherto beene 
instructed in the understanding of these words. In which respect, I 
will (by Gods grace) shew you (concerning the signification of them) 
the opinion of the most learned in our age ; speciallie of Johannes 
IVierus ; who though hee himselfe were singularlie learned in the 
toongs, yet for his satisfaction and full resolution in the same, he sent 
for the judgement of Andrccas Massitis, the most famous Hebrician in 
the world, and had it in such sense and order, as I meane to set 
downe unto you. And yet I give you this note by the waie, that 
witchcraft or inchantment is diverslie taken in the scriptures ; som- 
times nothing tending to such end as it is commonlie thought to doo. 
For in i Sajmuell, 15, 23. it is all one with rebellion. Jesabell iorhxr 
idolatrous life / is called a witch. Also in the new testament, even S. 
Paule saith the Galathians are bewitched, bicause they were seduced 
and lead from the true understanding of the scriptures. 

Item sometimes it is taken in good part ; as the magicians that came 
to worship and offer to Christ: and also where Daniellxs said to be 
an inchanter, yea a principall inchanter : which title being given him 
in divers places of that storie, he never seemeth to refuse or dislike ; 


I. Praestigi- 


2. Mecasa- 

3. Kasam. 

4. Habar. 

[or Masiiis] 


1. Sa. 15, 23. 

2. Re. 9, 22. 83. 
Gal. 3, I. 

Matth. 2, I. 
Daniel. 4. 


t;. Bnoke. 

TJie discoverie 

Dan. 2, 8. 
Actes. 19. 

Gen. 4, 18. 
Exod. 7, 
13, &c. 
Acts 13. 
Exod. 23, 

Acts. 13. 
Acts. 19. 
of Salo- 
mon, cap. 
verse. 9. 


Deut. 18, 2. 
Jerem. 27. 
Acts. 8. 

but rather intreateth for the pardon and quahfication of the rigor 
towards other inchanters, which were meere couseners indeed : as 
appeareth in the second chapter of Daniell, where you may see that 
the king espied their fetches. 

Sometimes such are called conjurors, as being but roges, and lewd 
people, would use the name of Jesus to worke miracles, whereby, 
though they being faithlesse could worke nothing ; yet is their practise 
condemned by the name of conjuration. Sometimes jugglers are 
called witches. Sometimes also they are called sorcerers, that 
impugne the gospell of Christ, and seduce others with violent per- 
suasions. Sometimes a murtherer with poison is called a witch. 
Sometimes they are so termed by the verie signification of their 
names ; as E/zaias, which signifieth a sorcerer. Sometimes bicause 
they studie curious and vaine arts. Sometimes it is taken for woond- 
ing or greeving of the hart. Yea the verie word Magus, which is 
Latine for a magician, is translated a witch ; and yet it was hertofore 
alwaies taken in the good part. And at this dale it is indifferent to 
sale in the English toong ; She is a witch ; or, She is a wise woman. 

Sometimes observers of dreames, sometimes soothsaiers, sometimes 
the observers of the flieng of foules, of the meeting of todes, the fall- 
ing of salt, &c : are called witches. Sometimes he or she is called a 
witch, that take upon them either for gaine or glorie, to doo miracles ; 
and yet can doo nothing. Sometimes they are called witches in 
common speech, that are old, lame, curst, or melancholike, as a nick- 
name. But as for our old women, that are said to hurt children with 
their eies, or lambs with their lookes, or that pull downe 
the moone out of heaven, or make so foolish a bargaine, 
or doo such homage to the divell ; you shall 
not read in the bible of any such 
witches, or of any such actions 
imputed to them.// 

of ]Vitchcraff. ch.ip. i. 89 

Tf The sixt Booke. m. 84. 

The first Chapter. 

The exposition of this Hebriie word Chasaph, wherein is answered 
the objectio7t conteined in Exodus 22. to wit : Thou shalt not 
stiffer a witch to live, and of Simon Magus. Acts. 8. 

HASAPH, being an Hebrue word, is Latined Veneficiuni, 
and is in English, poisoning, or witchcraft ; if you will 
so have it. The Hebrue sentence written in Exodus., 22. 
is by the 70. interpretors translated thus into Greeke, 

^apixuKovi ovK eTTi^eivaeTe, which in Latine is, Veneficos {sive) ve7ieficas 

non retifiebitis in vita, in English, You shall not suffer anie poisoners, 

or (as it is translated) witches to live. The which sentence fosephies Joseph, in 

an Hebrue borne, and a man of great estimation, learning and fame, Jntiquitat. 

interpreteth in this wise ; Let none of the children of Israel have any 

poison that is deadlie, or prepared to anie hurtful! use. If anie be 

apprehended with such stuffe, let him be put to death, and suffer that 

which he ment to doo to them, for whom he prepared it. The Rabbins 

exposition agree heerewithall. Lex Cornelia differeth not from this 

sense, to wit, that he must suffer death, which either maketh, selleth, 

or hath anie poison, to the intent to kill anie man. This word is found 

in these places following : Exodus. 22, 18. Deut. 18, 10. 2. Sam. 

9, 22. Da7i. 2, 2. 2. Chr. 2,% 6. Esay. 47, 9, 12. Malach, 3, 5. ferem. 

27, 9. Mich. 5, 2. Nah. 3, 4. bis. Howbeit, in all our English / trans- 112. 

lations, Chasaph is translated, witchcraft. 

And bicause I will avoid prolixitie and contention both at once, I 
will admit that Vencficce were such witches, as with their poisons did 
much hurt among the children of Israeli ; and I will not denie that 
there remaine such untill this daie, bewitching men, and making 
them beleeve, that by vertue of words, and certeine ceremonies, they 
bring to passe such mischeefes, and intoxications, as they indeed 
accomplish by poisons. And this abuse in cousenage of people, 
together with the taking of Gods name in vaine, in manie places of 
the scripture is reprooved, especiallie by the name of witchcraft, even 
where no poisons are. According to the sense which S. Paule useth 
to the Galathians in these words, where he sheweth plainelie, that 
the true signification of witchcraft is cousenage ; O ye foolish Gala- Gal. ?, i. 



6. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Job. 15, 13. 

Acts. 8, 9. 



I. Reg. 8, 39. 
Matth. 9. 4. 
12. 25. 22. 
Acts. I, 24. 
& IS, 8. 
Rom. 8, 27. 
Mark. 2. 
Luk. 6, 17. & 

II. & 9. 
Joh. I & 2. 
& 6. & 13. 
Apoc. 2. &. 3. 
Luk. II, 29. 

Eccl. 34, 5. 

Eccl. 34, 8. 
Levi. 19, 31. 

tJnatis (saith he) who hath bewitched you ? to wit, cousened or abused 
you, making you beleeve a thing which is neither so nor so. Whereby 
he meaneth not to aske of them, who have with charmes, &c : or with 
poisons deprived them of their health, Hfe, cattail, or children, Sic: 
but who hath abused or cousened them, to make them beleeve lies. 
This phrase is also used hy Job. 15. But that we may be throughlie 
resolved of the true meaning of this phrase used by Paiile, Gal. 3. 
let us examine the description of a notable witch called Simon 
Magus, made by S. Luke ; There was (saith he) in the citie of 
Samaria, a certeine man called Simon, / which used witchcraft, and 
bewitched the people of Smnaria, saieng that he himself was some 
great man. I demand, in what other thing here do we see anie 
witchcraft, than that he abused the people, making them beleeve he 
could worke miracles, whereas in truth he could doo no such thing ; 
as manifestlie may appeare in the 13. and 19. verses of the same 
chapter : where he wondered at the miracles wrought by the apostles, 
and would have purchased with monie the power of the Holy-ghost 
to worke wonders. 

It will be said, the people had reason to beleeve him, bicause it is 
written, that he of long time had bewitched them with sorceries. 
But let the bewitched Galathians be a warning both to the bewitched 
Samaritans, and to all other that are cousened or bewitched through 
false doctrine, or legierdemaine ; least while they attend to such 
fables and lies, they be brought into ignorance,/ and so in time be led 
with them awaie from God. And finallie, let us all abandon such 
witches and couseners, as with Simon Magus set themselves in the 
place of God, boasting that they can doo miracles, expound dreames, 
foretell things to come, raise the dead, &c : which are the workes of 
the Holy-ghost, who onlie searcheth the heart and reines, and onelie 
worketh great wonders, which are now staied and accomplished in 
Christ, in whome who so stedfastlie beleeveth shall not need to be 
by such meanes resolved or confirmed in his doctrine and gospell. 
And as for the unfaithful!, they shall have none other miracle shewed 
unto them, but the signe of Jonas the prophet. 

And therefore I saie, whatsoever they be that with Simon Magus 
take upon them to worke such wonders, by sooth saieng, sorcerie, or 
witchcraft, are but Hers, deceivers, and couseners, according to Syrachs 
saieng ; Sorcerie, witchcraft, soothsaieng, and dreames, are but 
vanitie, and the lawe shalbe fulfilled without such lies. God com- 
manded the people, that they should not regard them that wrought 
with spirits, nor soothsaiers : for the estimation that was attributed 
unto them, offended God. 

of Witchcraft. chap. :. 91 

The second Chapter, 

The place of Detiteronoinie expounded, ivherin are recited all kind 
of witches J also their opinions confuted, whicJi hold that they can 
worke such miracles as are imputed unto them. 

[he greatest and most common objection is, that if there 
were not some, which could worke such miraculous or 
supernaturall feats, by themselves, or by their divels, it Deut. i8. i 
should not have beene said ; Let none be found among 
you, that maketh his sonne or his daughter to go through the fier, or 
that useth witchcraft, or is a regarder of times, or a marker of the 
flieng of fowles, or a sorcerer, or a charmer, or that counselleth with 
spirits, or a soothsaier, or that asketh counsell of the dead, or (as 
some translate it) / that raiseth the dead. But as there is no one place 114. 
in the scripture that saith they can worke miracles, so it shalbe easie 
to proove, that these were all couseners, everie one abusing the people 
in his/severall kind ; and are accurssed of God. Not that they can 86. 
doo all such things indeed, as there is expressed ; but for that they 
take upon them to be the mightie power of God, and to doo that 
which is the onelie worke of him, seducing the people, and blas- 
pheming the name of God, who will not give his glorie to anie Esay. 43, i 
creature, being himselfe the king of glorie and omnipotencie. ^^- ^'^' ^■ 

First I aske, what miracle was wrought by their passing through 
the fier .? Trulie it cannot be prooved that anie effect followed ; but 
that the people were bewitched, to suppose their sinnes to be purged 
thereby -, as the Spaniards thinke of scourging and whipping them- 
selves. So as Gods power was imputed to that action, and so for- 
bidden as an idolatrous sorcerie. What woonders worketh the 
regarder of times ? What other divell dealeth he withall, than with 
the spirit of superstition ? Doth he not deceive himselfe and others, 
and therefore is worthilie condemned for a witch .'' What spirit useth 
he, which marketh the flieng of fowles .'' Nevertheles, he is here con- 
demned as a practiser of witchcraft ; bicause he couseneth the people, 
and taketh upon him to be a prophet ; impiouslie referring Gods 
certeine ordinances to the flittering fethers and uncerteine waies of a 
bird. The like effects produceth sorcerie, charming, consultation with 
spirits, soothsaieng, and consulting with the dead : in everie of the 
which Gods power is obscured, his glorie defaced, and his commande- 
ment infringed. 

And to proove that these soothsaiers and witches are but lieng 
mates and couseners ; note these words pronounced by God himselfe, 

92 6. Bookc. The discoverie 

Deut. i8, 14 even in the selfe same place to the children of Israeli : Although the 

Gentiles suftered themselves to be abused, so as they gave eare to 
these sorcerers, &c : he would not suffer them so, but would raise 
them a prophet, who should speake the truth. As if he should saie ; 
The other are but lieng and cousening mates, deceitful) and under- 
mining merchants, whose abuses I will make knowne to my people. 
And that everie one male be resolved herein, let the last sentence of 
this precept be well weighed ; to wit, Let none be found among you, 
• 115- that asketh counsell of (or rai/seth the dead.) 

?^P- 3^'- First you know the soules of the righteous are in the hands of God, 

Luk. 16, 23. •' ^ ' 

and resting with Lazarus in Abrahams bosome, doo sleepe in Jesus 

Christ. And from that sleepe, man shall not be raised, till the heavens 

J,"^",'^;'^' be no more : according to this of David ; Wilt thou shew woonders 

Psal 88, 10. 

Deut. 18, II. among the dead 1 Nay, the Lord saith, The living shall not be 

^uk. 16. 29. taught by the dead, but by the living. As for the unrighteous, they 

are in hell, where is no redemption ; neither is there anie passage 

Luk. 16, 22. from heaven to earth, but by God and his angels. As touching the 

joh. 5, 21. resurrection and restauration of the bodie, read John. 5. and you 

shall manifestlie see, that it is the onelie worke of the father, who hath 

given the power therof to the sonne, and to none other, &c. Domimis 

Ose. 6. percuttt, &^ ipse medehtr : Ego occidam, £r= ego vivefaciavi. And in 

^ as. 17. 25. manie other places it is written, that God giveth life and beeing to all. 

Tim. 6,13. Although Plato, with his maister Socrates, the cheefe pillers of these 

vanities, say, that one Parnphiins was called up out of hel, who when 

he cam among the people, told manie incredible tales concerning 

87. infernall actions. But herein I take up the proverbe ;/ Amiais 

Plato, amicus Socrates, sed major arnica Veritas. 

So as this last precept, or last part thereof, extending to that which 
neither can be done by witch nor divell, male well expound the other 
parts and points therof. For it is not ment hereby, that they can 
doo such things indeed ; but that they make men beleeve they doo 
them, and thereby cousen the people, and take upon them the office 
of God, and therewithall also blaspheme his holie name, and take it 
in vaine ; as by the words of charmes and conjurations doo appeare, 
which you shall see, if you looke into these words, Habar and Idoni. 

In like manner I saie you may see, that by the prohibition of divi- 
nations by augurie, and of soothsaiengs, &c, who are witches, and can 
indeed doo nothing but lie and cousen the people, the lawe of God 
condemneth them not, for that they can worke miracles, but bicause 
26. qiice. 7. noti. they saie they can doo that which perteineth to God, and for cou- 
1398. fl?/.'i7. senage, &c. Concerning other points of witchcraft conteined therein, jjj^fj bicause some cannot otherwise be satisfied, I will alledge under 

sl^irit. & am- 

ma. ca/>. 28. One Sentence, the decretals, the mind oi S. A /a^ustine, the conncell 

of Witchcraft. Chap. 3. 93 

Aurelian, and the determination of/ Paris, to wit : Who so observeth, ii6. 
or giveth heed unto soothsaiengs, divinations, witchcraft, (S:c, or doth 
give credit to anie such, he renounceth christianitie, and shalbe 
counted a paganc, & an enemie to God ; yea and he eneth both in 
faith and philosophie. And the reason is therewithal! expressed in 
the canon, to wit ; Bicause hereby is attributed to a creature, that 
which perteineth to God oneHe and alone. So as, under this one 
sentence (Thou shalt not suffer a poisoner or a witch to live) is for- 
bidden both murther and witchcraft ; the murther consisting in 
poison ; the witchcraft in cousenage or blasphemie. 

The third Chapter. 

That women have used poisoning in all ages more than men, a7id of 
the inconve7iience of J)oisotiing. 

S women in all ages have beene counted most apt to 
conceive witchcraft, and the divels special! instruments 
therin, and the onelie or cheefe practisers therof : so 
also it appeareth, that they have been the first inventers, 
and the greatest practisers of poisoning, and more naturallie addicted 
and given thereunto than men : according to the saieng of Quintilian ; 
Latrocinium faciliits in viro, veneficium iti fwmina credatn. From 
whom Plinie differeth nothing in opinion, when he saith, Scientiam pun. lib. 25. 
fvminariem in tieneficiis pravalere. To be short, Atigustine, Livie, ^"^' ^" 
Valerius, Diodortis, and manie other agree, that women were the 
first inventers and practisers of the art of poisoning. As for the rest 
of their cunning, in what estimation it was had, may appeare by these 
verses of Horace, wherein he doth not onelie declare the vanitie of 
witchcraft, but also expoundeth the other words, wherewithal! we are 
now in hand. 

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnos lemures, portentdqj Thessala rides : // 

These dreatnes and terrors magicall, ny. 88. 

these miracles and witches, 
Night- walkitig sprites, or Thessal bugs, 

esteeme them not twoo rushes. 

Here Horace (you see) contemneth as ridiculous, all our witches 
cunning: marrie herein he comprehendeth not their poisoning art, 
which hereby he onelie seemed to thinke hurtful!. Pythagoras and 
Democritus give us the names of a great manie magical! hearbs and 
stones, whereof now, both the vertue, and the things .'lemselves also 
are unlcnowne: as Marmaritin, whereby spirits might be raised: 


The discoverie 

Ovid, mela- 
morph. lib. 

Englished by 
Abraham nS. 

Archtmedon, which would make one bewraie in his sleepe, all the 
secrets in his heart: AdincaJitida, Ca/icta, Alevais, Chirocineta, &^c: 
which had all their severall vertues, or rather poisons. But all these 
now are worne out of knowledge: marrie in their steed we have hogs 
turd and chervill, as the onelie thing whereby our witches worke 

Trulie this poisoning art called Vcncjicmin, of all others is most 
abhominable; as whereby murthers male be committed, where no 
suspicion male be gathered, nor anie resistance can be made; the 
strong cannot avoid the weake, the wise cannot prevent the foolish, 
the godlie cannot be preserved from the hands of the wicked; children 
male hereby kill their parents, the servant the maister, the wife hir 
husband, so privilie, so inevitablie, and so incurablie, that of all other 
it hath beene thought the most odious kind of murther; according to 
the saieng of Ovid: 

non hospes ab hospite iutits, 

Non socer d, genero.,fratruni qiidqj gratia rara est : 

Imininet exitio vir conjugis, ilia matiti, 

Lurida terribiles niiscent aconita 7ioverc(E, 

Filiiis ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. / 

The travelling ghest opprest -. 

Dooth stand in danger of his host, \ 
the host eke of his ghest : i 

The father of his sonne in laive, •' 

yea rare is seene to rest 

Tivixt brethren love and amitie, 
and kindnesse void of strife; 

The Misband seekes the goodwifes death, 
and his againe the wife. 

Ungentle stepdanies grizlie poi- 
son temper and doo give : 

The Sonne too soone dooth aske how long 
Ids father is to live. 

The monke that poisoned king John, was a right Venefiais ; to 
wit, both a witch and a murtherer: for he killed the king with poison, 
[Misp. 86] 89. and / persuaded the people with lies, that he had doone a good and 
a meritorious act; and doubtlesse, manie were so bewitched, as they 
thought he did verie well therein. Antoniiis Sabellicns writeth of a 
horrible poisoning murther, committed by women at Rome, where 
were executed (after due conviction) 170. women at one time ; 
besides 20. women of that consort, who were poisoned with that poison 
which they had prepared for others. / 

Acncid. 4 
lib 4. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 4. nr 

The fourth Chapter. ug. 

Of divers poisoning practises, otherwise called venejicia, committed 
in Italie, Gemta, Millen, Wiitenberge, also how they were dis- 
covered and executed. 

NOTHER practise, not unlike to that mentioned in the Venefica 
former chapter, was doone in Cassalis at Salassia in '" ^'^''^' 
Italic, Anno 1536. where 40. Venejicce or witches being of 
one confederacie, renewed a plague which was then 
almost ceased, besmeering with an ointment and a pouder, the posts 
and doores of mens houses ; so as thereby whole families were 
poisoned: and of that stuffe they had prepared above 40. crocks for 
that purpose. Herewithall they conveied inheritances as it pleased 
them, till at length they killed the brother and onelie sonne of one 
Necus (as lightlie none died in the house but the maisters and their 
children) which was much noted; and therewithall that one Andro- 
giita haunted the houses, speciallie of them that died: and she being 
suspected, apprehended, and examined, confessed the fact, conspiracie, 
and circumstance, as hath beene shewed. The like villanie was 
afterwards practised at Genua, and execution was doone upon the veneficae 
offenders. At Milleti there was another like attempt that tooke none ^" Genua 
effect. This art consisteth as well in poisoning of cattell as of men: 
and that which is doone by poisons unto cattell, towards their destruc- 
tion, is as commonlie attributed to witches charms as the other. And 
I doubt not, but some that would be thought cunning in incantations, 
and to doo miracles, have experience in this behalf For it is written 
by divers authors, that if wolves doong be hidden in the mangers, 
racks, or else in the hedges about the pastures, where cattell go 
(through the antipathie of the nature of the woolfe and other cattell) 
all the beasts that savour the same doo not onlie forbeare to eate, but 
run about as though they were mad, or (as they say) bewitched. 

But Wierus telleth a notable storie of a Venejiciis, or destroier/ of 120. 
cattell, which I thought meete heere to repeat. There was (saith he) Of a but- 
in the dukedome of Wittijigberge, not farre from Tubing, a butcher, veneficau''^ 
anno 1564. that bargained with the towne for all their hides which which [? witch.] 
were of sterven cattell, called in these parts Morts. He with poison 
privilie killed in great numbers, their bullocks, sheepe, swine, &c: and 
by his bargaine of the hides and tallowe he grew infinitlie rich. 
And at last being suspected, was examined, confessed the matter and 
maner thereof, and was put to death with hot tongs, wherewith his 
flesh was pulled from his bones. We for / our parts would have killed 90. 
five poore women, before we would suspect one rich butcher. 


6. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

Levit. 19, 33. 

The fift Chapter. 

A great objeciio7i ansiuered concerning tliis kind of tuitchcraft 
called Veneficiitm. 

IT is objected, that if Veneficitim were comprehended 
under the title of manslaughter, it had beene a vaine 
repetition, and a disordered course undertaken by Moses, 
to set foorth a lawe against Veneficas severallie. But it 
might suffice to answer any reasonable christian, that such was the 
pleasure of the Holie-ghost, to institute a particular article herof, as 
of a thing more odious, wicked and dangerous, than any other kind of 
murther. But he that shall read the lawe of Moses, or the testament 
of Christ himselfe, shall find this kind of repetition and reiteration of 
the law most common. For as it is written Exod. ii, 21. Thou shalt 
not greeve nor afflict a stranger, for thou wast a stranger in the land of 
Aegypt: so are the same words found repeated in Levit. 19, 33. Polling 
and shaving of heads and beards is forbidden in Dent. 27. which was 
before prohibited in 22. It is written in Exodus the 20. Thou shalt 
not steale : and it is repeated in Leviticus 19. and in Detit. 5. Mur- 
ther is generallie forbidden in Exod. 20. and likewise in 22. and 
repeated in Num. 35. But the aptest example is, that magicke is 
forbidden in three severall places, to wit, once/ in Levit. 19. and twise 
in Levit. 20. For the which a man might as well cavill with the 
Holie-ghost as for the other. 

The sixt Chapter. 

In what kind of cojifections that witchcraft, which is called Veni- 
ficiuin, cotisisteth : of love cups, and the same confuted by poets. 

S touching this kind of witchcraft, the principall part 
thereof consisteth in certeine confections prepared by 
lewd people to procure love; which indeed are meere 
poisons, bereaving some of the benefit of the braine, and 
so of the sense and understanding of the mind. And from some it 
taketh awaie life, & that is more common than the other. These be 
called Philtra, or Pocula amatoria, or Venenosa poctda, or Hippo- 
jnanes; which bad and blind physicians rather practise, than witches 
or conjurers, &c. But of what value these babies are, towards the 
end why they are provided, may appeere by the opinions of poets 
themselves, from whence was derived the estimation of that stuffe. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 5. 


And first you shall heare what (?7//^saith, who wrote of the verie art 
of love, and that so cunninglie and feefinglie, that he is reputed the 
speciall doctor in that science : 

Falliticr JLmonias si guts decurrit ad artes, 
Ddtq; quod h teneri froiite revellit equi. 
Nonfacient ut vivat amor Medeides herbcr^j 
Mistdq; cum 7nagicis mersa veticna sonis. 
Phasias A£sottidefn, Circe te7iuisset Ulyssem, 
Si modb servari carmine posset amor : 
Nee data profuerint pallentia philtra puellis, 
Philtra fiocent animis, vlrnq; furoris habetit.l 

Who so dooth rtin to Hcemon arts, 

I dub him for a dolt, 
And giveth that which he dootli plucke 

Jrom forhead of a colt : 
Medeas herbs will not procttre 

that love shall lasting live, 
Nor steeped poison mixed with ma- 

gicke charms the same can give. 
The witch Medea had full fast 

held Jason for hir owne, 
So had the grand witch Circe too \ 

Ulysses, if alone y 

With charms 7naifiteind &= kept might be 

the love of iwaine in otie. 
No slibbersawces given to maids, 

to make them pale and wan. 
Will helpe : such slibbersawces marre 

the minds of maid and mail, 
A?td have in them a furiotis force 

of phrensie now and than. 

Viderit Aemoftice si quis mala pabiila terrcc, 
Et magicas artes posse juvare putat. 

If any thinke that evill herbs 

iti Hcemon lattd which be, 
Or witchcraft able is to helpe, 

let him make pro of e and see. 

These verses precedent doo shew, that Ovid knew that those/ 
beggerlie sorceries might rather kill one, or make him starke mad, 
than doo him good towards the atteinement of his pleasure or love; 


Ovid. lib. 
de arte a- 



Englislied by 



ces to pro- 
cure love. 

Ovid. lib. de 
reniedio a- 
moris. i. 

Ab. Flevung. 



6. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Englished by 



and therefore he giveth this counsell to them that are amorous in 
such hot maner, that either they must enjoy their love, or else needs 
die; saieng: 

Sit proail onine 7tefas, uf aineris muabilis esto : 

Farre off be all unlawfull iiieaiies 

ihoii amiable bee., 
Loving I meane, that she with love 

viay quite the love of thee. \ 

in Ruff. 
Plin. lib. 25. 
cap. 3. Joseph 
lib. II. de ju- 
de^otum anti- 

Aristot. lib. 
8. de ftatura 
cap. 24. 
Jo. IVier. 
de venef. 
cap. 40. 

Toies to 



92. The seventh Chapter. 

// is proved by more credible writers, that love cups rather ingender 
death through venojite, thatt love by art: and with what toies 
they destroie cattell., and procure love. 

||UT bicause there is no hold nor trust to these poets, who 
saie and unsaie, dallieng with these causes; so as indeed 
the wise may perceive they have them in derision : let 
us see what other graver authors speake hereof. Euse- 
bius CcEsariensis writeth, that the poet Lucretius was killed with one 
of those lovers poisoned cups. Hieronie reporteth that one Livia 
herewith killed hir husband, whome she too much hated ; and 
Lucilla killed hirs, whome she too much loved. Calisthenes killed 
Lucius Lucjillus the emperor with a love pot, as Plutarch and 
Cornelius Nepos saie. Plinie & Josephus report, that Ccesonia killed 
hir husband Caligula Amatorio poculo with a lovers cup, which was 
indeed starke poison. Aristotle saith, that all which is beleeved 
touching the efficacie of these matters, is lies and old wives tales. He 
that will read more arguments and histories concerning these poisons, 
let him looke in J. Wier De Venejiciis. / 
124. The toies, which are said to procure love, and are exhibited in their 
poison looving cups, are these: the haire growing in the nethermost 
part of a woolves taile, a woolves yard, a little fish called Retnora, the 
braine of a cat, of a newt, or of a lizzard: the bone of a greene frog, the 
flesh thereof being consumed with pismers or ants; the left bone 
whereof ingendereth (as they saie) love; the bone on the right side, 
hate. Also it is said, that a frogs bones, the flesh being eaten 
off round about with ants, whereof some will swim, and some will 
sinke: those that sinke, being hanged up in a white linnen cloth, 
ingender love, but if a man be touched therewith, hate is bred thereby. 
Another experiment is thereof, with yoong swalowes, whereof one 
brood or nest being taken and buried in a crocke under the ground, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 8. 


till they be starved up; they that be found open mouthed, serve to 
engender love; they whose mouthes are shut, serve to procure hate. 
Besides these, manie other follies there be to this purpose proposed 
to the simple ; as namelie, the garments of the dead, candels that 
burne before a dead corps, and needels wherwith dead bodies are 
sowne or sockt into their sheetes: and diverse other things, which for 
the reverence of the reader, and in respect of the uncleane speach to 
be used in the description thereof, I omit; which (if you read Diosco- 
rides, or diverse other learned physicians) you male see at large. In 
the meane while, he that desireth to see more experiments concerning 
this matter, let him read Leonardus Vairus de fascino, now this 
present yeare 1583. newlie published ; wherein (with an incestuous 
mouth) he afifirmeth directlie, that Christ and his apostles were finem. 
Voiefici ; verie fondlie prosecuting that argument, and with as much 
popish follie as may be; labouring to proove it lawful! to charmn and 
inchant vermine, &:c. / / 

Dioscorid. de 
viateria me- 

L. Vairus de 
fascin. lib. 2. 
cap. II. prope 

The eight Chapter. 123. 93. 

John Bodin trhtviphing against John Wier is overtaken with false 
Greeke &= false interpretation thereof. 

ONSIEUR BODIN triumpheth over doctor IVier herein, % Bodin. 
pronouncing a heavie sentence upon him ; bicause he 
referreth this word to poison. But he reigneth or rather 
rideth over him, much more for speaking false Greeke ; 
affirming that he calleth Veneficos ^apfiaKevav}, which is as true as 
the rest of his reports and fables of witches miracles conteined in 
his bookes of divelish devises. For in truth he hath no such word, 
but saith they are called ^apfiaKeveis, whereas he should have said 
^ap/iiaKec9, the true accent being omitted, and ev being interposed, 
which should have beene left out. Which is nothing to the substance 
of the matter, but must needs be the Printers fault. 

But Bodin reasoneth in this wise, (^apfiaKeli is sometimes put 
for Magos or Prcestigiatores : Ergo in the translation of the Septu- 
aginta, it is so to be taken. Wherein he manifesteth his bad 
Logicke, more than the others ill Greeke. For it is well knowne to 
the learned in this toong, that the usuall and proper signification of 
this word, with all his derivations and compounds doo signifie 
Veneficos, Poisoners by medicine. Which when it is most usuall and 
proper, why should the translators take it in a signification lesse 
usuall, and nothing proper. Thus therefore he reasoneth and con- 
cludeth with his new found Logicke, and old fond Greeke ; Some- 

lOO 6. nooke. The discoverie 

times it signifieth so, though unproperlie, or rather metaphoricalHe; 
Ergo in that place it is so to be taken, when another fitter word 
might have beene used. Which argument being vaine, agreeth well 
with his other vaine actions. The Scptiiaginta had beene verie desti- 
tute of words, if no proper word could have beene found for this 
purpose. But where they have occasion to speake of witchcraft in 
their translations, they use Magia7t, Maggagian, &c : and 
therfore belike they see some difference betwixt 
them and the other, and knew some 
cause that mooved them to use 

the word (pap/naKe/a, 
Venejiciutn. j / 

of Witchcraft. 

Cliap. I. 


Tf The seventh Booke. 

126. 94. 

The first Chapter. 

Of the Hebrue word Ob, what it signifieth where it is fottnd, of 
Pythonisses called VentriloqucB, who they be, and what their 
practises are, experience and examples thereof shewed. 

HIS word Ob, is translated Pytho, or Pythonicus spiritus : 
Deutre. 18. Isaie. 19. i. Sam. 28. 2. Reg. 23. &c : som- 
time, though unproperlie, Magus as 2. Sam. 33. But Ob 
signifieth most properlie a bottle, and is used in this place, 
bi cause the /"//"// r';//'V/.f spake hollowe ; as in thebottome of their bellie?, 
whereby they are aptlie in Latine called Ventriloqtd : of which sort was 
Elizabeth Barton, the holie maid of Kent, &.C. These are such as 
take upon them to give oracles, to tell where things lost are become, 
and finallie to appeach others of mischeefs, which they themselves 
most commonlie have brought to passe : whereby many times they 
overthrowe the good fame of honest women, and of such others of 
their neighbors, with whome they are displeased. For triall hereof, 
letting passe a hundred cousenages that I could recite at this time, 
I will begin with a true storie of a wench, practising hir diabolicall 
witchcraft, and ventriloquie An. 1574. at Westwell in Kent, within six 
miles where I dwell, taken and noted by twoo ministers and preachers 
of Gods word, foure substantial! yeomen, and three women of good 
fame & reputation, whose names are after written./ 

Mildred, the base daughter of Alice Norrington, and now servant 
to William Sp07ier of Westwell in the countie of Kent, being of the 
age of seventeene yeares, was possessed with sathan in the night and 
dale aforesaid. About two of the clocke in the afternoone of the 
same day, there came to the same Sponers house Roger Newman 
minister of Westwell, fohn Brainford minister of Kenington, with 
others, whose names are underwritten, who made their praiers unto 
God, to assist them in that needfull case ; and then commanded 
sathan in the name of the eternall God, and of his sonne Jesus 
Christ, to speake with such a voice as they might understand, and to 
declare from whence he came. But he would not speake, but rored 
and cried mightilie. And though we did command him manie 
times, in the name of God, and of his sonne Jesus Christ, and in his 

The holie 
maid of 
Kent a ven- 

An. Domi. 7^7 


Octob. 13. 

this storie 
with the 
woman of 
I. Sam. 28. 
and see 
the same 
might not 
be accom- 
plished by 
this devise. 

102 7-Booke. The discover ie 

mightie power to speake ; yet he would not : untill he had gon 

through all his delaies, as roring, crieng, striving, and gnashing of 

teeth ; and otherwhile with mowing, and other terrible countenances, 

and was so strong in the maid, that foure men could scarse hold hir 

downe. And this continued by the space almost of two houres. So 

sometimes we charged him earnestlie to speake ; and againe praieng 

unto GOD that he would assist us, at the last he spake, but verie 

strangelie ; and that was thus ; He comes, he comes : and that 

oftentimes he repeated ; and He goes, he goes. And then we/ 

95. charged him to tell us who sent him. And he said; I laie in her waie 

like a log, and I made hir runne like fier, but I could not hurt hir. 

And whie so, said we .'' Bicause God kept hir, said he. When 

earnest thou to her, said we ? To night in her bed, said he. Then 

we charged him as before, to tell what he was, and who sent him, 

and what his name was. At the first he said, The divell, the divell. 

Then we charged him as before. Then he rored and cried as before, 

and spake terrible words ; I will kill hir, I will kill hir ; I will teare 

hir in peeces, I will teare hir in peeces. We said, Thou shalt not hurt 

hir. He said, I will kill you all. We said, Thou shalt hurt none of 

us all. Then we charged him as before. Then he said, You will 

give me no rest. Wee said. Thou shalt have none here, for thou 

must have no rest within the servants of God : but tell us in the 

name of God what thou art, and who sent thee. Then he said he 

would teare hir in peeces. We said. Thou shalt not hurt hir. Then/ 

128. he said againe he would kill us all. We said againe, Thou shalt hurt 

none of us all, for we are the servants of God. And we charged him 

as before. And he said againe, Will you give me no rest? We said, 

Thou shalt have none here, neither shalt thou rest in hir, for thou 

hast no right in hir, sith Jesus Christ hath redeemed hir with his 

bloud, and she belongeth to him ; and therefore tell us thy name, 

and who sent thee? He said his name was sathan. We said, Who 

sent thee ? He said. Old Alice, old Alice. Which old Alice, said we ? 

Old Alice, said he. Where dwelleth she, said we? In Westwell 

streete, said he. We said. How long hast thou beene with hir? 

These twentie yeares, said he. We asked him where she did keepe 

him? In two bottels, said he. Where be they, said we? In the 

backside of hir house, said he. In what place, said we ? Under the 

wall, said he. Where is the other ? In Keniiigton. In what place, 

said we? In the ground, said he. Then we asked him, what she did 

give him. He said, hir will, hir will. What did shee bid thee doo, 

said we? He said, Kill hir maid. Wherefore did she bid thee kill 

hir, said we ? Bicause she did not love hir, said he. We said ; How 

long is it ago, since she sent thee to hir ? More than a yeare, said he. 

of Witchcraft. chap. i. 103 

Where was that, said we ? At hir masters, said he. Which masters, 
said we ? At hir master Braitifo7'ds at Kenington^ said he. How oft 
wert thou there, said we ? Manie times, said he. Where first, said 
we 1 In the garden, said he : Where the second time .'' In the hall : 
Where the third time .? In hir bed : Where the fourth time? In the 
field : W^here the fift time.? In the court : Where the sixt time? In 
the water, where I cast hir into the mote : Where the seventh time. 
In hir bed. We asked him againe, where else? He said, in 
Westwell. Where there, said we ? In the vicarige, said he. Where 
there? In the loft. How earnest thou to hir, said we? In the like- 
nesse of two birds, said he. Who sent thee to that place, said we ? Old 
Alice^ said he. What other spirits were with thee there, said we? My 
servant, said he. What is his name, said we ? He said, little divell. 
What is thy name, said we ? Sathan, said he. What dooth old Alice 
call thee, said we? Partener, said he. What dooth she give thee, said 
we? Hir will, said he. How manie hast thou killed for hir, said we? 
Three, said he. Who are they, said we ? A man and his child, said/ 
he. What were their names, said we ? The childs name was/ 96. [Mispr. 99 ] 
Edward, said he : what more than Edward, said we ? Edward Ager, I2g. 
said he. What was the mans name, said we ? Richard, said he. 
What more, said we ? Richard Ager, said he. Where dwelt the man 
and the child, said we? At Dig at Dig, said he. This Richard 
Ager of Dig, was a Gentleman of xl. pounds land by the yeare, a 
verie honest man, but would often sale he was bewitched, and 
languished long before he died. Whom else hast thou killed for hir, 
said we ? Woltois wife said he. Where did she dwell ? In West- 
well said he. What else hast thou doone for hir said we ? What 
she would have me, said he. What is that said we ? To fetch 
hir meat, drinke, and corne, said he. Where hadst thou it, said 
we ? In everie house, said he. Name the houses, said we ? 
At Pet mans, at Farmes, at Milieus, at Fullers, and in everie house. 
After this we commanded sathan in the name of Jesus Christ to 
depart from hir, and never to trouble hir anie more, nor anie man 
else. Then he said he would go, he would go : but he went not. 
Then we commanded him as before with some more words. Then 
he said, I go, I go; and so he departed. Then said the maid, He is 
gone, Lord have mercie upon me, for he would have killed me. And 
then we kneeled downe and gave God thanks with the maiden; 
praieng that God would keepe hir from sathans power, and assist hir 
with his grace. And noting this in a peece of paper, we departed. 
Sathans voice did differ much from the maids voice, and all that he 
spake, was in his owne name. Subscribed thus : 


[* Rom.] 

7. Booke. 

The discoverie 
Witnesses to this, that heard and* 

sawe this whole matter, as followeth : 

Roger Newf/ian, vi- "" 
car of Westwell. 

Johti Brainford, vi- 
car of Kennitigton. 

Thomas Tailor. 

Hetirie Tailors wife. 

folui Tailor. "^ 
Thomas French- 
boms wife. I 
\Villia»i Spooner. ' 
fohn Fretichborne, \ 
and his wife, j J 

The ventri- 
loqua of 

The second Chapter. 

How the lewd practise of the Pythonist of Westwell came to light, 
and by whome she 2uas examined ; and that all hir diabolicall 
speach was but ventriloquie and plaiiie coiisenage, which is 
prooved by hir owne confession. 

T is written, that in the latter dales there shalbe shewed 
strange Illusions, &c: in so much as (if it were possible) 
the verie elect shal/be deceived: howbeit, S. Paule saith, 
they shalbe lieng and false woonders. Neverthelesse, 
this sentence, and such like, have beene often laid in my dish, and are 
urged by diverse writers, to approve the miraculous working of witches, 
whereof I will treat more largehe in another place. Howbeit, by the 
waie I must confesse, that I take that sentence to be spoken of Anti- 
christ, to wit: the pope, who miraculouslie, contrarie to nature, 
philosophie, and all divmitie, being of birth and calling base, in 
learning grosse; in valure, beautie, or activitie most commonlie a verie 
lubber, hath placed himselfe in the most loftie and delicate seate, 
putting almost all christian princes heads, not onelie under his girdle, 
but under his foote, &:c. 

Surelie, the tragedie of this Pythonist is not inferior to a thousand 
stories, which will hardlie be blotted out of the memorie and credit 
either of the common people, or else of the learned. How hardlie 
will this storie suffer discredit, having testimonie of such authoritie t 
How could mother Alice escape condemnation and hanging, being 
arreigned upon this evidence ; when a poore woman hath beene cast 
away, upon a cousening oracle, or rather a false lie, devised by Feats 
the juggler, through the malicious instigation of some of hir adver- 
saries .'' 

But how cunninglie soever this last cited certificat be penned, or 
what shew soever it carrieth of truth and plaine dealing, there maybe 
found conteined therein matter enough to detect the cousening 
knaverie therof. And yet diverse have been deepelie deceived there- 

of Wit die raft. chap. 2. 105 

with, and canhardlie be removed from the cre/dit thereof, and without iji. 
great disdaine cannot endure to heare the reproofe thereof. And 
know you this by the waie, that heretofore Robin goodfellow, and 
Hob gobblin were as terrible, and also as credible to the people, as 
hags and witches be now: and in time to come, a witch will be as 
much derided and contemned, and as plainlie perceived, as the 
illusion and knaverie of Robin goodfellow. And in truth, they that 
mainteine walking spirits, with their transformation, &c: have no 
reason to denie Robin goodfellow, upon whom there hath gone as 
manie and as credible tales, as upon witches ; saving that it hath not 
pleased the translators of the Bible, to call spirits by the name of 
Robin goodfellow, as they have termed divinors, soothsaiers, poi- 
soners, and couseners by the name of witches. 

But to make short worke with the confutation of this bastardlie 
queanes enterprise, & cousenage ; you shall understand, that upon 
the brute of hir divinitie and miraculous transes, she was convented 
before M. Thomas Wotton of Bocton JMalherbe, a man of great 
worship and wisedome, and for deciding and ordering of matters in 
this commonwealth, of rare and singular dexteritie ; through whose 
discreet handling of the matter, with the assistance & aid of M. 
Georj^e Darrell esquire, being also a right good and discreet Justice of The Pvtho- 
the same limit, the fraud was found, the coosenage confessed, and she weiVcou-'^^' 
received condigne punishment. Neither was hir confession woone, T"'^'^ '°'^ 

,. "ir owne 

accordmg to the forme of the Spanish inquisition ; to wit, through confession. 
extremitie of tortures, nor yet by guile or flatterie, nor by presump- 
tions; but through wise and perfect triall of everie circumstance the 
illusion was manifestlie disclosed: not so (I say) as / witches are 98. 
commonlie convinced and condemned ; to wit, through malicious 
accusations, by ghesses, presumptions, and extorted confessions, 
contrarie to sense and possibilitie, and for such actions as they can 
shew no triall nor example before the wise, either by direct or indirect 
meanes; but after due triall she shewed hir feats, illusions, and 
transes, with the residue of all hir miraculous works, in the pre- 
sence of divers gentlemen and gentlewomen of great worship 
and credit, at Bocton Alalherbe, in the house of the 
aforesaid M. Wotton. Now compare this 
wench with the witch of Etidor, & 
you shall see that both the 
cousenages may be 
doone by one 


7. Booke. 

The discoverie 


J. Bodin. lib. 
de dcpmon.},. 
cap. 2. 

The third Chapter. 

Bodins stuffe concerning the Pyihonist of Endor, with a true 
storie of a counterfeit Dutchman. 

PON the like tales dooth Bodin build his doctrine, calling 
them Atheists that will not beleeve him, adding to this 
kind of witchcraft, the miraculous works of diverse 
maidens, that would spue pins, clowts, &c: as one Agnes 
Brigs, and Rachell Finder of London did, till the miracles were 
detected, and they set to open penance. Others he citeth of that 
sort, the which were bound by divels with garters, or some such like 
stuffe to posts, &c: with knots that could not be undone, which is an 
Aegyptians juggling or cousening feat. And of such foolish lies 
joined with bawdie tales, his whole booke consisteth: wherein I 
warrant you there are no fewer than twoo hundreth fables, and as 
manie impossibilities. And as these two wenches, with the maiden 
of Westwell, were detected of cousenage; so Hkewise a Dutchman at 
Maidstone long after he had accomplished such knaveries, to the 
astonishment of a great number of good men, was revealed to be a 
cousening knave; although his miracles were imprinted and published 
at London: anno 1572. with this title before the booke, as foUoweth. 

^ A verle wonderfull and strange mi- 

racle of God, shewed upon a Dutchman of the age of 

23. yeares, which was possessed of ten di- 

vels, and was by Gods mightie providence dis- 

possessed of them againe, the 27. 

of fanuarie last past, 1572. 

UNTO this the Maior of Maidstone, with diverse of his brethren 
subscribed, chieflieby the persuasion/ olNicasius Vatider Schuere, 
99, the mi/nister of the Dutch church there, John Stikelbow, whome (as 
it is there said) God made the instrument to cast out the divels, and 
foure other credible persons of the Dutch church. The historie is so 
strange, & so cunninglie performed, that had not his knaverie after- 
wards brought him into suspicion, he should have gone awaie unsus- 
pected of this fraud. A great manie other such miracles have beene 
latelie printed, whereof diverse have beene bewraied: all the residue 
doubtles, if triall had beene made, would have beene found like unto 
these. But some are more finelie handled than othersome. Some 

of Witchcraft. chap. 4 107 

have more advantage by the simplicitie of the audience, some by the 
majestie and countenance of the confederates ; as namelie, that 
cousening of the holie maid of Kent. Some escape utterlie unsus- 
pected, some are prevented by death; so as that waie their exami- 
nation is untaken. Some are weakelie examined: but the most part 
are so reverenced, as they which suspect them, are rather called to 
their answers, thari the others. 

The fourth Chapter. 

Of the great oracle of Apollo the Pythonist, and how men of all 
sorts have been deceived, and that even the apostles have mistaken 
the nature of spirits, with an unanswerable at-gument, that spirits 
can take 710 shapes. 

|lTH this kind of witchcraft, Apollo and his oracles abused The am- 
and cousened the whole world: which idoll was so famous, gi'es''of°ora- 
thdt I need not stand long in the description thereof. '''^^• 
The princes and monarchs of the earth reposed no small 
confidence therein: the preests, which lived thereupon, were so 
cunning, as they also overtooke almost all the godlie and learned 
men of that age, partlie with their doubtfuU answers; as that which 
was made unto Pyrrhus, in these words, Aio te Aeacida Romanos 
vincere posse, and to C^-cesus his ambassadours in these words, Si 
Crcesus anna Persis inferat, magnum imperium evertat ; and other- 
wise thus, Crcesus Halin / penetrans, magnam subvertet opum vim : or 104. 
thus, Croesus perdet Halin, trangressus plurima regtia, Qy^c: partlie 
through confederacie, whereby they knew mens errands yer they 
came, and partlie by cunning, as promising victorie upon the sacri- 
ficing of some person of such account, as victorie should rather be 
neglected, than the murther accomplished. And if it were, yet should The subtil- 
there be such conditions annexed thereunto, as alwaies remained "eofora- 
unto them a starting hole, and matter enough to cavill upon; as that 
the partie sacrificed must be a virgin, no bastard, &c. Furthermore, 
of two things onelie proposed, and where yea or naie onelie dooth 
answer the question, it is an even laic, that an idiot shall conjecture 
right. So as, if things fell out contrarie, the fault was alwaies in the 
interpretor, and not in the oracle or the prophet. But what mervell, 
(I saie) though the multitude and common people have beene abused 
herein; since lawiers, philosophers, physicians, astronomers, divines, 
generall councels, and princes have with great negligence and 
ignorance been deceived and seduced hereby, as swallowing up and 
de/vouring an inveterate opinion, received of their elders, without due 100. 
examination of the circumstance } 

io8 7Buoke. TJie discoverie 

Howbeit, the godlie and learned fathers (as it appeereth) have 
alwaies had a speciall care and respect, that they attributed not unto 
God such divelish devises; but referred them to him, who indeed is 
the inventer and author thereof, though not the personall executioner, 
in maner and forme as they supposed : so as the matter of faith was 
not thereby by them impeached. But who can assure himselfe not to 
John. 20, 9. be deceived in matters concerning spirits, when the apostles them- 

selves were so far from knowing them, as even after the resurrection 
of Christ, having heard him preach and expound the scriptures, all 
his life time, they shewed themselves not onelie ignorant therein, but 
also to have misconceived thereof? Did not the apostle Tlionias 
thinke that Christ himselfe had beene a spirit; until Christ told him 
plainelie, that a spirit was no such creature, as had flesh and bones, 
the vvhicii (he said) Tlioinas xm^\ see to be in him .'' And for the 
further certifieng and satisfieng of his mind, he commended unto him 
his hands to be scene, and his sides to be felt. Thomas, if the 
answer be true that some make hereunto, to wit : that spirits take 
^35- formes and / shapes of bodies at their pleasure, might have answered 
Christ, and remaining unsatisfied might have said ; Oh sir, what do 
you tell me that spirits have no flesh and bones ? Why they can 
take shapes and formes, and so perchance have you doone. Which 
argument all the witchmongers in the world shall never be able to 

Some of them that mainteine the creation, the transformation, the 
transportation, and transubstantiation of witches, object that spirits are 
not palpable, though visible, and answer the place by me before cited: 
so as the feeling and not the seeing should satisfie Thomas. But 
he that shall well weigh the text and the circumstances thereof, shall 
perceive, that the fault of Thomas his incredulitie was secondlie 
bewraied, and condemned, in that he would not trust his owne eies, 
nor the view taken by his fellow apostles, who might have beene thought 
too credulous in this case, if spirits could take shapes at their pleasure. 

John. 20, jg. Jesus saith to him; Bicause thou hast scene (and not, bicause thou 

hast felt) thou beleevest. Item he saith; Blessed are they that 
beleeve and see not (and not, they that beleeve and feele not.) 
Whereby he noteth that our corporall eies may discerne betwixt a 
spirit and a naturall bodie; reprooving him, bicause he so much 
relied upon his externall senses, in cases where faith should have 
prevailed; & here, in a matter of faith revealed in the word, would 
not credit the miracle which was exhibited unto him in most naturall 
and sensible sort. 

r.mst./ Howbeit, Erastus saith, and so dooth Hyperius, Hemingius, 

Da)i(eus, M. Mai- Bodiii, &^c: that evill spirits jeate, dj'inke, and keepe 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 5. 


companie with men, and that they can take palpable formes of bodies, 

producing examples thereof, to wit: Spectrton Germanicum seu 

Augiistatium, and the angell whose feet Lot washed ; as though 

bicause God can indue his messengers with bodies at his pleasure, 

therefore the divell and everie spirit can doo the like. How the 

eleven apostles were in this case deceived, appeareth in Luke. 24. and vj^J^'^i^'f^^^ 

in Mark. 16. as also in Matth. 14. where the apostles and / disciples Mat. 14, 16. lOl. 

were all deceived, taking Christ to be a spirit, when he walked on the 

sea. And why might they not be deceived herein, as well as in that 

they thought Christ had spoken of a temporall kingdome, when he 

preached of the kingdome of hea/ven .'' Which thing they also much Matth. :;o. 136. 

misconceived; as likewise when he did bid them beware of the Matt. 16, n. 

leven of the Pharisies, they understood that he spake of materiall 


The fift Chapter. 

Why Apollo was called Pytho ivhereof those witches were called 
Pythonists : Gregorie his letter to the divell. 

|UT to returne to our oracle of Apollo at Dclphos, who 
was called Pytho, for that Apollo slue a serpent so called, 
whereof the Pythonists take their name : I praie you con- 
sider well of this tale, which I will trulie rehearse out of 
the ecclesiasticall historic, written by Eusebius^ wherein you shall see 
the absurditie of the opinion, the cousenage of these oraclers, and the 
deceived mind or vaine opinion of so great a doctor bewraied and 
deciphered altogither as followeth. 

Gregorie Neoccesariensis in his jornie and waie to passe over the 
Alpes, came to the temple of Apollo : where Apollos priest living 
richlie upon the revenues and benefit proceeding from that idoU, did 
give great intertainement unto Gregorie, and made him good cheare. 
But after Gregorie was gone, Apollo waxed dumbe, so as the priests 
gaines decaied: for the idoll growing into contempt, the pilgrimage 
ceased. The spirit taking compassion upon the priests case, and upon 
his greefe of mind in this behalfe, appeared unto him, and told him 
flatlie, that his late ghest Gregorie was the cause of all his miserie. 
For (saith the divell) he hath banished me, so that I cannot returne 
without a speciall licence or pasport from him. It was no need to 
bid the priest make hast, for immediatlie he tooke post horsses, and 
galloped after Gregorie, till at length he overtooke him, and then 
expostulated with him for this discourtesie profered in recompense of 
his good cheare; and said, that if he would not be so good unto him, 
as to write his letter to the divell in his belialfe, he should be utterlie/ 

Euseb. lib. 7. 
cap. 25. 

I lO 

7. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Note the 
of oracles. 

7J7. undone. To be short, his importunitie was such, that he obtained 
Gregorie his letter to the divell, who wrote unto him in maner and 
forme following, word for word : Permitto tibi redire in locum ttntm, 
&^ af^ere qiicE co7istievisti \ which is in English; I am content thou 
returne into thy place, and doo as thou wast woont. Immediatlie 
upon the receipt of this letter, the idoll spake as before. And here 
is to be noted, that as well in this, as in the execution of all their 
other oracles and cousenages, the answers were never given Ex tem- 
pore, or in that daie wherein the question was demanded, because 
forsooth they expected a vision (as they said) to be given the night 
following, whereby the cousenage might the more easilie be wrought./ 


Zach. 10. 


IV. Lambert 
in titulo Box- 

The sixt Chapter. 

Apollo, who was called Pytho, coj>ipared to the Rood of grace : 
Gregories letter to the divell confuted. 

HAT need manie words to confute this fable? For if 
Gregorie had beene an honest man, he would never have 
willinglie permitted, that the people should have beene 
further cousened with such a lieng spirit: or if he had 
beene halfe so holie as Eusebitis maketh him, he would not have con- 
sented or yeelded to so lewd a request of the priest, nor have written 
such an impious letter, no not though good might have come thereof. 
And therefore as well by the impossibilitie and follie conteined therein, 
as of the impietie (whereof I dare excuse Gregorie) you male perceive it 
to be a lie. Me thinks they which still mainteine that the divell made 
answer in the idoll oi Apollo, &c; maie have sufficient persuasion to 
revoke their erronious opinions: in that it appeareth in record, that 
such men as were skilfull in augurie, did take upon them to give 
oracles at Delphos, in the place of Apollo : of which number Tisanius 
the Sonne of ^;z/z^r/;«j was one. But vaine is the answer of idols. 
Our Rood of grace, with the helpe of little S. Rtiniball, was not 
inferior to the idoll of Apollo : for these could / not onlie worke 
externall miracles, but manifest the internall thoughts of the hart, I 
beleeve with more livelie shew, both of humanitieand also of divinitie, 
than the other. As if you read M. Lamberts booke of the peram- 
bulation oi Kent, it shall partlie appeare. But if you talke with them 
that have beene beholders thereof, you will be satisfied herein. And 
yet in the blind time of poperie, no man might (under paine of 
damnation) nor without danger of death, suspect the fraud. Naie, 
what papists will yet confesse they were idols, though the wiers that 
made their eies gogle, the pins that fastened them to the postes to 

of Witchcraft. chap. s. 1 1 1 

make them seeme heavie, were seene and burnt together with the 
images themselves, the knaverie of the priests bewraied, and everie 
circumstance thereof detected and manifested ? 

The seventh Chapter. 

How diverse great clarkes ajid good authors have beene abused in 
this matter of spirits through false reports, and by meanes of 
their credulitie have published lies, which are confuted by Aris- 
totle and the scriptures. 

|LUTARCH, Livie, and Valerius Maximus, with manie 
other grave authors, being abused with falfe reports, 
write that in times past beasts spake, and that images 
could have spoken and wept, and did let fall drops of 
blood, yea and could walk from place to place: which they/ sale was 103. 
doone by procuration of spirits. But I rather thinke with Aristotle, 
that it was brought to passe Hominum fir= sacerdotum deceptionibus, 
to wit: by the cousening art of craftie knaves and priests. And there- 
fore let us follow Esaies advise, who saith; When they shall sale unto Esai. 8, 19. 
you, Enquire of them that have a spirit of divination, and at the sooth- 
saiers, which whisper and mumble in your eares to deceive you, &c: 
enquire at your owne God, &c. And so let us doo. And here you 
see they are such as runne into corners, and cousen the people with 
lies, &c. For if they could doo as they saie, they could not aptlie be 
called Hers, / neither need they go into corners to whisper, &c. /j.p 

The eight Chapter. 

Of the witch of Endor, and whether she accomplished the raising of 
Samuel truelie, or by deceipt : the opinion of some divines here- 

[HE woman of Endor is comprised under this word Ob 
for she is called Pythonissa. It is written in 2. Sam. cap. 2. Sam. :8. 
28. that she raised up Samuel from death, and the other 
words of the text are stronglie placed, to inforce his verie 
resurrection. The mind and opinion of Jesus Syrach evidentlie 
appeareth to be, that Samuel in person was raised out from his 
grave, as if you read Eccl. 46. 19, 20. you shall plainlie perceive. 
Howbeit he disputeth not there, whether the storie be true or false, 
but onlie citeth certaine verses of the i. booke of Samuel cap. 18. 
simplie, according to the letter, persuading maners and the imitation 

I 12 

7. Rooke. 

The discoverie 

Sap 3. 
Ps. 92. & 97. 
Chrysost. ho- 
rn Hi a. 21, z« 



August, lib. 
qua:, vet. et 104. 
novi tcstam. 
qucest. 27. 
Item, part. 2. 
cap. 26. 
Item, quis. 5. 
«^<; mi ruin 
ad Sitnpli- 
cian. lib. 2. 93 
ad Dulciti- 
um. quce. 6. 
Item. lib. 2. 
de doct. cltri. 

Deut. 18, 
Exodus. 20. 

of our vertuous predecessors, and repeating the examples of diverse 
excellent men- namelie of Samuel: even as the text it selfe urgeth 
the matter, according to the deceived mind and imagination of Saule, 
and his servants. And therefore in truth, Sirach spake there accord- 
ing to the opinion oi Saule., which so supposed, otherwise it is neither 
heresie nor treason to saie he was deceived. 

He that weigheth well that place, and looketh into it advisedlie, 
shall see that Sainifel was not raised from the dead; but that it was an 
illusion or cousenage practised by the witch. For the soules of the 
righteous are in the hands of God: according to that which Chrysos- 
tonie saith; Soules are in a certeine place expecting judgement, and 
cannot remove from thence. Neither is it Gods will, that the living 
should be taught by the dead. Which things are confirmed and 
approved by the example oi Lazarus and Dives : where it appeareth 
according to Detit. i8. that he will not have the living taught by the 
dead, but will have us sticke to his word, wherein his will and testa- 
ment is declared. In deed / Lyra and Dionyshis incline greatlie to the 
letter. And Lyra saith, that as when Balaam would have raised a divell, 
God interposed himselfe: so did he in this case bring up Samiiell, 
when the witch would have raised hir divell. Which is a probable 
interpretation. But yet they dare not stand to that opinion, least they 
should impeach S. Aiigustines credit, who (they confesse) remained in 
judgement and opinion (without contradiction of the church) / that 
Saimtell was not raised. For he saith directlie, that 6"a;«z^^// himselfe 
was not called up. And indeed, if he were raised, it was either wil- 
linglie, or perforce: if it were willinglie, his sinne had beene equall 
with the witches. 

And Peter Martyr (me thinks) saith more to the purpose, in these 
words, to wit: This must have beene doone by Gods good will, or 
perforce of art magicke: it could not be doone by his good will, 
bicause he forbad it ; nor by art, bicause witches have no power over 
the godlie. Where it is answered by some, that the commandement 
was onlie to prohibit the Jewes to aske counsell of the dead, and so 
no fault in Saimtell to give counsell. We may as well excuse our 

neighbours wife, for consenting to our filthie desires, bicause 
it is onlie written in the decalog ; Thou shalt not desire 
thy neighbours wife. But indeed 6"a;;/?^^?// was direct- 
lie forbidden to answer Saule before he died: 
and therefore it was not likelie that 
God would appoint him, when 
he was dead, to 
doo it. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 9. 1 1 

The ninth Chapter. 

That Samuel was 7iot raised indeed, and how Rodin and all 
papists dote herein^ and that soules cannot be raised by witch- 

URTHERMORE, it is not likelie that God would answer 
Saule by dead Samuell, when he would not answer him 
by living Samuell : and most unlikelie of all, that God 
would answer him by a divell, that denied to doo it by a 
prophet. That he was not brought up perforce, the whole course of 
the scripture witnesseth, and/ prooveth ; as also our owne reason may 141. 
give us to understand. For what quiet rest could the soules of the 
elect enjoy or possesse in Abrahatns bosome, if they were to be 
plucked from thence at a witches call and commandement ? But so 
should the divell have power in heaven, where he is unworthie to 
have anie place himselfe, and therefore unmeete to command others. 

Manie other of the fathers are flatlie against the raising up of 
Satmeell : namelie, Tertullian in his bookeZ?^ anima,/iistine Martyr 
In explications, qua:. 25. Rabamis In epistolis ad Bonas. Abat, Origen 
In historia de Bileanio, &^c. Some other dote exceedinglie herein, 
as namelie Bodin, and all the papists in generall : also Rabbi Sedias 
Haias, & also all the Hebrues, saving 7?. David Kimhi, which is the 
best writer of all the Rabbins : though never a good of them all. But 
Bodin, in maintenance therof, falleth into manie absurdities, prooving % Bod. lib. de 
by the small faults that Saule had committed, that he was an elect : ^'^"^' ^' '^"'^' ^* 
for the greatest matter (saith he) laid unto his charge, is the reserving 
of the Amalekits cattell, &c. He was an elect, &c : confiiming his i. Samu. 28, 
opinion with manie ridiculous fables, & with this argument, to wit : 
His fault was too little to deserve damnation ; for Paule would not i. Cor. 5. 
have the incestuous man punished too sore, that his soule might be j. Martyr in 
saved. Justine Martyr in another place was not onlie deceived in the coiioquio 
actuall raising up of Samuels soule, but affirmed that all the soules of nTjiidL^''^' 
the prophets and just men are subject to the power of witches./ And 105. 
yet were the Heathen much more fond herein, who (as Lactantius Lact. lib. 7. 
affirmeth) boasted that they could call up the soules of the dead, and '^'^^' '•''■ 
yet did thinke that their soules died with their bodies. Whereby is 
to be seene, how alwaies the world hath beene abused in the matters 
of witchcraft & conjuration. The Necromancers affirme, that the 
spirit of anie man may be called up, or recalled (as they terme it) 
before one yeare be past after their departure from the bodie. Which 
C. Agrippa in his booke De occulta philosophia saith, may be doone 




The discoverie 


by certeine naturall forces and bonds. And therefore corpses in times 
past were accompanied and watched with lights, sprinkled with holie 
water, perfumed with incense, and purged with praier all the while 
they were above grcimd : otherwise the serpent (as the Maisters of 
the Hebrues saie) woula levoure them, as the food appointed to him 

142. by God : Gen. 3. alled/ging also this place ; We shall not all sleepe, 
but we shall be changed, bicause manie shall remaine for perpetuall 
meate to the serpent : whereupon riseth the contention betweene him 

'■ and Michael/, concerning the bodie of Moses ; wherein scripture is 

alledged. I confesse that Augustine, and the residue of the doctors, 
that denie the raising of Sainuell, conclude, that the divell was fetcht 
up in his likenesse : from whose opinions (with reverence) I hope I 
may dissent. 

7is lib. de in- 
eant- cap. 2. 

The tenth Chapter. 

That neither the divell nor Samtiell was raised, hit that it ivas a 
nieere consenage, accordijig to the guise of our Pythonists. 

JGAINE, if the divell appeared, and not Samuell : whie is 
it said in Eccle. that he slept ? for the divell neither 
sleepeth nor dieth. But in truth we may gather, that it 
was neither the divell in person, nor Samuell : but a 
circumstance is here described, according to the deceived opinion and 
imagination of Saule. Howbeit Atigustitie saith, that both these 
sides may easilie be defended. But we shall not need to fetch an 
exposition so farre off : for indeed (me thinkes) it is Longe petita ; 
nor to descend so lowe as hell, to fetch up a divell to expound this 
place. For it is ridiculous (as Pompanacitis saith) to leave manifest 
things, and such as by naturall reason may be prooved, to seeke 
unknowne things, which by no likeliehood can be conceived, nor tried 
by anie rule of reason. But in so much as we have libertie by S. 
Atigustines rule, in such places of scripture as seeme to conteine 
either contrarietie or absurditie, to varie from the letter, and to make 
a godlie construction agreeable to the word ; let us confesse that 
Samuell was not raised (for that were repugnant to the word) and see 
whether this illusion may not be contrived by the art and cunning of 
the woman, without anie of these supernaturall devices : for I could 
14J. cite a hundred papisticall and cousening practises, as/ difficult as this, 
and as cleanlie handled. And it is to be surelie thought, if it had 
beene a divell, the text would have noted it in some place of the storie: 
as it dooth not. But Bodin helpeth me exceedinglie in this point, 
,106. wherein he for saketh (he saith) Aiignstine, Tertullian. and D. Kimhi 

of Witchcraft. chip. n. 115 

himselfe, who sale it was the divell that was raised up : which (saith j. Bod. Ub. de 
Bodin) could not be ; for that in the same communication betweene '^^'"" "" '"'^' '• 
Sauk and Samteell, the name of Jehovah is five times repeated, of 
which name the divell cannot abide the hearing. 

The eleventh Chapter. 

The objection of ihe ivitclunojigers concerning this place fullie 
answered^ and what circutnstances are to be considered for the 
understanding of this storie, which is plainelie opened from the 
beginning of the 28. chap, of the i. Samuel, to the 12. verse. 

HERE such a supernaturall miracle is wrought, no doubt P- Martyr 
it is a testimonie of truth ; as Peter Martyr affirmeth. /" 'ianuiL ' 
And in this case it should have beene a witnesse of lies : ''"''• 9- 
for (saith he) a matter of such weight cannot be attributed 
unto the divell, but it is the mightie power of God that dooth accom- 
plish it. And if it laic in a witches power to call up a divell, yet it 
lieth not in a witches power to worke such miracles : for God will not isaj. 42. 

, , . . rr- 1 1 1 • 1 ■• Sam. 28. 

give his power and glorie to ame creature. 1 o understand this place, 
we must diligentlie examine the circumstance thereof It was well 
knovvne that Saule, before he resorted to the witch, was in despaire of 
the mercies and goodnes of God ; partlie for that Saniucll told him 
long before, that he should be overthrowne, and David should have 
his place ; and partlie bicause God before had refused to answer him, 
either by Samucll when he lived, or by anie other prophet, or by 
Urim or Thumim, &c. And if you desire to see this matter dis- 
cussed, turne to the first oi Samteell, the 28. chapter, and conferre my 
words therewith./ 

Saule seeing the host of the Philistines come upon him (which thing 144. 
could not be unknown to all the people) fainted, bicause he sawe 
their strength, and his owne weaknesse, and speciallie that he was 
forsaken : so as being now straught of mind, desperate, and a verie 
foole, he goeth to certeine of his servants, that sawe in what taking i. Sam. 28, 7. 
he was, and asked them for a woman that had a familiar spirit, and 
they told him by and by that there dwelt one at Endor. By the waie 
you shall understand, that both Saule and his servants ment such a one 
as could by hir spirit raise up Samuell, or any other that was dead and 
buried. Wherein you see they were deceived, though it were true, that 
she tooke upon hir so to doo. To what use then served hir familiar 
spirit, which you conceive she had, bicause Saules servants said so .'' 
Surelie, as they were deceived and abused in part, so doubtlesse were 
they in the rest. For to what purpose (I sale) should hir familiar serve, familiar. 

1 1 6 7- Booke. The discoverie 

if not for such intents as they reported, and she undertooke ? I thinke 
you will grant that Sanies men never sawe hir familiar : for I never 
heard any yet of credit saie, that he was so much in the witches favour, 
as to see hir divell ; although indeed we read among the popish trum- 
perie, that S. Cicilie had an angell to hir familiar, and that she could 
shew him to whom she would, and that she might aske and have what 
107. she or hir/ friend list : as appeareth in the lesson read in the popish 
church on saint Cicilies dale. Well, I perceive the woman of Endors 
spirit was a counterfeit, and kept belike in hir closet at Etidor, or in 
the bottle, with mother Alices divell at IVestwell, and are now 
bewraied and fled togither to Limbo palrjun, &^c. And though Saule 
were bewitched and blinded in the matter ; yet doubtlesse a wise 
man wold have perchance espied her knaverie. Me thinks Sanle 

D. Burcot, was brought to this witch, much after the maner that doctor Bnrcot 

was brought to Feats, who sold maister Doctor a familiar, wherby 
he thought to have wrought miracles, or rather to have gained good 
store of monie. This fellowe by the name oi Feats was a jugler, by 
the name oi Hilles a witch or conjurer, everie waie a cousener : his 
qualities and feats were to me and manie other well knowne 
and detected. And yet the opinion conceived of him was most 
strange and woonderfuU ; even with such and in such cases, as it 
greeveth me to thinke of; speciallie bicause his knaverie and 
^45- cou/senage reached to the shedding of innocent bloud. But now 

I. Sam. 28, 8 forsooth Satile covereth himselfe with a net ; and bicause he would 
not be knowne, he put on other garments. But to bring that matter 

I. Sa 10, 23. to passe, he must have beene cut shorter by the head and shoulders, 

for by so much he was higher than any of the people. And therfore 
whatsoever face the craftie quene did set upon it, she knew him well 
enough. And for further proofe thereof, you may understand, that 
the princes of the Jewes were much conversant with the people. And 

Ibiriem. it appccrcth manifestlie, that Saule dwelt verie neere to Endor, so as 

she should the rather knowe him ; for in the evening he went from 
his lodging unto hir house : neither should it seeme that she was 
gone to bed when he came. But bicause that may be uncerteine, you 
may see in the processe of the text, that in a peece of the night he 
went from his house to hirs, and with much adoo intreated her to 
consent to his request. She finished hir conjuration, so as both 
Saules part, the witches part, and also Samuels part was plaied : and 
after the solemnization therof, a calfe was killed, a batch of bread 
baked, and a supper made readie and eaten up ; and after all this, he 
went home the same night : and had need so to doo, for he had some 
businesse the next daie. By these and manie other circumstances it 
may bee gathered, that she dissembled, in saieng she knew him not, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 12. 


and consequentlie counterfaited, and made a foole of him in all the 

It appeereth there, that he, with a couple of his men, went to liir ibidem, 
by night, and said ; Conjecture unto me by thy familiar spirit, and 
bring me up whom I shall name unto thee. The godlie learned 
knowe that this was not in the power of the witch of Endor, but in the 
God of heaven onelie to accomplish. Howbeit, Saicle was bewitched 
so to suppose : and yet is he more simple that will be overtaken with 
the devises of our old witches, which are produced to resemble hir. 
And why should we thinke, that GOD would rather permit the witch to 
raise Saintiel, than that Dives could obteine Lazarus to come out of 
Ab7'ahanis bosome, upon more likelie and more reasonable condi- 
tions.-' Well now dooth this strumpet (according to the guise of our 
cousening witches and conjurers) make the matter strange unto 
Smih\ saieng that he came to take hir in a snare, &c./ But witches i- Sam. 28,9. 108. 
seldome make/ this objection, saving when they mistrust that he which 14^- 
commeth to them will espie their jugling : for otherwise, where the 
witchmonger is simple and easie to be abused, the witch will be as 
easie to be intreated, and nothing dangerous of hir cunning ; as you 
see this witch was soone persuaded (notwithstanding that objection) 
bicause she perceived and sawe that Saule was afifraid and out of his 
wits. And therfore she said unto him; Whom shall I raise up? i. Sa. 28. 12. 
As though she could have brought unto him Abraham, Isaac, or 
Jacob ; who cannot heare us, therefore cannot rise at our call. For 
it is written ; Looke thou downe from heaven and behold us, &c : as isa. 63, 15. 16 
for Abraham he is ignorant of us, and Israel knovveth us not. 

The twelfe Chapter. 

The 12. 13. (Sr» 14. verses of i. Samuel 28. expounded : ivherin is 
shewed that Saule was cousened and abused by the witch, and 
that Samuel was not raised, is prooved by the witches owne talke. 

IjHE manner and circumstance of their communication, or 
of hir conjuration, is not verbatim set downe and ex- 
pressed in the text ; but the effect thereof breeflie 
touched : yet will I shew you the common order of their 
conjuration, and speciallie of hirs at this time used. When Saule The maner 
had told hir, that he would have Samuel brought up to him, she of Endors 
departed from his presence into hir closet, where doubtles she had '^^ g^'^^j'"^ 
hir familiar ; to wit, some lewd craftie preest, and made Saule stand 
at the doore like a foole (as it were with his finger in a hole) to heare 
the cousening answers, but not to see the cousening handling thereof, 

1 1 8 7 Booke. The discoverie 

and the couterfetting of the matter. And so goeth she to worke, using 
ordinarie words of conjuration, of which there are sundrie varieties 
and formes (whereof I shall have occasion to repeat some in another 
place) as you see the juglers (which be inferior conjurors) speake 
147- certeine strange words of course to lead awaie the eie from espi/eng 
the maner of their conveiance, whilest they may induce the mind to 
conceive and suppose that he dealeth with spirits ; saieng, Hay, 
fortH7te furie^ nunqj credo, passe, passe, when come you sirra. So 
belike after many such words spoken, she saith to hir selfe ; Lo now 
the matter is brought to passe, for I see woonderfull things. So as 

I. Sa. 28, 13. Saule hearing these words, longed to knowe all, and asked hir what 
she sawe, Whereby you may know that Sajile sawe nothing, but 
stood without like a mome, whilest she plaied hir part in hir closet : 

1. Sa. :8, 21. as may most evidentlie appeere by the 21. verse of this chapter where 
it is said ; Then the woman came out unto Saule. Howbeit, a little 
before she cunninglie counterfaited that she sawe Samuel, and thereby 
knewe it was Saule that was come unto hir. Whereby all the world 
may perceive the cousening, and hir dissimulation. For by that 
which hath beene before said, it must needs be that she knew him. 
And (I praie you) why should she not have suspected aswell him to 
be Saule before, when in expresse words he required hir to bring 
unto him Samuel, as now, when Sainnel appeered unto hir .'' / 

i.Sa.28, 4.109. Well, to the question before proposed by Saule, she answereth and 
lieth, that she saw angels or gods ascending up out of the earth. 
Then proceedeth she with her inchanting phrases and words of 
course : so as thereby Satcle gathereth and supposeth that she hath 
raised a man. For otherwise his question dependeth not upon any 
thing before spoken. For when she hath said; I sawe angels ascend- 
ing, &c : the next word he saith is ; What fashion is he of? Which 
(I saie) hangeth not upon hir last expressed words. And to this 
she answered not directlie, that it was Samuel ; but that it was an old 
man lapped in a mantell : as though she knew not him that was the 
most notorious man in Israeli, that had beene her neighbour by the 
space of manie yeeres, and upon whom (while he lived) everie eie 
was fixed, and whom also she knew within lesse than a quarter of an 
houre before, as by whose meanes also she came acquainted with 

I. Sa. 28, 12. Saule. Read the text and see. 

But she describeth his personage, and the apparell which he did 
usuallie weare when he lived : which if they were both buried to- 
gither, were consumed and rotten, or devoured with wormes before 
148. that time. Belike he had a new mantell made him in hea/ven : and 
yet they saie Tailors are skantie there, for that their consciences are 
so large here. In this countrie, men give awaie their garments when 

of Witchcraft. chap. i^ 119 

they die : if Satmeel had so doone, hee could not have borrowed it 
againe ; for of likliehood it would have beene worne out in that space, 
except the donee had beene a better husband than I : for the testator 
was dead (as it is supposed) two yeares before. 

The xiii. Chapter, 

The residue of i. SaJii. 28. expounded : ivherin is declared how 
cunuinglie this witch brought Saide resolutelie to beleeve that she 
raised Samuel, what words are used to colour the cousenage, and 
hotv all might also be wrought by ventriloquie. 

||0W commeth in Samuel to plaie his part : but I am per- 
suaded it was performed in the person of the witch hir 
selfe, or of hir confederate. He saith to Saule ; Why i- Sa. 28, 15. 
has thou disquieted me, to bring me up ? As though 
without guile or packing it had beene Samuel himselfe. Saule ibidem. 
answered that he was in great distresse : for the Philistines made warre 
upon him. Whereby the witch, or hir confederate priest might easilie 
conjecture that his heart failed, and direct the oracle or prophesie 
accordinglie : especiallie understanding by his present talke, and 
also by former prophesies and dooings that were past, that God had 
forsaken him, and that his people were declining from him. For 
when JonatJiaii (a little before) overthrew the Philistines, being thirtie 
thousand chariots and six thousand horssemen ; Saule could not 
assemble above six hundred souldiers. i. Sa. 13, 15. 

Then said Samuel (which some suppose was sathan, and as I 
thinke was the witch, with a confederate ; for what need so farre 
fetches, as to fetch a divell supernaturallie out of hell, when the 
illusion may be here by natu rail meanes deciphered ? And if you 110. 
note the words well, you shall perceive the phrase not to come out/ 
of a spirituall mouth of a divell, but from a lieng corporall toong of I4g. 
a cousener, that careth neither for God nor the divell, fro whence 
issueth such advise and communication, as greatlie disagreeth from 
sathans nature and purpose. For thus (I saie) the said Samuel 
speaketh : Wherefore dooest thou aske me, seeing the Lord is gone i. Sam. 28. 
from thee, and is thine enemie.-' Even the Lord hath doon unto him ' ' ''^' 
as he spake by mine hand: for the Lord will rent thy kingdome out >• Sa. 15, 28. 
of thine hand, and give it to thy neighbour David, bicause thou 
obeiedst not the voice of the Lord, &c. This (I say) is no phrase of 
a divell, but of a cousener, which knew before what Samuel had 
prophesied concerning Saules destruction. For it is the divels con- 
dition, to allure the people unto wickednes, and not in this sort to 

1 20 7- Booke. The discoverie 

admonish, vvarne, and rebuke them for evill. And the popish writers 
confes, that the divell would have beene gone at the first naming of 
God. If it bee said, that it was at Gods speciall commandement and 
will, that Saiiniel or the divell should be raised, to propound this 
admonition, to the profit of all posteritie: I answer, that then he 
would rather have doone it by some of his living prophets, and that 
sathan had not beene so fit an instrument for that purpose. After 
this falleth the witch (I would saie Samuel) into the veine of prophe- 

1. Sa 28, 17. sieng, and speaketh to Sank on this wise ; The Lord will rent thy 

'^' kingdome out of thine hand, and give it to thy neighbor David, 

bicause thou obeiedst not the voice of the Lord, nor executedst his 
fierse wrath upon the Amalekites: therefore hath the Lord doone this 

19. unto thee this daie. Moreover, the Lord will deliver thee into the 

hands of the Philistmes, and to morrowe shalt thou and thy sonnes be 
with me, and the Lord shall give the host of Israel into the hands of 
the Philtsiines. What could Samuel have said more ? 

Me thinks the divell would have used another order, encouraging 
Saule rather than rebuking him for his evill. The divell is craftier 
than to leave such an admonition to all posterities, as should be 
prejudicial! unto his kingdome, and also be void of all impietie. But 
so divine a sentence maketh much for the maintenance of the witches 
credit, and to the advancement of hir gaines. Howbeit, concerning the 
veritie of this prophesie, there be many disputable questions: first, 
whether the battell were fought the next daie; secondlie, whether all 
750. his sonnes were kil/led with him; item, whether they went to heaven 
or hell togither, as being with Samuel, they must be in heaven, and 
being with sathan, they must be in hell. But although everie part of 
this prophesie were false, as that all his sonnes were not slaine {Ishbo- 
sheth living and reigning in Israel two yeares after Saules death) and 
that the battell was not on the morrow, and that wicked Saule, after 

2. Reg. 4. that he had killed himselfe, was not with good Samuel ; yet this witch 

did give a shrewd gesse to the sequele. Which whether it were true 

or false, perteins not to my purpose ; and therfore I will omit it. But 

as touching the opinion of them that saie it was the divell, bicause 

that such things came to passe ; I would faine knowe of them where 

they learne that divels foreknow things to come. If they saie he 

gesseth onelie upon probabilities, the witch may also doo the like. 

Canon. 2(>. But here I may not forget the decrees, which conclude, that Samtiel 

'ZTmirMu}' appeered not unto Satde ; but that the historiographer set foorth/ 

111. Saules mind and Samuels estate, and certeine things which were said 

& scene, omitting whether they were true or false : and further, that 

it were a great offense for a man to beleeve the bare words of the 

storie. And if this exposition like you not, I can easilie frame my 

of Witchcraft. chap. 14. 121 

selfe to the opinion of some of great learning, expounding this place, 
and that with great probabilitie, in this sort; to wit, that this 
Pythotiist being Veiitriloqiia ; that is, Speaking as it were from the 
bottome of hir bellie, did cast hir selfe into a transe, and so abused 
Saule, answering to Saiile in Samuels name, in hir counterfeit 
hollow voice : as the wench of Westzuell spake, whose historie I have 
rehearsed before at large, in pag. 127 and this is right Veniriloquic.j 

Right Ventrilo- 

The xiiii. Chapter. -O'a 

Opinions of some learned men., that Samuel was indeed raised, not 
by the witches art or power, but by the speciall jniracle of God, 
that there are no such visions in these our dales, (&-» that our 
witches cannot doo the like. 

IAS and Sadaias write, that when the woman sawe the 
miracle indeed, and more than she looked for, or was 
woont to doo; she began to crie out, that this was a 
vision indeed, and a true one, not doone by hir art, but 
by the power of God. Which exposition is far more probable than 
our late writers judgements hereupon, and agreeth with the exposition 
of diverse good divines. Gelasius saith, it was the verie spirit of 
Samiiel : and where he suffered himself to be worshipped, it was but 
in civill salutation and courtesie; and that God did interpose Samuel, ^- y°,Yus* 
as he did Elias to the messenger of Ochosias, when he sent to differ here- 
Belzebub the god of Acharon. And here is to be noted, that the 
witchmongers are set up in this point: for the papists sale, that it 
cannot be a divell, bicause Jehovah is thrise or five times named in 
the storie. Upon this peece of scripture arguments are daielie 
devised, to proove and mainteine the miraculous actions of witch- 
craft, and the raising of the dead by conjurations. And yet if it were 
true, that Safnuel himselfe were raised, or the divell in his likenesse; 
and that the witch of Endor by hir art and cunning did it, &c: it 
maketh rather to the disproofe than to the proofe of our witches, 
which can neither do that kind of miracle, or any other, in any such 
place or companie, where their jugling and cousenage may be seen 
and laid open. And I challenge them all (even upon the adventure A bold, dis- 
of my life) to shew one peece of a miracle, such as Christ did trulie, flhWuii 
or such as they suppose this witch did diabolicallie, be it not with challenge 
art nor confederacie, whereby some colour thereof may be made ; 
neither are there any such visions in these dales shewed. 

Heretofore God did send his visible angels to men : but now/ we 152 
heare not of such apparitions, neither are they necessarie. Indeed it 



7. Bouke. 

The discoverie 

[* 7is read ti%.'\ 

" At Can- 
turburie by 
Kich. Lee 
tsquire, & 
anno. 1573. 
At Rie "by 
Gaymor & 
anno. 1577. 

y. Wier. lib. 3 
caf. 8. 
Lavat. de 
sped, is! le- 
mur ib. 

Cardan, de 
var. rem VI 
Fencer, i^c. 

pleased God heretofore, by the hand of Moses and his prophets, and 
speciallie by his sonne Christ and his apostles, to worke great 
112. miracles, for the establish/ing of the faith: but now whatsoever is 
necessarie for our salvation, is conteined in the word of God : our 
faith is alredie confirmed, and our church established by miracles; so 
as now to seeke for them, is a point of infidelitie. Which the papists 
(if you note it) are greatlie touched withall, as in their lieng legends 
appeareth. But in truth, our miracles are knaveries most commonlie, 
and speciallie of priests, whereof I could cite a thousand. If you 
read the storie of Bell and the dragon, you shall find a cousening 
miracle of some antiquitie. If you will see newer devises, read 
JVz'erus, Cardanus., Ba/eus, and speciallie Lavaterns* &^c. There 
have beene some ^walking spirits in these parts so conjured not long 
since, as afterwards they little delighted to make anie more appari- 

The XV. Chapter. 

Of vaine apparitions., how people have beene brought to fear e bugges, 
which is part lie reformed by preaching of the go spell, the true 
effect of Christes miracles. 

UT certeinlie, some one knave in a white sheete hath 
cousened and abused manie thousands that waie; special- 
lie when Robin good-fellow kept such a coile in the 
countrie. But you shall understand, that these bugs 
speciallie are spied and feared of sicke folke, children, women, and 
cowards, which through weaknesse of mind and bodie, are shaken 
with vaine dreames and continuall feare. The Scythians, being a 
stout and a warlike nation (as divers writers report) never see anie 
vaine sights or spirits. It is a common saieng; A lion feareth no 
bugs. But in our childhood our mothers maids have so terrified us 
with an ouglie divell having homes on his head, fier in his mouth, and 
1^3. a taile in/ his breech, eies like a bason, fanges like a dog, clawes like 
a beare, a skin like a Niger, and a voice roring like a lion, whereby 
we start and are afraid when we heare one crie Bough : and they have 
so fraied us with bull beggers, spirits, witches, urchens, elves, hags, 
fairies, satyrs, pans, faunes, sylens, kit with the cansticke, tritons, 
centaurs, dwarfes, giants, imps, calcars, conjurors, nymphes, chang- 
lings. Incubus, Robin good-fellowe, the spoorne, the mare, the man in 
the oke, the hell waine, the fierdrake, the puckle, Tom thombe, hob 
gobblin, Tom tumbler, boneles, and such other bugs, that we are afraid 
of our owne shadowes: in so much as some never feare the divell, but 
in adarkenight; and then a polled sheepe is a perillous beast, and 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 15. 


manie times is taken for our fathers soule, speciallie in a churchyard, 
where a right hardie man heretofore scant durst passe by night, but 
his haire would stand upright. For right grave writers report, that 
spirits most often and speciallie take the shape of women appearing to 
monks, &c : and of beasts, dogs, swine, horsses, gotes, cats, haires ; of 
fowles, as crowes, night owles, and shreeke owles; but they delight 
most in the likenes of snakes and dragons. Well, thanks be to God, 
this wretched and cowardlie infidelitie, since the preaching of the 
gospell, is in part forgotten : and doubtles, the rest of those illusions 
will in short time/ (by Gods grace) be detected and vanish awaie. 

Divers writers report, that in Germame, since Lnthers time, spirits 
and divels have not personallie appeared, as in times past they were 
woont to doo. This argument is taken in hand of the ancient fathers, 
to proove the determination and ceasing of oracles. For in times 
past (saith Athanasius) divels in vaine shapes did intricate men with 
their illusions, hiding themselves in waters, stones, woods, &c. But 
now that the word of GOD hath appeared, those sights, spirits, and 
mockeries of images are ceased. Truelie, if all such oracles, as that 
oi Apollo, &c (before the comming of Christ) had beene true, and 
doone according to the report, which hath beene brought through 
divers ages, and from farre countries unto us, without preestlie fraud 
or guile, so as the spirits of prophesie, and working of miracles, had 
beene inserted into an idoll, as hath beene supposed: yet we christians 
may conceive, that Christs coming was not so fruteles and pre/judi- 
ciall in this point unto us, as to take awaie his spirit of prophesie and 
divination from out of the mouth of his elect people, and good 
prophets, giving no answers of anie thing to come by them, nor by 
Urhn nor Thumim, as he was woont, &c. And yet to leave the divell 
in the mouth of a witch, or an idoll to prophesie or worke miracles, 
&c: to the hinderance of his glorious gospell, to the discountenanceof 
his church, and to the furtherance of infidelitie and false religion, 
whereas the working of miracles was the onelie, or at least the most 
speciall meanes that mooved men to beleeve in Christ: as appeareth 
in sundrie places of the gospell, and speciallie in John, where it is 
written, that a great multitude followed him, bicause they sawe his 
miracles which he did, &c. Naie, is it not written, that Jesus was 

approoved by God among the Jewes, with miracles, wonders 

and signes, &c ? And yet, if we conferre the miracles 

wrought by Christ, and those that are imputed 

to witches ; witches miracles shall 

appeare more common, and 

nothing inferior 

unto his. 

Lavat. de 


Car. de var. 
reru 771 ■ 
J. IVier. de 
prcest. danion. 

Athanas. de 


The true 
end of mi- 

John 2. 

Act. 2. 2 
John. 5. 


7- Booke. 

The discoverie 

An ironi- 
call colla- 

Mai. male/, 
far. 2. qua. i. 
cap. 14. 


Acts. 17. 
Tim. 6, 13. 
Col. I, 16. 

Apollo Py- 
tho unca- 



The xvi. Chapter. 

Witches miracles compared to Christs, thai God is the creator of all 
things, of Apollo, and of his names and portraiture. 

]f this witch of -£"«^tf?- had performed that, which manie 
conceive of the matter, it might have beene compared 
with the raising up of Lazarus. I praie you, is not the 
converting of water into milke, as hard a matter as the 
turning of water into wine ? And yet, as you may read in the gospell, 
that Christ did the one, as his first miracle; so may you read in M. 
Mai. and in Boditt, that witches can easiUe doo the other : yea, and 
that which is a great deale more, of water they can make butter. 
But to avoid all cavils, and least there should appeare more matter in 
Christs miracle, than the others, you shall find in M. Mai. that they 
can change water into wine: and what is it to attribute to/ a creature, 
the power and worke of the creator, if this be not? Christ saith. 
Opera qiice ego facio 7iemo potest facere. Creation of substance was 
never granted to man nor angell; E7go neither to/ witch nor divell : 
for God is the onlie giver of life and being, and by him all things are 
made, visible and invisible. 

Finallie, this woman of E^tdor is in the scripture called Pythonissa: 

whereby it may appeare that she was but a verie cousener. For Pytho 

himselfe, whereof Pytho7iissa is derived, was a counterfet. And the 

originall storie of Apollo, who was called Pytho, bicause he killed a 

serpent of that name, is but a poeticall fable. For the poets saie he 

was the god of musicke, physicke, poetrie, and shooting. In heaven 

he is called Sol, in earth Liber pater, in hell Apollo. He florisheth 

alwaies with perpetuall youth, and therefore he is painted without a 

beard: his picture was kept as an oracle-giver: and the preests that 

attended thereon at Delphos were couseners, and called Pytho7iists of 

Pytho, as papists of Papa ; and afterwards all women that used that 

trade, were named Pytho7tisscE, as was this woman oi E7idor. 

But bicause it concerneth this matter, I will breefelie note 

the opinions of divers learned men, and cer- 

teine other proofes, which I find in the 

scripture touching the ceasing of 

miracles, prophesies and 


of Witchcraft. 

Chap. I. 


Tf The eight booke. 

IS 6. 116. 

The first Chapter. 

That miracles are ceased. 

liLTHOUGH in times past, it pleased God, extraordina- 
rilie to shew miracles amongest his people, for the 
strengthening of their faith in the Messias; and againe at 
his comming to confirme their faith by his wonderful! 
dooings, and his speciall graces and gifts bestowed by him upon the 
apostles, &c: yet we ordinarilie read in the scriptures, that it is the 
Lord that worketh great wonders. Yea David saith, that among the 
dead (as in this case of Samuel) God himselfe sheweth no wonders. I 
find also that God will not give his glorie and power to a creature. 
Nichodenms being a Pharisie could sale, that no man could do such 
miracles as Christ did, except God were with him, according to the 
saieng of the prophet to those gods and idols, which tooke on them 
the power of God ; Doo either good or ill if you can, &c. So as the 
prophet knew and taught thereby, that none but God could worke 
miracles. Infinite places for this purpose might be brought out of 
the scripture, which for brevitie I omit and overslip. 

S. At(gt(stine, among other reasons, whereby he prooveth the 
ceasing of miracles, saith; Now blind flesh dooth not open the eies 
of the blind by the miracle of God, but the eies of our hart are 
opened by the word of God. Now is not our dead carcase raised 
any more up by miracle, but our dead bodies be still in the grave,/ 
and our soules are raised to life by Christ. Now the eares of the 
deafe are not opened by miracle, but they which had their eares shut 
before, have them now opened to their salvation. The miraculous 
healing of the sicke, by annointing, spoken oihy S. James, is objected 
by manie, speciallie by the papists, for the maintenance of their 
sacrament of extreame unction : which is apishlie and vainelie used 
in the Romish church, as though that miraculous gift had continu- 
ance till this daie : wherein you shall see what Calvine speaketh in 
his institutions. The grace of healing (saith he) spoken of by S. 
James, is vanished awaie, as also the other miracles, which the Lord 
would have shewed onelie for a time, that he might make the new 
preaching of the gospell mervellous for ever. Why (saith he) doo not 
these (meaning miraclemongers) appoint some Siloah to swim in, 
whereinto at certeine ordinarie recourses of times sicke folke male 

Psal. 136, 4. 
Psal. 72. 18. 
Psal. 88. 10. 

Isai. 42. 
John 3, 2. 
Ibid. 7, 16. 
In annotat. 
in Johan. 3. 

Isai. 45. 

August, de 
verbis Dom. 
Matth. ser- 
monc. 18. 


James. 5, 14. 

J. Calvin. In- 
stitut. lib. 4. 
cap. 19. sect. 

Idem, ibid . 
sect. 19. 
Isai. 9, 7. 

I 26 

8. Booke. 

TJic discoverie 

Acts. 20, 10. 
Idem. ibid. 
nempe J. Cal- 



Prov. 51. 

H. Card, de 

plunge themselves ? Why doo they not lie a long upon the dead, 
bicause Paule raised up a dead child by that meanes ? Verelie (saith 
he) James in the miracle to annoint, spake for that time, whiles the 
church still enjoied such blessings of God. Item, he saith, that the 
Lord is present with his in all ages ; and so often as need is, he help- 
eth their sicknesses, no lesse than in old time. But he dooth not so 
utter his manifest powers, nor distributeth miracles, as by the hands 
of the apostles, bicause the gift was but for a time. Cah'ine even 
there concludeth thus ; They saie such vertues or miracles remaine, 
but experience saith naie. And see how they agree among them- 
selves. Danaus saith, that neither witch nor divell can worke 
miracles. Giles Alley saith directlie, / that witches worke miracles. 
Calvine saith they are all ceased. All witchmongers saie they con- 
tinue. But some affirme, that popish miracles are vanished and gone 
awaie : howbeit witches miracles remaine in full force. So as S. Loy 
is out of credit for a horsseleach, Maister T. and mother Btmgie re- 
maine in estimation for prophets : naie HobgobUn and Robin good- 
fellow are contemned among yoong children, and mother Alice and 
mother Bungie are feared among old fooles. The estimation of these 
continue, bicause the matter hath not beene called in question : the 
credit of the other decaieth, bicause the matter hath beene looked 
into. Whereof I saie no more, but that S. Anthonies blisse will helpe/ 
your pig, whensoever mother Bungie dooth hurt it with hir cursse. 
And therefore we are warned by the word of God, in anie wise not to 
feare their cursses. But let all the witchmongers, and speciallie the 
miraclemongers in the world answer me to this supposition ; Put 
case that a woman of credit, or else a woman-witch should saie unto 
them, that she is a true prophet of the Lord, and that he revealeth 
those secret mysteries unto hir, whereby she detecteth the lewd acts 
and imaginations of the wicked, and that by him she worketh 
miracles, and prophesieth, &c ; I thinke they must either yeeld, or 
confesse that miracles are ceased. But such things (saith Cardatie) 
as seeme miraculous, are cheeflie doone by deceipt, legier- 
demaine, or confederacie ; or else they male 
be doone, and yet seeme unpossible, 
or else things are said to be 
done, and never were 
nor can be 

of Witchcraft. chap. 2. 127 

The second Chapter. 

That the gift of prophesie is ceased. 

|HAT witches, nor the woman of Endor, nor yet hir 
famihar or divell can tell what is to come, may plainelie 
appeare by the words of the prophet, who saith ; Shew isai. 41. 
what things are to come, and we will sale you are gods 
indeed. According to that which Salomoti saith ; Who can tell a 
man what shall happen him under the sunne ? Marrie that can I i- Sam. 28. 
(saith the witch oi Endor to Saule.) But I will rather beleeve Paule i.°a,'r.'i2. 
and Peter, which sale, that prophesie is the gift of God, and no '• ^^^- '• 
worldlie thing. Then a cousening queane, that taketh upon hir to [(/^/. the full stop] 
doo all things, and can doo nothing but beguile men : up steppeth also 
mother Bi/ngie, and she can tell you where your horsse or your asse 
is bestowed, or anie thing that you have lost is become, as Saj>mell 
could ; and what you have doone in all your age past, as Christ did 
to the woman of Sichar ^X facobs well ; yea and what your errand is, John. 4. 
before you speake, as Elizceus did. 

Peter Martyr saith, that onelie God and man knoweth the/ heart of i^g. 
man, and therefore, that the divell must be secluded, alledging these p. Martyr. 
places ; So/us Bens est scrutator cordium, Onelie God is the searcher ^seu\T' ' 
of hearts. And, Nemo scit qucB sunt hominis, nisi spiritus hotniftis qtd 
est in eo, None knoweth the things of man, but the spirit of man 
which is within him. And Salomon saith, Tu solus nosti cogitationes 
honiinu7n, Thou onelie knowest the thoughts of men. Ar\6. Jeretnie 
saith in the person of God, Ego Deus scrutans corda 6-^ renes, I am 
God searching hearts and reines. Also Matthew saith of Christ, 
fesHS atctem videns cogitationes eorum, And Jesus seeing their 
thoughts, who in scripture is called the searcher and knower/ of the 117. 
thoughts in the heart : as appeareth in Acts, i. &^ 15. Ro7n. 8. Matth. 
9. 12. &r' 22. Marke. 2. Luke. 6, Or' 7. &^ 11. fohn. i. 2. 6. &= 13. Apoc. 
2. &-= 3. and in other places infinite. 

The same Peter Martyr also saith, that the divell maie suspect, />. Martyr. 
but not know our thoughts : for if he should know our thoughts, he '" ^"^^ '^'""'"• 
should understand our faith ; which if he did, he would never assalt 
us with one temptation. Indeed we read that Samuel could tell 
where things lost were straied, &c : but we see that gift also ceased 
by the comming of Christ, according to the saieng oi Paule ; At Hebr. 1,8. 
sundrie times, and in diverse maners God spake in the old times by ^' 
our fathers the prophets, in these last dales he hath spoken unto us 
by his Sonne, &c. And therefore I sale that gift of prophesie, where- 


8 Bookc. 

The discoverie 

2. Pet. 2. I. 

Zach. n. 

y. Chrysost. 
in evang. Ji 
han. horn, i 
Pet. Blest, 
tpist. 49. 


Canon, de 
male/. (^ 

with God in times past endued his people, is also ceased, and counter- 
feits and couseners are come in their places, according to this saieng 
of Peter ; There were false prophets among the people, even as there 
shalbe false teachers among you, «&:c. And thinke not that so notable 
a gift should be taken from the beloved and elect people of God, and 
committed to mother Bimgie, and such like of hir profession. 

The words of the prophet Zacharie are plaine, touching the ceasing 
both of the good and bad prophet, to wit : I will cause the prophets 
and uncleane spirits to depart out of the land, and when anie shall 
yet prophesie, his parents shall sale to him ; Thou shalt not live, for 
thou speakest lies in the name of the Lord : and his parents shall 
thrust him through when he prophesieth, &c. No, no : the foretelling 
of things to come, is the onelie worke of God, who disposeth all 
things sweetlie, of whose counsell there hath never yet beene anie man. 
And to know our labours, the times / and moments God hath placed in 
his owne power. Also Phavorinus saith, that if these cold prophets or 
oraclers tell thee prosperitie, and deceive thee, thou art made a miser 
through vaine expectation : if they tell thee of adversitie, &c : and lie, 
thou art made a miser through vaine feare. And therefore I saie, we 
male as well looke to heare prophesies at the tabernacle, in the bush, 
of the cherubin, among the clouds, from the angels, within the arke, or 
out of the flame, &c: as to expect an oracle of a prophet in these dales. 

But p.ut the case, that one in our common wealth should step up 
and saie he were a prophet (as manie frentike persons doo) who 
would beleeve him, or not thinke rather that he were a lewd person ? 
See the statutes Elizah. 5. whether there be not lawes made against 
them, condemning their arrogancie and cousenage : see also the 
canon lawes to the same effect. 

lib. 2. 

Cicer. de di- 
vin. lib. 2. 


The third Chapter. 

Thai Oracles are ceased. 

OUCHING oracles, which for the most part were idols of 
silver, gold, wood, stones, &c : within whose bodies some 
saie uncleane spirites hid themselves, and gave answers : 
as some others saie, that exhalations rising out of the 
ground, inspire their minds, whereby their priests gave out oracles ; 
so as spirits and winds rose up out of that soile, and indued those men/ 
with the gift of prophesie of things to come, though in truth they were 
all devises to cousen the people, and for the profit of preests, who 
received the idols answers over night, and delivered them backe to 
the idolaters the next morning : you shall understand, that although 

of Witchcraft. chip. 3. 129 

it had beene so as it is supposed ; yet by the reasons and proofes 
before rehearsed, they should now cease : and whatsoever halh 
affinitie with such miraculous actions, as witchcraft, conjuration, 
&c : is knocked on the head, and nailed on the crosse with Christ, 
who hath broken the power of divels, and satisfied Gods justice,/ 
who also hath troden them under his feete, & subdued them, &c. At 161. 
whose comming the prophet Zacharie saith, that the Lord will cut Zach. 13, 2. 
the names of idols out of the land, and they shall be no more remem- 
bered; and he will then cause the prophets and uncleane spirits to 
depart out of the land. It is also written; I will cut off thine Mich. 5, 12. 
inchanters out of thine hand, and thou shalt have no more soothsaiers. 
And indeed the gospell of Christ hath so laid open their knaverie, 
&c: that since the preaching thereof, their combes are cut, and few 
that are wise regard them. And if ever these prophesies came to 
take effect, it must be upon the coming of Christ, whereat you see the 
divels were troubled and fainted, when they met him, saieng, or 
rather exclaming upon him on this wise ; Fili Dei cur venisti nos 
cruciare ante tempus ? O thou sonne of God, whie commest thou to 
molest us (or confound us) before our time appointed .? Which he 
indeed prevented, and now remaineth he our defender and keeper 
from his clawes. So as now you see here is no roome left for such 

Howbeit, you shall heare the opinion of others, that have beene as 
much deceived as your selves in this matter: and yet are driven to 
confesse, that GOD hath constituted his sonne to beat downe the 
power of divels, and to satisfie Gods justice, and to heale our wound 
received by the fall of Adam, according to Gods promise in Genesis. Gen. 3. 
3. The seed of the woman shall tread downe the serpent, or the 
divell. Eusebius (in his fift booke De prcedicatione Evangelii, the Etiscb. lib. 5, 
title whereof is this, that the power of divels is taken awaie by the 
comming of Christ) saith; All answers made by divels, all sooth- 
saiengs and divinations of men are gon and vanished awaie. Item 
he citeth Porphyrie in his booke against christian religion, wherein idtm. ibid. 
these words are rehearsed ; It is no mervell, though the plague be so Porphyr. in 
hot in this citie: for ever since Jesus hath beene worshipped, we can ^l^^/iX^^dig. 
obteine nothing that good is at the hands of our gods. And of this 
defection and ceasing of oracles writeth Cicero long before, and that ^'■^•f'^"""' 
to have happened also before his time. Howbeit, Cluysosfome j. chrysost. 
living long since Cicero, saith, that Apollo was forced to grant, that '^p^j^^'\oin 4. 
so long as anie relike of a martyr was held to his nose, he could not 
make anie answer or oracle. So as one may perceive, that the 
heathen were wiser in this behalfe than manie christians, who in/ 
times past were called Oppirgnatores incantamentoriint, as the English 162. 



8. Bookc. 

The discoverie 


verses in A- 
pollos name, 
of the death 
of Apollo : 
cited by 
J. Bod. fol. ( 

j)rinces are called Defensores fidei. Plutarch calleth Bceotia (as we 
call bablers) by the name of manie words, bicause of the multitude 
of oracles there, which now (saith he) are like to a spring or foun- 
taine which is dried up. If anie one remained, I would ride five 
119. hundred miles to see it: but in the whole world there is not one to 
be scene at this houre ; popish cousenages excepted. 

But Plutarch saith, that the cause of this defection of oracles, was 
the divels death, whose life he held to be determinable and mortall, 
saieng they died for verie age; and that the divining preests were 
blowne up with a whirlewind, and soonke with an earthquake. 
Others imputed it to the site or the place of the planets, which 
when they passed over them, carried awaie that art with them, and 
by revolution may returne, &c. Eusebitis also citeth out of him the 
storie of /'a;;, which bicause it is to this purpose, I will insert the 
same ; and since it mentioneth the divels death, you may beleeve 
it if you list: for I will not, as being assured that he is reserved alive 
to punish the wicked, and such as impute unto those idols the power 
of almightie God. 

The fourth Chapter. 

A tale written by manie grave authors, and beleeved by manie wise 
me7t of the divels death. An other storie written by papists, atid 
beleeved of all catholikes, approoving the divels honestie, con- 
science, and coui'tesie. 

[* read £■/■/] |h~^^^|LUTARCH saith, that his countriman *^/<7//z^;'j'^i' told 

him, that as he passed by sea into Italie, manie pas- 
sengers being in his bote, in an evening, when they were 
about the ilands Echijiadce, the wind quite ceased: and 
the ship driving with the tide, was brought at last to Paxe. And 
whilest some slept, and others cjuaft, and othersome were awake (per- 
haps in as ill case as the rest) after supper suddenlie a voice was 
heard calling, Thamus ; in such sort as everie man marvelled. This 
i6j. Thamtis was a pilot,/ borne in Aegypt, unknowne to manie that were 
in the ship. Wherefore being twise called, he answered nothing; but 
the third time he answered : and the other with a lowder voice com- 
manded him, that when he came to Palodes, he should tell them that 
the great God Pan was departed. Whereat everie one was astonied 
{^?> Epitherses zSaxxxi^^) And being in consultation what were best 
to doo, Thamus concluded, that if the wind were hie, they must passe 
by with silence; but if the weather were calme, he must utter that 

having lit- 
tle to doo, 
thought to 
plaie with 
his eompa- 
nie, whom 
he might 
easilie o- 
with such 
a jest. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 4. 


which he had heard. But when they came to Palodes, and the wether 
calme, Thamus looking out toward the land, cried alowd, that the 
o-reat god Pan was deceased: and immediatlie there followed a 
lamentable noise of a multitude of people, as it were with great 
vvoonder and admiration. And bicause there were manie in the ship, 
they said the fame thereof was speedilie brought to Rome, and Thamus 
sent for by Tiberius the Emperour, who gave such credit thereto, that 
he diligentlie inquired and asked, who that Pan was. The learned men 
about him supposed, that Pan was he who was the sonne of Mercuric 
and Penelope, &c. Euscbius saith, that this chanced in the time of 
Tiberius the Emperor, when Christ expelled all divels, &c. 

Paulus Marsus, in his notes upon Ovids Fasti,?,?a\h, that this voice 
was/ heard out of Paxe, that verie night that Christ suffered, in the 
yeare of Tiberius the nineteenth. Surelie, this was a nierrie jest 
devised by Thamus, who with some confederate thought to make sport 
with the passengers, who were some asleepe, and some droonke, and 
some other at plaie, &c: whiles the first voice was used. And at 
the second voice, to wit, when he should deliver his message, he 
being an old pilot, knew where some noise was usuall, by meanes 
of some eccho in the sea, and thought he would (to the astonish- 
ment of them) accomplish his devise, if the wether prooved calme. 
Whereby may appeare, that he would in other cases of tempests, 
&c: rather attend to more serious busines, than to that ridiculous 
matter. For whie else should he not doo his errand in rough 
wether, as well as in calme ? Or what need he tell the divell 
thereof, when the divell told it him before, and with much more ex- 
pedition could have done the errand himselfe? 

* But you shall read in the Legend a fable, an oracle I would/ saie, 
more authentike. For many will say that this was a prophane storie, 
and not so canonicall as those which are vei'efied by the popes autho- 
ritie : and thus it is written. A woman in hir travell sent hir sister to 
Diana, which was the divell in an idoll (as all those oracles are said 
to be) and willed hir to make hir praiers, or rather a request, to knowe 
of hir safe deliverie : which thing she did. But the divell answered ; 
Why praiest thou to me 1 I cannot helpe thee, but go praie to 
Andrew the apostle, and he may helpe thy sister, &c. Lo, this was 
not onelie a gentle, but a godlie divell, pittieng the womans case, 
who revealing his owne disabilitie, enabled S. Andrew more. I 
knowe some protestants will saie, that the divell, to mainteine idola- 
trie, &c: referred the maid to S. Andrew. But what answer will the 
papists make, who thinke it great pietie to praie unto saints, and so 
by consequence honest courtesie in the divell, to send hir to S. 
Andretv, who wold not faile to serve hir turne, &c. 


A detecli- 
on of Tha- 
mus his 


'•^Legend, atir. 
in vita satic- 
ti A ndrece, 
fol. 39. 

A gentle 
and a god- 
lie divell. 


8. Booke. 

The discoverie 

The fift Chapter. 

Athanas. dc 
human, vcr- 
bi. fol. 55 &■ 

The judgmetits of the ancient fathers touching oracles., aiid their 
abolishjnent, and that they be now transferred from Delphos to 



HE opinions of the fathers, that oracles are ceased by the 
coming of Christ, you shall find in these places following, 
to wit : Justi7ius ht dialogis adversns Jicdceos, Athana- 
sins De huinanitate verbi, Augtistifie De civitate Dei., 
Etcsebius Lib. 7. cap. 6, Item lib. 5. cap. \. 8. Riipertus In foan. lib, 
10. 12. Phitarch De abolitione oractilorum, Plinie lib. 30. statural. 
historicB. Finallie, Athanasius concludes, that in times past there 
were oracles in Delphos, Bceotia, Lycia, and other places : but 
now since Christ is preached to all men, this madnesse is 
ceased. So as you see, that whatsoever estimation in times 
past, the ancient fathers conceived (by heeresaie) of those mira- 
culous matters of idols and oracles, &c : they themselves refuse 
now, not onelie to beare witnesse of; but also affirme, that ever/ 
since Christs comming their mouthes have beene stopped. / 

For the ceasing of the knaveries and cousening devises of preests, 
I see no authoritie of scripture or ancient father, but rather the con- 
trarie ; to wit, that there shall be strange illusions shewed by them, 
even till the end. And truelie, whosoever knoweth and noteth the 
order and devises of and in popish pilgrimages, shall see both the 
oracles & their conclusions remaining, and as it were transferred 
from Delphos to Rome, where that adulterous generation continuallie 
seeketh a signe, though they have Moses &. the prophets, yea even 
Christ & his apostles also, &c. 

The sixt Chapter. 

Where and wherein couseners, witches, and preests were woont to 
give oracles, and to worke their feats. 

HESE cousening oracles, or rather oraclers used (I sale) 
to exercise their feats and to doo their miracles most 
commonly in maids, in beasts, in images, in dens, in 
^ cloisters, in darke holes, in trees, in churches or church- 
yards, &c: where preests, moonks, and friers had laid their plots, and 
made their confederacies aforehand, to beguile the world, to gaine 
monie, and to adde credit to their profession. This practise began 

of Witchcraft. chap. e. 133 

in the okes of Z?^^t7«a, in the which was a wood, the trees thereof siraho Geog. 
(they saie) could speake. And this was doone by a knave in a ^j l^ier u i. 
hollowe tree, that seemed sound unto the simple people. This wood de pras. dam. 
was in Molosstts a part of Greece., called Epyrics, and it was named 
Dodonas oracles. There were manie oracles in Aegypt ; namelie, of 
Hercules., oi Apollo., of Minerva, of Diana, of Mars, oi Jupiter, and 
of the oxe Apys, who was the sonne of Jupiter, but his image was 
worshipped in the likenesse of an oxe. Latona, who was the mother 
of Apollo, was an oracle in the citie of Bute. The preests of Apollo, 
who alwaies counterfaited furie and madnesse, gave oracles in the 
temple called Clarius,\\\\.h.\n the citie of Colophon in Greece. At Thebes 
in Bceotia and also in Lcebadia, Trophonius was the cheefe oracle. 
At Memphis a cow, at Corinth an oxe called Mitieus, in Arsinoe a 
crocodile, in Athens a prophet called Ainphiaraus, who / indeed 166. 
died at Thebes, where they saie the earth opened, & swallowed him 
up quicke. At Delphos was the great temple of Apollo, where 
divels gave oracles by maides (as some saie) though indeed it was 
doone by preests. It was built upon Parnassus hill in Greece. 
And the defenders of oracles saie, that even as rivers oftentimes 
are diverted to another course ; so likewise the spirit, which in- 
spired the cheefe prophets, may for a time be silent, and revive 
againe by revolution. 

Demetrius saith, that the spirits, which attended on oracles, waxed 
wearie of the peoples curiositie and importunitie, and for shame for- 
sooke the temple. But as *one that of late hath written against *H. Haw. in 
prophesies saith ; It is no marvell, that when the familiars that sathea-"' 
speake in trunks were repelled from their harbour for feare of dis- gainst pro- 
coverie, the blocks almightie lost their senses. For these are all 
gone now, and their knaverie is espied ; so as they can no longer 
abuse the world with such babies. But whereas / these great doctors 122. 
suppose, that the cause of their dispatch was the comming of Christ ; 
if they meane that the divell died, so soone as he was borne, or that 
then he gave over his occupation: they are deceived. For the popish 
church hath made a continuall practise hereof, partlie for their owne 
private profit, lucre, and gaine ; and partly to be had in estimation 
of the world, and in admiration among the simple. But indeed, 
men that have learned Christ, and beene conversant in his word, 
have discovered and shaken off the vanitie and abhomination 
heereof. But if those doctors had lived till this daie, they would 
have said and written, that oracles had ceased, or rather beene driven 
out oi England m the time of K. Henrie the eight, and of Queene ln."hose 

^ . . o ' ^ daies ora- 

Elizabetli his daughter ; who have doone so much in that behalfe, as cies ceased 
at this houre they are not onlie all gone, but forgotten here in this '" "^^" 

134 8 Booke, The discoverie 

English nation, where they swarmed as thicke as they did in Boeotia^ 
or in any other place in the world. But the credit they had, depended 
not upon their desart, but upon the credulitie of others. Now there- 
fore I will conclude and make an end of this matter, with the 
Zach. 10. opinion and saiengof the prophet ; Vaine is the answer 

^'' '*'*■ of idols. For they have eies and see not, 

eares and heare not, mouthes and 
speake not, &c: and let them 
shew what is to come, 
and I will saie 
they are gods 

of Witchcraft. 



Tf The ninth Booke. 

The first Chapter. 

The Hcbrue word Kasam expounded, and how far re a Christian 
may conjecture of thiftgs to come. 

lASAM (as fohn Wierus upon his owne knowledge 
affirmeth, and upon the word of A7idrceas Masius re- 
porteth) differeth little in signification from the former 
word Ob: betokening Vaticinari, which is, To prophesie, 
and is most commonlie taken in evill part ; as in Deut. \Z. ferent. 27. 
&c: howbeit, sometime in good part, as in Esaie 3. verse. 2. To 
foretell things to come upon probable conjectures, so as therein we 
reach no further than becommeth humane capacitie, is not (in mine 
opinion) unlawfuU, but rather a commendable manifestation of wise- 
dome and judgment, the good gifts and notable blessings of GOD, 
for the which we ought to be thankfull ; as also to yeeld due honour 
and praise unto him, for the noble order which he hath appointed in 
nature : praieng him to lighten our hearts with the beames of his 
wisedome, that we may more and more profit in the true knowledge 
of the workemanship of his hands. But some are so nise, that they 
condemne generallie all sorts of divinations, denieng those things 
that in nature have manifest causes, and are so framed, as they for- 
shew things to come, and in that shew admonish us of things after to 
insue, exhibiting signes of unknowne and future matters to be judged 
upon, by the order, lawe, and course of nature / proposed unto us by 

And some on the other side are so bewitched with follie, as they 
attribute to creatures that estimation, which rightlie and truelie 
apperteineth to God the creator of all things ; affirming that the 
publike and private destinies of all humane matters, and whatsoever 
a man would knowe of things come or gone, is manifested to us in the 
heavens : so as by the starres and planets all things might be 
knowne. These would also, that nothing should be taken in hand or 
gone about, without the favourable aspect of the planets. By which, 
and other the like devises they deprave and prophane the ancient and 
commendable observations of our forfathers : as did Colebrasus, who 
taught, that all mans life was governed by the seven planets ; and 
yet a christian, and condemned for heresie. But let us so farre foorth 
imbrace and allow this philosophie and prophesieng, as the word of 
God giveth us leave, and commendeth the same unto us. / 

16-]. 123. 

J. IVn-r. lib. 
de prcest. da- 

All divina- 
tions are 
not con- 


& impious 


9. Booke. 

The discoverie 


Psalm. 13. 
Jerem. 54. 
Gen. I. 
Ezech. I. 
Gen. 9. 

Ecclus. 43. 
Ps. 19. & 50. 

Ecclus. 43. 
Baruch. 3. 


Luk. I J, 24. 

^Mispr. saire.] 
Matt. 16. 2, 

Lad ant. co. 
tra astrolo- 

Peucer. de 
astrol. pag. 

The second Chapter. 

Proofes by the old and iietu testament., that certaine observations 
of the weather are lawfull. 

[hen God by his word and wisedome had made the 
heavens, and placed the starres in the firmament, he 
said ; Let them be for signes, and for seasons, and for 
daies, and yeares. When he created the rainebowe in 
the clouds, he said it should be for a signe and token unto us. 
Which we find true, not onelie of the floud past, but also of shewers 
to come. And therefore according to Jesus Sirachs advise, let us 
behold it, and praise him that made it. The prophet David saith ; 
The heavens declare the gloria of God, and the firmament sheweth 
his handie worke : daie unto daie uttereth the same, and night unto 
night teacheth knowledge. It is also written that by the commandement 
of the holie one the starres are placed, and continue in their order, & 
faile not in their watch. It should appeare, that Christ himselfe did not 
altogither neglect the course & order of the heavens, in that he said ; 
When you see a/ cloud rise out of the west, streight waie you saie a 
shewer commeth : and so it is. And when you see the southwind 
blowe ; you saie it will be hot, and so it commeth to passe. Againe, 
when it is evening, you saie faire* weather, for the skie is red : and 
in the morning you saie, to daie shalbe a tempest, for the skie is red 
and lowring. Wherein as he noteth that these things doo trulie come 
to passe, according to ancient observation, and to the rule astro- 
nomicall : so doth he also by other words following admonish us, 
that in attending too much to those obsevations, we neglect not 
speciallie to follow our christian vocation. 

The physician is commended unto us, and allowed in the scriptures : 
but so to put trust in him, as to neglect & distrust God, is severelie 
forbidden and reproved. Surelie it is most necessarie for us to know 
and observe diverse rules astrologicall ; otherwise we could not with 
oportunitie dispatch our ordinarie affaires. And yet Lactantiiis con- 
demneth and recounteth it among the number of witchcrafts : from 
whose censure Calvine doth not much varie. The poore husbandman 
perceiveth that the increase of the moone maketh plants and living 
creatures frutefull : so as in the full moone they are in best strength, 
decaieng in the wane, and in the conjunction doo utterlie wither 
and vade. Which when by observation, use and practise they 
have once learned, they distribute their businesse accordinglie ; as 
their times and seasons to sowe, to plant, to proine, to let their cattell 
bloud, to cut, &c./ 

of IVitcJnraft. 

Chap. \. 


The third Chapter. 

That cerfeine observations are indifferent, certeine ridiculous, and 
certeine impious, whence that cunning is derived of Apollo, and 
of Aruspices. 

KNOW not whether to disallow or discommend the 
curious observation used by our elders, who conjectured 
upon nativities : so as, if Saturne and Mercurie were 
opposite in anie brute signe, a man then borne should be 
dumbe or stammer much ; whereas it is dailie scene, that children 
naturallie imitate their parents/ conditions in that behalfe. Also they 
have noted, that one borne in the spring of the moone, shalbe 
healthie ; in that time of the wane, when the moone is utterlie decaied, 
the child then borne cannot live ; and in the conjunction, it cannot 
long continue. 

But I am sure the opinion of Julius Matermis is most impious, 
who writeth, that he which is borne when Saturne is in Leone, shall 
live long, and after his death shall go to heaven presentlie. And so 
is this oi Albumasar, who saith, that whosoever praieth to God, when 
the moone is in Capite draconis, shalbe heard, and obteine his praier. 
Furthermore, to plaie the cold prophet, as to recount it good or bad 
lucke, when salt or wine falleth on the table, or is shed, &c : or to 
prognosticate that ghests approch to your house, upon the chattering 
of pies or haggisters, wherof there can be yeelded no probable 
reason, is altogither vanitie and superstition : as hereafter shalbe 
more largelie shewed. But to make simple people beleeve, that a 
man or woman can foretell good or evill fortune, is meere witchcraft 
or cousenage. For God is the onlie searcher of the heart, and de- 
livereth not his counsell to so lewd reprobates. I know diverse 
writers afifirme, that witches foretell things, as prompted by a reall 
divell ; and that he againe learneth it out of the prophesies written in 
the scriptures, and by other nimble sleights, wherein he passeth anie 
other creature earthlie ; and that the same divell, or some of his 
fellowes runnes or flies as farre as Rochester, to mother Bungle ; or to 
Catiturburie to M. T ; or to Delphos, to Apollo ; or to Aesculapius, 
in Pargamo ; or to some other idoU or witch, and there by waie of 
oracle answers all questions, through his understanding of the pro- 
phesies conteined in the old testament, especiallie in Daniel and 
Esaie : whereby the divell knew of the translation of the monarchie 
from Babylon to Grcecia, &c. But either they have learned this of 
some oracle or witch ; or else I know not where the divell they find it. 



The ridicu- 
lous art of 


Julius Ma- 
te rnus his 
most impi- 
ous opi- 

Mai. nialef. 
Thorn. Aqui- 
nas, (sfc. 


9- Boolte. 

The discoverie 


Marrie certeine it is, that herein they shew themselves to be witches 
and fond divinors : for they find no such thing written in Gods 

Of the idoll called Apollo, I have somewhat alreadie spoken in 
the former title of Ob or Pytho ; and some occasion I shall have 
to speake thereof hereafter : and therfore at this time it shall 
suffice to tell you, that the credit gained thereunto, was by the craft / 
^IJ- and cunning of the priests, which tended thereupon ; who with their 
126. counterfeit miracles so/ bewitched the people, as they thought such 
vertue to have beene conteined in the bodies of those idols, as God 
hath not promised to anie of his angels, or elect people. For it is 
said, that if Apollo were in a chafe, he would sweat : if he had 
remorse to the afflicted, and could not help them, he would shed 
teares, which I beleeve might have beene wiped awaie with that 
handkerchiefe, that wiped and dried the Rood of graces face, being 
in like perplexities. Even as another sort of witching priests called 
Aruspices, prophesied victorie to Alexander, bicause an eagle lighted 
on his head : which eagle might (I beleeve) be cooped or caged with 
MaJwmets dove, that picked peason out of his eare. 

What pro- 

fihesies al- 

J. Bod. lib. 
dtPin. lib I. 
cat. 4. 


The fourth Chapter. 

The predictions of soothsaiers and lewd priests, the prognostications 
of astro7iomers and physicians allowable, divine prophesies holie 
and good. 

I HE cousening tricks of oracling priests and monkes, are 
and have beene speciallie most abhominable. The super- 
stitious observations of sensles augurors and soothsaiers 
(contrarie to philosophie, and without authoritie of scrip- 
ture) are verie ungodlie and ridiculous. Howbeit, I reject not the 
prognostications of astronomers, nor the conjectures or forewarnings 
of physicians, nor yet the interpretations of philosophers ; although 
in respect of the divine prophesies conteined in holie scriptures, they 
are not to be weighed or regarded. For the end of these and the 
other is not onlie farre differing ; but whereas these conteine onlie 
the word and will of God, with the other are mingled most horrible 
lies and cousenages. For though there may be many of them learned 
and godlie, yet lurke there in corners of the same profession, a great 
number of counterfets and couseners. f. Bodin putteth this differ- 
ence betweene divine prophets and inchantors ;/ to wit, the one saith 
alwaies true, the others words (proceeding from the divell) are 
alwaies false ; or for one truth they tell a hundred lies. And then 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 5. 


why maie not everie witch be thought as cunning as Apollo} And 
why not everie counterfet cousener as good a witch as mother Bioi^iel 
For it is ods, but they will hit the truth once in a hundred divinations 
as well as the best. 

The fift Chapter. 

The diversitie of trice prophets^ of Urim, and of the propheticall 
use of the twelve precious stones cofttetned therein, of the divine 
voice called Eccho. 

T should appeare, that even of holie prophets there were 
diverse sorts. For David and Salomon, although in 
their psalmes and parables are conteined most excellent 
mysteries, and notable allegories : yet they were not indued Diverse de- 
with that degree of prophesie, that Elie and Elisha were, &c./ For as prophesie. 127. 
often as it is said, that God spake to David or Salomon, it is meant 
to be done by the prophets. For Nathan or Gad were the messengers 
and prophets to reveale Gods will to David. And Ahiam the Silo- 2. Reg. 2. 
nite was sent from God to Salomon. Item, the spirit of prophesie, 
which Elias had, was doubled upon Elisha. Also some prophets 
prophesied all their lives, some had but one vision, and some had 
more, according to Gods pleasure ; yea some prophesied unto the 
people of such things as came not to passe, and that was where Gods 
wrath was pacified by repentance. But these prophets were alwaies 
reputed among the people to be wise and godlie ; whereas the heathen 
prophets were evermore knowne and said to be mad and foolish : as 
it is written both of the prophets oi Sibylla, and also oi Apollo ; and 
at this daie also in the Indies, Slc. 

But that anie of these extraordinarie gifts remaine at this daie, 
Bodin, nor anie witchmonger in the world shall never be able to J- Bodin. 
proove : though he in his booke of divelish madnesse would make 
men beleeve it. For these were miraculouslie mainteined/ by God lyj. 
among the Jewes, who were instructed by them of all such things as 
should come to passe ; or else informed by Urint : so as the preests 
by the brightnes of the twelve pretious stones conteined therein, 
could prognosticate or expound anie thing. Which brightnes and 
vertue ceased (as yi^jfc'/J/n^j reporteth) two hundred yeares before he yoseph. dean- 
was borne. So as since that time, no answers were yelded thereby '"^"''• 
of Gods will and pleasure. Nevertheles, the Hebrues write, that Josue fiUus 
there hath beene ever since that time, a divine voice heard among ^Z'keaboth. 
them, which in Latine is called Filia vocis, in Greeke ^x^^'i ""^ 
English The daughter of speech. 


9- Booke. 

The discoverie 



The subject 128. 
of the pro- 
phesies of 
the old te- 

2. Reg. 2. 13. 

The sixt Chapter. 

Of prophesies cottditiojiall : whereof the prophesies in the old 
testamefit doo intreate^ and by whom they were pjiblishedj witch- 
mongers aunswers to the objections against witches st/pernaturall 

HRIST and his apostles prophesied of the calamities and 
afflictions, which shall greeve and disturbe the church of 
God in this life : also of the last dale, and of the signes 
and tokens that shall be shewed before that dale : and 
finallie of all things, which are requisite for us to foreknowe. How- 
beit, such is the mercie of God, that all prophesies, threatnings, 
plagues, and punishments are annexed to conditions of repentance : 
as on the other side, corporall blessings are tied under the condition 
of the crosse and castigation. So as by them the mysteries af our 
salvation being discovered unto us, we are not to seeke new signes and 
miracles ; but to attend to the doctrine of the apostles, who preached 
Christ exhibited and crucified for our sinnes, his resurrection, ascen- 
sion, and thereby the redemption of as manie as beleeve, &c. 

The prophesies in the old testament treat of the continuance, the 
governement, and the difference of estates : of the distinction of the 
foure monarchies, of their order, decaie, and instauration ;/ of the 
changes and/ ruines of the kingdomes oi fuda, Israel, Aegypt, Persia, 
Grcscia, Gr'c : and speciallie of the comming of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ ; and how he should be borne of a virgine, and where, of his 
tribe, passion, resurrection, &c. These prophesies were published 
by Gods speciall and peculiar prophets, endued with his particular 
and excellent gifts, according to his promise ; I will raise them up a 
prophet out of the midst of their brethren, I will put my words in his 
mouth, &c. Which though it were speciallie spoken of Christ, yet 
was it also spoken of those particular prophets, which were placed 
among them by God to declare his will ; which were also figures of 
Christ the prophet himselfe. Now, if prophesie be an extraordinarie 
gift of God, and a thing peculiar to himselfe, as without whose speciall 
assistance no creature can be a prophet, or shew what is to come ; 
whie should we beleeve, that those lewd persons can performe by 
divinations and miracles that wliich is not in humane but in divine 
power to accomplish .-' 

Howbeit, when I denie that witches can ride in the aire, and the 
miraculous circumstance thereof: by and by it is objected unto me, 
that Enoch and Elie were rapt into heaven bodilie ; and that Abactike 

of Witchcraft. chap. 7. 141 

was carried in the aire, to feed Daniel : and so falselie oppose a divels 
or a witches power against the vertue of the Holy-ghost. If I deride 
the poets opinions, saieng, that witches cannot Caelo dediicere Ittnain, 
fetch the moone from heaven, &c: they tell me that at Jos/nias battell 
the sunne staied, and at the passion of Christ there was palpable 
darknes. If I denie their cunning in the exposition of dreames, ad- 
vising them to remember Jereinles counsell, not to followe or credit 
the expositors of dreames ; they hit me in the teeth with Daniel and 
Joseph : for that the one of them expounded Pharao the Persian 
kings, the other Nabuchadnez-zar the Aegyptia7i kings dreame. If I 
saie with Salomon^ that the dead knowe nothing, and that the Eccles. 9, 5. 
dead knowe us not, neither are remooveable out of Abrahams 
bosome, &c : they produce the storie of Saimiel : wherein, I saie, i. Sam. j8. 
they set the power of a creature as high as the creator. If I saie, 
that these witches cannot transubstantiate themselves, nor others 
into beasts, &c. they cite the storie of Nabuchad7iez-xar ; as though 
indeed he were made a materiall beast, and that also by witch-/ 
craft ; and strengthen that their assertion with the fables of Circe and //j. 
Ulysses his companions, &c. 

The seventh Chapter. 

What were the miracles expressed in the old testament, and what 
are they in the new testajnent : a7id that we are 7iot fioiu to looke 
for anie jnore miracles. 

HE miracles expressed in the old testament were manie, 
but the end of them all was one, though they were divers 
and differing in shew : as where the sacrifices of Moses, 
Elias, and Salomon, being abundantlie wet were burnt 
with fier from heaven, &c. The varietie of toongs at the building of Gen. 11,6. 
Babylon, Isaachs birth of Sarah being by nature past children,/ the ^an' "i". 129. 
passage through the red sea, Daniels foretelling of the foure 
monarchies, in the fourth whereof he apparantlie foresheweth the 
comming of the Lord. All these, and manie other, which are expressed 
in the old testament, were mercifull instructions and notable miracles 
to strengthen the faith of Gods people in their Messias. If you had 
gone to Delphos, Apollo would have made you beleeve with his 
amphibologicall answers, that he could have foretold you all these 

The miracles wrought by Christ were the raising up of the dead a summe 
(which manie would impute to the woman of Endor, and also to our ^i^j'jJe's'' 
witches and conjurors) the restoring of the lame to lims, the blind to 

142 Q. Booke. The discove7'ie 

sight, the dumbe to speach, and finallie the healing of all diseases ; 
which manie beleeve our witches can doo ; yea, and as they them- 
selves will take it upon them. As for casting out of divels (which 
was another kind of miracles usuall with Christ) witches and con- 
jurors are said to be as good thereat as ever he was : and yet, if you 
will beleeve Christs words, it cannot be so. For he saith ; Everie 
Matt. ij. 35. kingdome divided against it selfe, shall be brought to naught, &c. If 

sathan cast out sathan, he is divided, &c : and his kingdome shall not 
endure, &c./ 
lyO. Peters chaines fell off in prison, so did Richard Gallisies fetters at 
Windsor : marrie the prison doores opened not to Richard, as they 
did to Peter. Helias by speciall grace obtained raine, our witches 
can make it raine, when they list, &c. But sithens Christ did these 
miracles, and manie more, and all to confirme his truth, and strengthen 
our faith, and finallie for the conversion of the people (as appeareth 
in John. 6. 7, and 12 : in so much as he vehementlie reprooved such, 
Luk. 10, 13. as upon the sight of them would not beleeve, saieng ; Wo be to thee 

Chorazin, wo be to thee Bethsaida. If the miracles had beene doone in 
Tyre and Sidon, which have beene doone in you, they had a great while 
ago repented, &c. Let us settle and acquiet our faith in Christ, and 
beleeving all his wonderous works, let us reject these old wives fables, 
as lieng vanities : whereof you may find in the golden legend, Af. Mai. 
and speciallie in Bodin miraculous stuffe, enough to checke all the 
miracles expressed in the old and new testament ; which are of more 
credit with manie bewitched people, than the true miracles of 
Christ himselfe. Insomuch as they stand in more awe 
of the manacies of a witch, than of all the 
threatnings and cursses pronounced 
by God, and expressed in his 
word. And thus much 
touching the word 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 2. 


f The tenth Booke, 

The first Chapter. 



The interpretation of this Hebrue word Onen, of the vanitie of 
dreafties, and divi^iations thereupoit. 

MEN differeth not much ixon-\Kasain, but that it is extended 
to the interpretation of dreames. Andas for dreames, what- 
soever credit is attributed unto them, proceedeth of foUie : Eccius. 24, 
and they are fooles that trust in them, for whie they have 
deceived many. In which respect the Prophet giveth us good warn- 
ing, not to followe nor hearken to the expositors of dreames, for they 
come through the multitude of busines. And therefore those witches, 
that make men beleeve they can prophesie upon dreames, as knowing 
the interpretation of them, and either for monie or gloria abuse men 
& women therby, are meere couseners, and worthie of great punish- 
ment : as are such witchmongers, as beleeving them, attribute unto 
them such divine power as onelie belongeth to God : as appeereth in 
feretnie the Prophet./ 

Jerem. 27. 
Eccle. 5. 

Jerem. 23, 
25. 26. 27. 
Read the 

The second Chapter. 178. 

Of divine, naturally and casuall dreames, with their differing 
causes and effects. 

lACROBIUS recounteth five differences of images, or 
rather imaginations exhibited unto them that sleepe, 
which for the most part doo signifie somewhat in admo- 
nition. There be also many subdivisions made hereof, 
which I thinke needlesse to reherse. In faster Peucer they are to be Peucerin 

... , . r 1 ^1 dtvmat. ex 

scene. With the causes and occasions of dreames. 1 here were woont somniis. 
to be delivered from God himselfe or his angels, certeine dreames 
and visions unto the prophets and holie fathers : according to the 
saieng oi foci ; I will powre my spirit upon all flesh, your yoong men joei. 2. 
shall dreame dreames, and your old men shall see visions. These 
kind of dreames (I say) were the admonishments and forewarnings Matth. i. 20. 
of God to his people : as that oi foseph, to abide with Marie his wife, 
after she was conceived by the Holie-ghost, as also to conveie our Matih. 2, 13. 
Saviour Christ into Aegypt, &c : the interpretation whereof are the 
peculiar gifts of God, which foseph the patriarch, and Daniel the Gen. 39. & 
prophet had most speciallie. Dani. t' 

As for physicall conjectures upon dreames, the scriptures *improove [* ? reproove] 


10. Booke. 

The disc ore vie 


Eccles. 5. lyQ- 

Englished by 



them not : for by them the physicians manie times doo understand 
the state of their patients bodies. For some of them come by meanes 
of choler, flegme, melanchoHe, or bloud ; and some by love, surfet, 
hunger, thirst, &c. Gallen and Boetius were said to deale with 
divels, bicause they/ told so justlie their patients dreames, or rather 
by their dreames their speciall diseases. Howbeit, physicall dreames 
are natural!, and the cause of them dwelleth in the nature of man. 
For they are the inward actions of the mind in the spirits of the 
braine, whilest the bodie is occupied with sleepe : for as touching 
the mind it selfe, it never sleepeth. These dreames varie, according 
to the difference of humors and vapors. There are also casuall 
dreames, which (as Salomon saith)/ come through the multitude of 
businesse. For as a looking glasse sheweth the image or figure there- 
unto opposite : so in dreames, the phantasie & imagination informes 
the understanding of such things as haunt the outward sense. 
Whereupon the poet saith : 

Soiimia tie cures, nam mens humana quod optai, 
Dmn vigilat sperans,per somtium cernit id ipsum : 

Regard no dreames, for why the mitid 
Of that in sleepe a view dooth take. 
Which it dooth wish and hope to find, 
At such time as it is awake. 

A dissonan- 
cie in opi- 
nions a- 

The third Chapter. 

The opinion of divers old writers touching dreames, and how they 
varie in noting the causes thereof 

YNESIUS, Themistius, Democritus, and others grounding 
themselves upon examples that chance hath sometimes 
verified, persuade men, that nothing is dreamed in vaine : 
affirming that the hevenlie influencies doo bring foorth 
divers formes in corporall matters ; and of the same influencies, visions 
and dreames are printed in the fantasticall power, which is instru- 
mental!, with a celestial! disposition meete to bring foorth some effect, 
especiallie in sleepe, when the mind (being free from bodilie cares) may 
more liberallie receive the heavenlie influencies, wherby many things 
are knowne to them sleeping in dreames, which they that wake cannot 
see. Plato attributeth them to the formes and ingendred knowledges 
of the soule ; Avicen to the last intelligence that moveth the moone, 
through the light that lighteneth the fantasie in sleepe ; Aristotle to 
the phantasticall sense; Averroes io the imaginative; Albert to the 
influence of superior bodies,/,' 

of Witchcraft. 

Cliap. 4. 


The fourth Chapter. 

Against interpreters of dreanies, of the or dinar ie cause of dreanies^ 
Heviingius his opinion of diabolicall dreaines, the interpretation 
of dreames ceased. 

HERE are bookes carried about concerning this matter, 
under the name oi Abraham, who (as Philo In lib. gigan- 
tiini saith) was the first inventor of the exposition of 
dreames : and so likewise of Salomon and Daniel. But 
Cicero In lib. dc divinatiotte confuteth the vanitie and follie of them 
that give credit to dreames. And as for the interpretors of dreames, 
as they knowe not before the dreame, nor yet after, any certeintie ; 
yet when any thing afterwards happeneth, then they applie the dreame 
to that which hath chanced. 

Certeinlie men never lightHe faile to dreame by night, of that which 
they meditate by daie : and by daie they see divers and sundrie 
things, and conceive them severalHe in their minds. Then those 
mixed conceits being laid up in the closset of the memorie, strive 
togither; which, bicause the phantasie cannot discerne nor discusse, 
some certeine thing gathered of manie conceits is bred and contrived 
in one togither. And therefore in mine opinion, it is time vainelie 
emploied, to studie about the interpretation of dreames. He that list 
to see the follie and vanitie thereof, maie read a vaine treatise, set 
out by Thomas Hill Londoner, 1568. 

Lastlie, there are diabolicall dreames, which Nicolaus Hemingius 
divideth into three sortes. The first is, when the divell immediatlie 
of himselfe (he meaneth corporallie) offereth anie matter of dreame. 
Secondlie, when the divell sheweth revelations to them that have 
made request unto him therefore. Thirdlie, when magicians by art 
bring to passe, that other men dreame what they will. Assuredlie 
these, and so all the rest (as they maie be used) are verie magicall 
and divelish dreames. For although we maie receive comfort of 
mind by those, which are called divine/ dreames, and health of bodie 
through physicall dreames : yet if we take upon us to use the office of 
God in the revelation or rather the interpretation of them ; or if we 
attribute unto them miraculous effects (now when we see the gifts of 
prophesie, and of interpretation of dreames, and also the operation of 
miracles are ceased, which were speciall and peculiar gifts of God, to 
confirme the truth of the word, and to establish his people in the faith 
of the Messias, who is now exhibited unto us both in the testament, 
and also in the bloud of our Saviour Jesus Christ) we are bewitched, 


iSo. 132. 

The plea- 
sant art of 
the inter- 
of dreames. 
A'. Hcmin. in 
nib. dc super- 
stitionib. tna- 
gicis vitadii. 


The end & 
use of pro- 
phesie, in- 
of dreames, 
of mira- 
cles, &c. 


lo. Booke. 

The discoverie 

and both abuse and offend the majestie of God, and ah:o seduce, 
delude and cousen all such as by our persuasion, and their ovvne 
light beleefe, give us credit. 


Seeke for 
such stutfe 
in my booke 
of Hartu- 

Dan. 2. 

Gen. II, 8. 
Gen. 37, & 

Isai. II. 
Dan. i. 

Aristnt. de 

The fift Chapter. 

That neither witches, nor anie other, can either by words or hearts, 
ihnist into the mind of a sleepi7i_s; man, what cogitations or 
dreames they list ; and whence jnagicall df-eames come. 

GRANT there maie be hearbs and stones found and 
kno'.vne to the physicians, which maie procure dreames ; 
and other hearbs and stones, &c : to make one bewraie 
all the secrets of his mind, when his bodie sleepeth, or at 
least wise to procure speech in sleepe. But that witches or magicians 
have power by words, herbs, or imprecations to thrust into the mind 
or conscience of man, what it shall please them, by vertue of their 
charmes, hearbs, stones, or familiars, &c : according to the opinion , 
of Hemingiiis, I denie : though therewithal! I confesse, that the 
divell both by daie and also by night, travelleth to seduce man, and 
to lead him from God ; yea and that no waie more than this, where 
he placeth himselfe as God in the minds of them that are so cre- 
dulous, to attribute unto him, or unto witches, that which is onlie in 
the office, nature, and power of God to accomplish. 

Doth not Daniel the prophet sale, even in this case ; It is the/ 
182. Lord onelie that knovi^eth such secrets, as in the exposition of dreames 
is required ? And doth not Joseph repeat those verie words to Pharaos 
officers, who consulted with him therein .-' Examples of divine 
dreames you maie find a great number in the scripture, such (I 
meane) as it pleased God to reveale his pleasure by. Of physicall 
dreames we maie both read in authors, and see in our owne experi- 
ence dailie, or rather nightly. Such dreams also as are casuall, they 
are likewise usuall, and come (as hath beene said) through the multi- 
tude of affaires and businesse. Those which in these dales are 
called magicall or diabolicall dreames, maie rather be called melan- 
cholicall. For out of that blacke vapor in sleepe, through dreames, 
appeareth (as Aristotle saith) some horrible thing ; and as it were the 
image of an ouglie divell : sometimes also other terrible visions, 
imaginations, counsels, and practises. As where we read of a cer- 
teine man, that dreamed there appeared one unto him that required 
him to throwe himselfe into a deepe pit, and that he should reape 
great benefit thereby at Gods hands. So as the miserable wretch 
giving credit thereunto, performed the matter, and killed himselfe. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 7. 


Now I confesse, that the interpretation or execution of that dreame 
was indeed diaboHcall : but the dreame was casuall, derived from the 
heavie and blacke humor of melancholie./ 

The sixt Chapter. 

Ho7u men have beene bewitched, coitsened or abused by dreauies to diir 
and sca?'ch for inom'e. 

OW manie have beene bewitched with dreames,and thereby 
made to consume themselves with digging and searching 
formonie, &c : whereof they, or some other have drempt? 
I my selfe could manifest, as having knowne how wise 
men have beene that waie abused by verie simple persons, even where 
no dreame hath beene met withall, but waking dreames. And this hath 
beene used heretofore, as one of the finest cousening feates : in so much/ 
as there is a verie formall art thereof devised, with manie excellent 
superstitions and ceremonies thereunto belonging, which I will set 
dovvne as breeflie as male be. Albeit that here in England, this 
proverbe hath beene current ; to wit, Dreames proove contrarie : 
according to the answer of the priests boy to his master, who told his 
said boy that he drempt he kissed his taile : Yea maister (saith he) 
but dreames proove contrarie, you must kisse mine. 


Such would 
be im bar- 
ked in the 
ship of 


An english 

The seventh Chapter. 

The art and order to be used in digging for nionie, revealed by 
dreames, Jiow to procure pleasant dreames, of morning atid mid- 
night dreames. 

HERE must be made upon a hazell wand three crosses. Note this 

ous do- 

and certeine words both blasphemous and impious must 
be said over it, and hereunto must be added certeine 
characters, & barbarous names. And whilest the trea- 
sure is a digging, there must be read the psalmes, De profimdis, 
Missa, Misereatur nostri, Requiem, Pater noster, Ave Maria, Et 7ie 
nos ijiducas in tentationem, sed libera 7ios a malo, Amen. A porta 
inferi credo videre bona, &^c. Expectate Dominum, Requiem ceternam. 
And then a certeine praier. And if the time of digging be neglected, 
the divell will carie all the treasure awaie. See other more absolute 
conjurations for this purpose, in the word lidoni following. 

You shall find mfohannes Baptista Neapolitanus, diverse receipts 
by hearbes and potions, to procure pleasant or fearefull dreames ; and '«<2g- ii>>. 
perfumes also to that effect : who affirmeth, that dreames in the dead of sf i' s/"'' 

J. Bap. Neap, 
in natural. 


10. Buoke. 

The discoverie 

the night are commonlie preposterous and monstrous; and in the morn- 
ing when the grosse humors be spent, there happen more pleasant and 
certeine dreames, the bloud being more pure than at other times : 
the reason whereof is there expressed.// 

ons or re- 
ceipts for 
the mira- 
tation of 

184. 135. The eight Chapter. 

Sujidrie receipts and oiiitnioiis^ made and used for the transporta- 
tion of witches, and other miraculous effects : an instance therof 
reported and credited by some that are learned. 

|T shall not be amisse here in this place to repeate an 
ointment greatlie to this purpose, rehearsed by the fore- 
said John Bapt. Neap, wherein although he male be 
overtaken and cousened by an old witch, and made not 
onelie to beleeve, but also to report a false tale ; yet bicause it 
greatlie overthroweth the opinion of M. Mai. Bodin, and such other, 
as write so absolutelie in maintenance of witches transportations, I 
will set downe his words in this behalfe. The receipt is as followeth. 

R The fat of yoong children, and seeth it with water in a brasen 
vessell, reserving the thickest of that which remaineth boiled in the 
bottome, which they laie up and keepe, untill occasion serveth to use 
it. They put hereunto Eleoselintim, Acotiitum, Frondes populeas, and 

Another receipt to the same purpose. 
R. Slum, acartim vulgare, pentaphyllon, the bloud of a flitter- 
mouse, solanum somniferitm, &^ oleum. They stampe all these 
togither, and then they rubbe all parts of their bodies exceedinglie, 
till they looke red, and be verie hot, so as the pores may be opened, 
and their flesh soluble and loose. They joine herewithall either fat, 
or oile in steed thereof, that the force of the ointment male the rather 
pearse inwardly, and so be more efFectuall. By this means (saith he) 
in a moone light night they seeme to be carried in the aire, to feast- 
ing, singing, dansing, kissing, culling, and other acts of venerie, with 
such youthes as they love and desire most : for the force (saith he) ot 
their imagination is so vehement, that almost all that part of the 
braine, wherein the memorie consisteth, is full of such conceipts. 
j8j. And whereas they are naturallie prone/ to beleeve anie thing ; so doo 
they receive such impressions and stedfast imaginations into their 
minds, as even their spirits are altered thereby ; not thinking upon 
anie thing else, either by dale or by night. And this helpeth them 
forward in their imaginations, that their usuall food is none other 
commonlie but beets, rootes, nuts, beanes, peaze, &c. 

of IVitchcf'aft. 

Chap. g. 


Now (saith he) when I considered throughlie hereof, remaining Vetule,quas 
doubtfuU of the matter, there fell into my hands a witch, who of hir ]ifudfne'lTri' 
ovvne accord did promise me to fetch me an errand out of hand from &^^ vacant, 

,.,,,,,, , Till 1 • luaq; noctu 

farre countries, and willed all them, whome I had brought to witnesse p,u-ruiorum 
the matter, to depart out of the chamber. And when she had ',"",,^-"cuban" 
undressed hir selfe, and froted hir bodie with certeine ointments tium exsor- 
(which action we beheld through a chinke or little hole of the doore) 
she fell downe thorough the force of those soporiferous or sleepie oint- 
ments into a most sound and heavie sleepe : so as we did breake 
open the doore, and did beate hir exceedinglie ; but/ the force of hir 136. 
sleepe was such, as it tooke awaie from hir the sense of feeling : and 
we departed for a time. Now when hir strength and powers were 
wearie and decaied, shee awooke of hir owne accord, and began to 
speake manie vaine and doting words, affirming that she had passed 
over both seas and mountaines ; delivering to us manie untrue and 
false reports : we earnestlie denied them, she impudentlie affirmed 
them. This (saith he) will not so come to passe with everie one, but 
onlie with old women that are melancholike, whose nature is extreame 
cold, and their evaporation small ; and they both perceive and 
remember what they see in that case and taking of theirs. 

The ninth Chapter. 

A confutation of the former follies, as well concerning ointments, 
dreames, &^c. as also of the assemblie of witches, and of their con- 
sultations and bankets at sundrie places, and all in dreames. 

lUT if it be true that S. Augustine saith, and manie other 
writers, that witches nightwalkings are but phantasies 
and dreames : then all the reportes of their bargaine, 
I transporting, and mee/tings with Diana, Minerva, &c : 
are but fables ; and then do they lie that mainteine those actions to 
be doone in deed and veritie, which in truth are doone no waie. It 
were marvell on the one side (if those things happened in dreames, 
which neverthelesse the witches affirme to be otherwise) that when 
those witches awake, they neither consider nor remember that they 
were in a dreame. It were marvell that their ointments, by the 
physicians opinions having no force at all to that effect, as they con- 
fesse which are inquisitors, should have such operation. It were 
marvell that their ointments cannot be found anie where, saving onelie 
in the inquisitors bookes. It were marvell, that when a stranger is 
annointed therewith, they have sometimes, and yet not alwaies, the 
like operation as with witches ; which all the inquisitors confesse. 


Barihol. Spi- 
ntrus, q. de 
strigib. f. 31. 


10. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Bar. Spin. qu. 
lie strigib. c, 

New mat- 
ter & wor- 
thie to be 



Legend- aur. 
in vita S. 

But to this last, frier Bartholo»iceHS saith, that the witches them- 
selves, before they annoint themselves, do heare in the night time a 
great noise of minstrels, which flie over them, with the ladie of the 
fairies, and then they addresse themselves to their journie. But then 
I marvell againe, that no bodie else heareth nor seeth this troope of 
minstrels, especiallie riding in a moone light night. It is marvell 
that they that thinke this to be but in a dreame, can be persuaded 
that all the rest is anie other than dreames. It is marvell that in 
dreames, witches of old acquaintance meet so just togither, and con- 
clude upon murthers, and receive ointments, roots, powders, &c : (as 
witchmongers report they doo, and as they make the witches confesse) 
and yet lie at home fast asleepe. It is marvell that such preparation 
is made for them (as Sprenger, Bartholomezv, and Bodm report) as 
well in noble mens houses, as in alehouses ; and that they come in 
dreames, and eate up their meate : and the alewife speciallie is not 
wearied with them for non paiment of their score,/ or false paiment ; 
to wit, with imaginarie monie, which they saie is not substantial!, and 
that they talke not afterwards about the reckoning, and so discover 
the matter. And it is most marvell of all, that the hostesse, &c: dooth 
not sit among them, and take part of their good cheere. For so it is, 
that if any part of these their meetings and league be true, it is as 
true and as certeinlie prooved and confessed, that at some alehouse, 
or sometime at some Gen/tlemans house, there is continual! pre- 
paration made monethlie for this assemblie : as appeereth in S. 
Ger?iians storie. 

7. Re. 3, 5. 15. 

I. Reg. 9. 

The tenth Chapter. 

Thai mos I pari of prophesies in ihe old iesiament were revealed in 
dreames, ihat we are not nozu to looke for such revelations, of 
some who have drempt of that which hath come to passe, ihat 
dreames proove contrarie, Nabiichadiiez-zars rttle to knowe a true 
expositor of dreames. 

JT is held and mainteined by divers, and gathered out of 
the 12. oi Numbers, that all which was written or spoken 
by the prophets, among the children of Israel {Moses ex- 
cepted) was propounded to them by dreames. And indeed 
it is manifest, that manie things, which are thought by the unlearned 
to have beene reallie finished, have beene onlie performed by dreams 
and visions. As where Salomon required of God the gift of wis- 
dome : that was (I say) in a dreame ; and also where he received 
promise of the continuance of the kingdome of Israel in his line. So 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 10. 


J. Bodin. 
lib. de da- 
man. I. cap. 5. 

was Esnis vision in the 6. of his prophesie : as also that of Ezechiel isai. 6. 
the 12. Finallie, where Jeremze was commanded to hide his girdle in jerem. 13! 
the clift of a rocke at the river Euphrates in Babylon ; and that after 
certeine daies, it did there putrifie, it must needs be in a dreame ; for 
Jerctnie was never (or at leastwise not then) at Babylon. We that are 
christians must not now slumber and dreame, but watch and praie, 
and meditate upon our salvation in Christ both daie and night. And 
if we expect revelations in our dreames, now, when Christ is come, 
we shall deceive our selves : for in him are fulfilled all dreames and 
prophesies. Howbeit, Bodin holdeth that dreames and visions con- 
tinue till this daie, in as miraculous maner as ever they did. 

If you read Arteinidorus, you shall read manie stories of such as 
drempt of things that afterwards cam to passe. But he might have 
cited a thousand for one that fell out contrarie : for as for / such 188. 
dreamers among the Jews themselves, as had not extraordinarie 
visions miraculouslie exhibited unto them by God, they were counted 
couseners, as may appeere by these words of the prophet Zacharie ; Zach. 10, 2. 
Surelie the idols have spoken vanitie, and the soothsaiers have scene 
a lie, and the dreamers have told a vaine thing. According to 
Salomons saieng ; In the multitude of dreames and vanities are Eccies. 5, 6. 
manie words. It appeereth in Jeremie 23. that the false prophets, J^''^"'- ^3- 
whilest they illuded the people with lies, counterfetting the true 
prophets, used to crie out ; Dreames, dreames ; We have dreamed a 
dreame, &c. Finallie, NabucJiadnez-zar teacheth all men to knowe a 
true expositor of dreames ; to wit, such a one as hath his 
revelation from GOD. For he can (as Daniel did) 
repeate your dreame before you discover it : 
which thing if anie expounder of 
dreames can doo. at 
this daie, I will 



II. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

The slo- 
venlie art 
of augurie. 

'^9- 138. ^ The eleventh booke. 

The first Chapter. 

The Hebrue word Nahas expoimded, of the art of attgurie, who 
invented it, how slove^ilie a science it is : the multitude of sacri- 
fices and sacrificers of the heathen, and the caiises therof 

AH AS, is To observe the flieng of birds, & comprehendeth 

all such other observations, where men do ghesse upon 

uncerteine toies. It is found in Deut. i8. and in 2. 

Chron. ■},■}). and else-where. Of this art of augurie Tyresias 

the king of the Thebans is said to be the first inventor : but Tages 

first published the discipline thereof, being but a little boie ; as Cicero 

reporteth out of the bookes of the Hetruscans themselves. Some 

points of this art are more high and profound than some others, and 

yet are they more homelie and slovenlie than the rest ; as namelie, 

the divination upon the entrailes of beasts, which the Gentiles in 

their sacrifices speciallie observed. Insomuch as Marcus Varro, 

seeing the absurditie thereof, said that these gods were not onlie idle, 

but verie slovens, that used so to hide their secrets and counsels in 

the guts and bowels of beasts. 

How vainlie, absurdlie, and superstitiouslie the heathen used this 

kind of divination in their sacrifices, is manifested by their actions 

& ceremonies in that behalfe practised, as well in times past, as at 

this houre. The Aegyptians had 666. severall sorts and kinds of 

jgo. sacrifices ; the Ronia7is had almost as manie ; the Grcejcians had not 

so few as they ; the Persians and the Medes were not behind them ; 

the Indies and other nations have at this instant their sacrifices full 

of varietie, and more full of barbarous impietie. For in sundrie 

places, these offer sacrifices to the divell, hoping thereby to moove 

him to lenitie : yea, these commonlie sacrifice such of 

their enimies, as they have taken in warre : as 

we read that the Gentiles in ancient time 

did offer sacrifice, to appease the 

wrath and indignation of 

their feigned 


of Witchcraft. chap. 3. 153 

The second Chapter. 

0/ the Jcwes sacrifice to Moloch, a discourse thereupon, and 0/ 

|HE Jewes used one kind of diabolical sacrifice, never 2. Re. 23, 10 
taught them by Moses, namelie, to offer their children to \^^^ "' 
Moloch, making their sonnes and their daughters to runne 
through the fire ; supposing such grace and efficacie to 
have beene in that action, as other witches affirme to be in charmes 
and words. And therfore among other points of witchcraft, this is D^ut. 18, 10 
speciallie and namelie forbidden by Moses. We read of no more IJ-?^'- '8, 21. 

^ . . . \.a. cap. 20. 2. 

miracles wrought hereby, than by any other kmd of witchcraft m the 
old or new testament expressed. It was no ceremonie appointed by , , . 
God,/ no figure of Christ : perhaps it might be a sacrament or rather cibie argu- 139. 
a figure of purgatorie, the which place was not remembred by Moses, g'-ilnst'pur- 
Neither was there anie sacrifice appointed by the lawe for the releefe g"''''^- 
of the Israelites soules that there should be tormented. Which with- 
out all doubt should not have beene omitted, if any such place of 
purgatorie had beene then, as the Pope hath latelie devised for his 
private and speciall lucre. This sacrificing to Moloch (as some 
afiirme) was usuall among the Gentiles, from whence the Jewes 
brought it into Israel : and there (of likeliehood) the £'/^//t7^/.y/j- learned 
the abhomination in that behalfe./ 

The third Chapter. igi. 

The Canibals crueliie, of popish sacrifices exceeding in tyrannie the 
Jewes or Gentiles. 

H E incivilitie and cruell sacrifices of popish preests do Agninst the 
yet exceed both the Jew and the Gentile : for these take P'^'^'^uf'' 

■' ■' hominable 

upon them to sacrifice Christ himselfe. And to make and bias- 
their tyrannie the more apparent, they are not contented saT.^ce^of 
to have killed him once, but dailie and hourelie torment him with tller"ts^e. 
new deaths ; yea they are not ashamed to sweare, that with their 
carnall hands theyteare his humane substance, breaking it into small 
gobbets ; and with their externall teeth chew his flesh and bones, 
contrarie to divine or humane nature ; and Contrarie to the prophesie, 
which saith ; There shall not a bone of him be broken. Finallie, in p.-,ai. 34. -o 
the end of their sacrifice (as they say) they eate him up rawe, and 
swallow downe into their guts everie member and parcell of him : 



The discoverie 

and last of all, that they conveie him into the place where they 
bestowe the residue of all that which they have devoured that daie. 
And this same barbarous impietie exceedeth the crueltie of all others: 
for all the Gentiles consumed their sacrifices with fier, which they 
thought to be holie. 



* The Gym- 
of India 
their apish 
of Esaie. 


The fourth Chapter. 

The superstition of the heathen about the element of fier, and how it 
grew in such reverence ajnojtg them, of their corruptions, and 
that they had some inklittg of the godlie fathers dooings in that 

|S touching the element of fier, & the superstition therof 
about those businesses, you shall understand, that manie 
superstitious people and nations have received, reverenced, 
& reserved fier, as the most holy thing among their sacri- 
insomuch (I sale) as they have worshipped it a/mong their 
gods, calling it Oriinasda (to wit) holie fier, and divine light. The 
Greekes called it ealai', the Romans Vesta, which is, The fier of the 
Lord. Surelie they had heard of the fier that came downe from 
heaven, and consumed the oblations of the fathers ; and they under- 
stood it to be God himselfe. For there came to the heathen, the 
bare names of things, from the doctrine of the godlie fathers and 
patriarchs, and those so ob/scured with fables, and corrupted with 
lies, so overwhelmed with superstitions, and disguised with ceremonies, 
that it is hard to judge from whence they came. Some cause thereof 
(I suppose) was partlie the translations of governements, whereby 
one nation learned follie of another ; and partlie blind devotion, 
without knowledge of Gods word : but speciallie the want of grace, 
which they sought not for, according to Gods commandement and 
will. And that the Gentiles had some inkling of the godlie fathers 
dooings, may diverslie appeare. Doo not the Muscovits and *Indian 
prophets at this daie, like apes, imitate Esaie f Bicause he went 
naked certeine yeares, they forsooth counterfet madnes, and 
drinke potions for that purpose ; thinking that what- 
soever they sale in their madnes, will cer- 
teinelie come to passe. But hereof 
is more largelie discoursed 
before in the word 

of Witchcraft. ci.^ir. 5 155 

The fift Chapter. 

Of the Romane sacrifices : of the estimation they had of at/gurie, of 
the lawe of the twelve tables. 

HE Romans, even after they were growne to great 
civilitie, and enjoied a most flourishing state and com- 
monwealth, would sometimes sacrifice themselves, some- 
times their children, sometimes their friends, &c : consum- 
ing the same with fier, which they thought holie. Such estimation 
(I saie) was attributed to this art of divination upon the entrails of 
beasts, &c : at Rome, as the cheefe princes themselves exercised the 
same ; namelie,/ Romithis, Fabius MaxiniKs, Qr'c : in so much as rgj. 
there was a decree made there, by the whole senate, that six of the 
cheefe magistrats sonnes should from time to time be put foorth, to 
learne the mysterie of these arts of augurie and divination, at Hetru- 
ria, where the cunning and knowledge thereof most abounded. 
When they came home well informed and instructed in this art, their 
estimation and dignitie was such, as they were accounted, reputed, 
and taken to be the interpretors of the gods, or rather betweene the 
gods and them. No high preest, nor anie other great officer was 
elected, but these did either absolutelie nominate them, or else did 
exhibit the names of two, whereof the senate must choose the one. 

In their ancient lawes were written these words: Prodigia &r' The lawe 

portettta ad Hetruscos aruspices [si senatus jicsserit) deferunto, °l!^^ 

Hetruricaq; principes disciplinatn discttnto. Quibiis divis decrevemnt, tables. 

procieranto, iisdem fulgura &^ ostenta pianto, auspicia servanto, 

atfgtiri pai-ento : the effect of which words is this ; Let all prodigious 

and portentous matters be carried to the soothsaiers of Hetruria, 

at the will and commandement of the senat ; and let the yoong 

princes be sent to Hetruria, there to learne that discipline, or to be 

instructed in that art and knowledge. Let there be alvvaies some 

solicitor, to learne with what gods they have decreed or determined 

their matters, and let sacrifices be made unto them in times 

of lightening, or at anie strange or supernaturall 

shew. Let all such conjecturing tokens be 

observed ; whatsoever the sooth- 

saier commandeth, let it 

be religicuslie 



I. Booke. 

The discove7'ie 



chart a. Hen. 
3. 36. 7 l^d. I. 
15. Ri. 2 5. 

A manifest 
of augurors 

The sixt Chapter. 

Colleges of angtirors, their office, their member, the signification of 
augitrie, that the practisers of that art were cousetiers, their 
profession, their places of exercise, their apparrell, their supersti- 

lOMULUS erected three colleges or centuries of those 
kinds of soothsaiers, which onehe (and none other) should 
have authoritie to expound the minds and admonish- 
ments of the gods. Afterwards that/ number was aug- 
mented to five, and after that to nine : for they must needs be od. 
In the end, they increased so fast, that they were feine to make a 
decree for staie from the further proceeding in those erections : hke 
to our statute of Mortinaine. Howbeit, Silla (contrarie to all orders 
and constitutions before made) increased that number to foure and 

And though Atiguriuni be most properlie that divination, which is 
gathered by birds ; yet bicause this word Nahas comprehendeth all 
other kinds of divination, as Extispicittm, artispicium, &^c : which is 
as well the ghessing upon the entrailes of beasts, as divers other 
waies : omitting physiognomie and palmestrie, and such like, for the 
tediousnes and follie thereof; I will speake a little of such arts, as 
were above measure regarded of our elders : neither mind I to dis- 
cover the whole circumstance, but to refute the vanitie thereof, and 
speciallie of the professors of them, which are and alwaies have beene 
cousening arts, and in them conteined both speciall and severall 
kinds of witchcrafts. For the maisters of these faculties have ever 
taken upon them to occupie the place and name of God ; blasphem- 
ouslie ascribing unto themselves his omnipotent power, to foretell, (S:c : 
whei'eas, in truth, they could or can doo nothing, but make a shew of 
that which is not. 

One matter, to bewraie their cousening, is ; that they could never 
worke nor foreshew anie thing to the poore or inferior sort of people : 
for portentous shewes (sale they) alwaies concerned great estates. 
Such matters as touched the baser sort, were inferior causes ; 
which the superstition of the people themselves would not neglect 
to learne. Howbeit, the professors of this art descended not so 
lowe, as to communicate with them : for they were preests (which in 
all ages and nations have beene jollie fellowes) whose office was, to 
tell what should come to passe, either touching good lucke, or bad 
fortune ; to expound the minds, admonitions, warnings and threat- 

of Witchcraft. ciiap. s. 157 

nings of the gods, to foreshew calamities, &c : which might be (by 
their sacrifices and common contrition) remooved and qualified. And 
before their entrance into that action, they had manie observations, 
which they executed verie superstitiouslie ; pretending that everie 
bird and beast, &c, should be sent from the gods as foreshewes of 
somewhat. And/ therefore first they used to choose a cleare daie, and IQS- 
faire wether to doo their busines in : for the which their place was 
certeinelie assigned, as well in Rome as in Hetruria^ wherein they 
observed everie quarter of the element, which waie to looke, and 
which way to stand, &c. Their apparell was verie preestlike, of 142. 
fashion altered from all others, speciallie at the time of their praiers, 
wherein they might not omit a word nor a syllable : in respect 
whereof one read the service, and all the residue repeated it after 
him, in the maner of a procession. 

The seventh Chapter. 

The times atid seasons to exercise augzcrie, the maner and order 
thereof^ of the ceretnomes thereunto belongi7ig. 

I O lesse regard was there had of the times of their practise Note the 
in that ministcrie : for they must beginne at midnight, ous'cere-" 
and end at noone, not travelling therein in the decaie of monies of 

1 1 1 • 1 • r ■, ... augurors. 

the day, but m the mcrease of the same ; neither m the 
si.xt or seventh houre of the daie, nor yet after the moneth of August; 
bicause then yoong birds flie about, and are diseased, and unperfect, 
mounting their fethers, and flieng out of the countrie : so as no 
certeine ghesse is to be made of the gods purposes by them at those 
seasons. But in their due times they standing with a bowed wand in 
their hand, their face toward the east, &c : in the top of an high 
tower, the weather being cleare, watch for birds, noting from whence 
they came, and whether they flie, and in what sort they wag their 
wings, «&c./ 

The eight Chapter. ^^,5 

upon what sigties a7id tokens attgitrors did prognosticate., obser- 
vations tonching the inward and outward parts of beasts, with 
notes of beasts behaviour in the slaughterhouse. 

HESE kind of witches, whom we have now in hand, did 
also prognosticate good or bad lucke, according to the 
soundnes or imperfection of the entrailes of beasts ; or 
according to the superfluities or infirmities of nature ; or 
according to the abundance of humors unnecessarie, appearing in 
the inward parts and bowels of the beasts sacrificed. For as touch- 


II. Booke. 

The discovtrie 

ons in the 
art auguri- 

ing the outward parts, it was alwaies provided and foreseene, that 
they should be without blemish. And yet there were manie tokens 
and notes to be taken of the externall actions of those beasts, at the 
time of sacrifice : as if they would not quietlie be brought to the 
place of execution, but must be forceablie hailed ; or if they brake 
loose ; or if by hap, cunning, or strength they withstood the first 
blowe ; or if after the butchers blowe, they leaped up, rored, stood 
fast ; or being fallen, kicked, or would not quietlie die, or bled not 
well; or if anie ill newes had beene heard, or anie ill sight scene at 
the time of slaughter or sacrifice : which were all significations of ill 
lucke and unhappie successe. On the other side, if the slaughterman 
performed his office well, so as the beast had beene well chosen, not 
infected, but whole and sound, and in the end faire killed ; all had 
beene safe : for then the gods smiled./ 

Plato in 
Phcedro, in 
Titneo, in 
lib. de Re- 

the papists 
are more 
blame wor- 
thie than 
the hea- 

148 The ninth Chapter. 

A confutation of augurie, Plato his reverend opinion thereof, of 
contrarie events., a7id false predictions. 

iUT what credit is to be attributed to such toies and 
chances, which grow not of nature, but are gathered by 
the superstition of the interpreters? As for birds, who is 
so ignorant that conceiveth not, that/ one flieth one waie, 
another another waie, about their privat necessities? And yet are the 
other divinations more vaine and foolish. Howbeit, Plato thinketh 
a commonwealth cannot stand without this art, and numbereth it 
among the liberall sciences. These fellowes promised Pompeie, 
Cassius, and Ccesar, that none of them should die before they were 
old, and that in their ovvne houses, and in great honor ; and yet they 
all died cleane contrarilie. Howbeit doubtles, the heathen in this 
point were not so much to be blamed, as the sacrificing papists : for 
they were directed hereunto without the knowledge of Gods promises ; 
neither knew they the end why such ceremonies and sacrifices were 
instituted ; but onelie understood by an uncerteine and slender re- 
port, that God was woont to send good or ill successe to the children 
of Israeli, and to the old patriarchs and fathers, upon his acceptance 
or disallowance of their sacrifices and oblations. But men in all ages 
have beene so desirous to know the effect of their purposes, the 
sequele of things to come, and to see the end of their feare and 
hope ; that a seelie witch, which had learned anie thing in the art of 
cousenage, may make a great manie jollie fooles. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap, 10. 


The tenth Chapter. 

The cousening art of sortilege or lotarie, practised especiallie by Aegyp- 
iia)i vagabonds, 0/ allowed tots, 0/ Pythagoras his lot, &^c. 

HE counterfeit Aegyptians, which were indeed cousening 
vagabonds, practising the art called Sortilegitan, had no 
small credit among the multitude : howbeit, their divi- 
nations were as was their fast and loose, and as the 
witches cures and hurtes, & as the soothsaiers answers, and as the 
conjurors raisings up of spirits, and as Apollos or the Rood of graces 
oracles, and as the jugglers knacks of legierdemaine, and as the 
papists exorcismes, and as the witches charmes, and as the counter- 
feit visions, and as the couseners knaveries. Hereupon it was said ; 
No7i i7ivelniatHr ititer vos 7iienahas, that is Sortilegus, which were like 
to these Aegyptian couseners. As for other lots, they were used, and 
that lawfuUie ; as appeareth hy Jonas a.nd. others that were holie men, 
and as may be seene among all commonwelths, for the deciding of 
diverse controversies, &c ; wherein thy neighbour is not misused, nor 
God anie waie offended. But in truth 1 thinke, bicause of the cou- 
senage that so easilie may be used herein,/ God forbad it in the 
commonwealth of the Jewes, though in the good use thereof it was 
allowed in matters of great weight ; as appeareth both in the old and 
new testament ; and that as well in doubtfull cases and distributions, 
as in elections and inheritances, and pacification of variances. I omit 
to speake anie thing of the lots comprised in verses, concerning the 
lucke ensuing, either of Virgil, Homer, or anie other, wherein fortune 
is gathered by the sudden turning unto them : bicause it is a childish 
and ridiculous toie, and like unto childrens plaie at Priimcs seamdus, 
or the game called The philosophers table : but herein I will referre 
you to the bable it selfe, or else to Bodin, or to some such sober writer 
thereupon; of whome there is no want. 

There is a lot also called Pythagoras lot, which (some saie) Ari- 
stotle beleeved : and that is, where the characters of letters have 
certeine proper numbers ; whereby they divine (through the proper 
names of men) so as the numbers of each letters being gathered in 
a summe, and put togither, give victorie to them whose summe is 
the greater ; whether the question be of warre, life, matri- 
monie, viclorie, &c : even as the unequall number of 
vowels in proper names portendeth lacke of sight, 
halting, &c : which the godfathers and god- 
mothers might easilie prevent, if the 
f"asc stood so. 

or lotshare. 



Levit. 16. 
Num. 33. 
Josu. 14. 
I. Chron. 24 
& 26. 
P rover. i8. 
Jonas. I. 
Acts. I. 

Of Pytha- 
goras lot. 


II Booke. 

The discoverie 

The art 
call divi- 

C. A grip pa 
lib. de vanit. 

The blas- 
phemie of 
the Caba- 


The eleventh Chapter. 

Of the Cabalisticall art, consistin_^ of traditions and unwritten veri- 
ties learned ivithout booke, and of the division thereof 

ERE is place also for the Cabalisticall art, consisting 
of unwritten verities, which the Jewes doo beleeve and 
brag that God himselfe gave to Moses in the mount 

igg. 'iKiHThfjJmpSHJ Sinai ; and afterwards was taught/ onelie with livelie 
voice, by degrees of succession, without writing, untill the time 
of Esdras : even as the scholers of Archippus did use wit and 
memorie in steed of bookes. They divide this in twaine ; the one 
expoundeth with philosophicall reason the secrets of the lawe and 
the bible, wherein (they saie) that Salomon was verie cunning ; 
bicause it is written in the Hebrew stories, that he disputed from the 
Cedar of Liban!es,e.vQr\. to the Hisop, and also of birds, beasts, &c. 
The other is as it were a symbolicall divinitie of the highest contem- 
plation, of the divine and angelike vertues, of holie names and 
signes ; wherein the letters, numbers, figures, things and armes, the 
prickes over the letters, the lines, the points, and the accents doo all 
signifie verie profound things and great secrets. By these arts the 
Atheists suppose Moses wrote all his miracles, and that hereby 
they have power over angels and divels, as also to doo miracles : yea 
and that hereby all the miracles that either anie of the prophets, or 
Christ himselfe wrought, were accomplished. 

But C. Agrippa having searched to the bottome of this art, saith it 
is nothing but superstition and foUie. Otherwise you male be sure 
Christ would not have hidden it from his church. For this cause the 

145. Jewes/ were so skilfull in the names of God. But there is none other 
name in heaven or earth, in which we might be saved, but Jesus : 
neither is that meant by his bare name, but by his vertue and good- 
nes towards us. These Cabalists doo further brag, that they are able 
hereby, not onelie to find out and know the unspeakeable mysteries of 
God ; but also the secrets which are above scripture ; whereby also 
they take upon them to prophesie, and to worke miracles : yea hereby 
they can make what they list to be scripture ; as Valeria Proba did 
picke certeine verses out of Virgil alluding them to Christ. And 
therefore these their revolutions are nothing but allegoricall games, 
which idle men busied in letters, points, and numbers (which the 
Hebrew toong easilie suffereth) devise, to delude and cousen the 
simple and ignorant. And this they call Alphabetarie or Arythman- 
ticall divinitie, which Christ shewed to his apostles onelie, and which 

of Witchcraft. chap. u i6i 

Paule saith he speaketh but among perfect men ; and being high 
mysteries are not to be committed unto writing, and so made 
popular. There is no man that readeth anie thing of / this Cabalis- 200. 
ticall art, but must needs think upon the popes cunning practises in 
this behalfe, who hath /;/ scrinio pectoris, not onelie the exposition of /« condl. 
all lawes, both divine and humane, but also authoritie to adde there- 
unto, or to drawe backe therefrom at his pleasure : and this may he 
lavvfuUie doo even with the scriptures, either by addition or substrac- 
tion, after his owne pontificall liking. As for example : he hath added 
the Apocrypha (whereunto he might as well have joined S. Atigtistines [Cof Trent 1550] 
works, or the course of the civill lawe, &c :) Againe, he hath dimin- 
ished from the decalog or ten conimandements, not one or two words, 
but a whole precept, namelie the second, which it hath pleased him 
to dash out with his pen : and trulie he might as well by the same 
authoritie have rased out of the testament S. Markes gospell. 

The twelfe Chapter. 

When, how, and in what sort sacrifices were first ordained, and 
how they were propha7ied, and how the pope corriipieth the 
sacraments of Christ. 

liT the first God manifested to our father Adatn, by the Gen. 2. 17. 
prohibition of the apple, that he would have man live 
under a lawe, in obedience and submission ; and 
not to wander like a beast without order or discip- 
line. And after man had transgressed, and deserved thereby Gods Gen. 3. 6. 
heavie displeasure ; yet his mercie prevailed ; and taking compassion Gen. 3. 15. 
upon man, he promised the Messias, who should be borne of a 
woman, and breake the serpents head : declaring by evident testi- 
monies, that his pleasure was that man should be restored to favour 
and grace, through Christ : and binding the minds of men to this 
promise, and to be fixed upon their Messias, established figures and 
ceremonies wherewith to nourish their faith, and confirmed the same 
with miracles, prohibiting and excluding all mans devises in that 
behalfe. And upon his promise renewed, he injoined (I say) and ^^^"- '-• 3- 
erected a new forme of worship, whereby/ he would have his promises 146. 
constantlie beheld, faithfullie beleeved, and reverentlie regarded. He 
or deined six sorts of divine sacrifices ; three propitiatorie, not as 201. 
meriting remission of sinnes, but as figures of Christs propitiation : 
the other three were of thanksgiving. These sacrifices were full of 
ceremonies, they were powdered with consecrated salt, and kindled 



II. Booke. 

The discoverie 

A gird at 
the pope 
for his saw- 
cinesse in 
Gods mat- 

with fier, which was preserved in the tabernacle of the Lord : which 
fier (some thinke) was sent downe from heaven. GOD himselfe 
commanded these rites and ceremonies to our forefathers, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, &c : promising therein both the ampHfica- 
tion of their families, and also their Messias. But in tract of time 
(I saie) wantonnesse, negligence, and contempt, through the instiga- 
tion of the divell, abolished this institution of GOD : so as in the 
end, God himselfe was forgotten among them, and they became 
pagans & heathens, devising their owne waies, untill everie countrie 
had devised and erected both new sacrifices, and also new gods par- 
ticular unto themselves. Whose example the pope foUoweth, in 
prophaning of Christs sacraments, disguising them with his devises 
and superstitious ceremonies ; contriving and comprehending therein 
the follie of all nations : the which bicause little children doo now 
perceive and scorne, I will passe over ; and returne to the Gentiles, 
whome I cannot excuse of cousenage, superstition, nor yet of vanitie 
in this behalfe. For if God suffered false prophets among the 
children of Israeli, being Gods peculiar people, and hypocrits in the 
church of Christ ; no marvell if there were such people amongst the 
heathen, which neither professed nor knew him. 

The xiii. Chapter. 

riin. lib. na- 
il. 'ra I. Iiisi. 
10. cap. 6. 

0/ the objects wherenpon the aui^arors used to prognosticate, with 
certeine cautions and notes. 

FIE Gentiles, which treat of this matter, repeat an 
innumerable multitude of objects, whereupon they prog- 
nosticate good or bad lucke. And a great matter is 
made of neezing, wherein the number of neezings & the 
time therof is greatlie noted ; the tingling in the finger, the elbowe, 
the toe, the knee, &c : are singular notes also to be observed in this 
art ; though speciallie heerin are marked the flieng of fovvles, and 
meeting of beasts ; with this generall caution, that the object or 
matter whereon men divine, must be sudden and unlooked for : which 
regard, children and some old fooles have to the gathering primrose, 
true loves, and foure leaved grasse ; Item the person unto whome 
such an object offereth it selfe unawares ; Item- the intention of the 
divinor, whereby the object which is met, is referred to augurie ; Item 
the houre in which the object is without foreknowledge upon the 
sudden met withall ; and so foorth. 

Plinic reporteth that griphes flie alwaies to the place of slaughter, 

of IVitchcraft. 

Cli.qi. 14. 


two or three daies before the battell is fought ; which was seene and 
tried at the battell of Troie : and in respect thereof, the griph was 
allowed to/ be the cheefe bird of augurie. But among the innumer- 
able number of the portentous beasts, fowles, serpents, and other 
creatures, the tode is the most excellent object, whose ouglie deformitie 
signifieth sweete and amiable fortune : in respect whereof some super- 
stitious witches preserve todes for their familiars. And some one of 
good credit (whome I could name) having conventcd the witches 
themselves, hath starved diverse of their divels, which they kept in 
boxes in the likenesse of todes. 

Pheiarch CJiironccits saith, that the place and site of the signes 
that we receive by augurie, are speciallie to be noted : for if we 
receive them on the left side, good lucke ; if on the right side, ill 
lucke insueth : bicause terrene and mortall things are opposite & con- 
trarie to divine and heavenlie things ; for that which the gods 
deliver with the right hand, falleth to our left side ; and so contrari- 


An'st. in au- 

dulelh l)y 
Iiis k-avc, 
i'l.r all his 

The xiiii. Chapter. 

The division of aUi^Krie, persons adinittable into the colleges 
of augtirie, of their superstition. 

I HE latter divinors in these mysteries, have divided their 
soothsaiengs into twelve superstitions : as Augustiniis 
NipJins termeth them. The first is prosperitie ; the 
second, ill lucke, as when one goeth/ out of his house, and 
seeth an unluckie beast heng on the right side of his waie ; the third 
is destinie ; the fourth is fortune ; the fift is ill hap, as when an in- 
fortunate beast feedeth on the right side of your waie ; the sixt is 
utilitie ; the seventh is hurt ; the eight is called a cautell, as when a 
beast followeth one, and staieth at any side, not passing beyond him, 
which is a signe of good lucke ; the ninth is infelicitie, and that is 
contrarie to the eight, as when the beast passeth before one ; the 
tenth is perfection ; the eleventh is imperfection ; the twelfe is con- 
clusiin.* Thus farre he. 

Among the Romans none could be received into the college of 
augurors that had a bile, or had beene bitten with a dog, &c : and at 
the times of their exercise, even at noone daies, they lighted candels. 
From whence the papists conveie unto their church, those points of 
infidelitie. Finallie, their observations were so infinite and ridiculous, 
that there flew not a sparkle out of the fier, but it betokened some- 

All!:!,. Niphus 
de aicguriisy 
lih. I. 

\y read, — sion] 

Whn were 
not admit- 
table into 
the college 
of augurors 
among the 


II. Dooke. 

The discoverie 

O vaine 
follic and 
foolish va- 
nitic ! 

[• read, witch—] 

['n-«(/,— kie] 
[» read, his] 20 4 
Aries in t- 

tract, de su- 
perst. contra 
Apfian. de 
bello civili. 
[■' read,— ^c/a.] 

call toies. 

The XV. Chapter. 

Of the common peoples fond and stiperstitiotis colkctioiis and 

MONGST us there be manic women, and effeminat men 
(marie papists alwaies, as by their superstition may 
appeere) that make great divinations upon the shedding 
of salt, wine, &c : and for the observation of daies, and 
houres use as great *withcraft as in anie thing. For if one/ chance to 
take a fall from a horsse, either in a slipperie or stumbling waie, he will 
note the dale and houre, and count that time unluckch* for a journie. 
Otherwise, he that receiveth a mischance, wil consider whether he 
met not a cat, or a hare, when he went first out of hfr* doores in the 
morning ; or stumbled not at the threshhold at his going out ; or put 
not on his shirt the wrong side outwards ; or his left shoo on his 
right foote, which Attgiistiis Casar reputed for the woorst lucke that 
mi.uht befall. But above all other nations (as Martintis de Aries 
wit/nesseth) the Spaniards are most superstitious herein ; & of 
Spaine, the people of the province of Lnsitania is the most fond. 
For one will sale ; I had a dreame to night, or a crowe croked upon 
my house, or an owle flew by me and screeched (which augurie 
Lncius Silla tooke of his death) or a cocke crew contrarie to his 
houre. Another saith ; The moone is at the prime ; another, that the 
sun rose in a cloud and looked pale, or a starre shot and shined in 
the aire, or a strange cat came into the house, or a hen fell from the 
top of the house. 

Many will go to bed againe, if they neeze before their shooes be on 
their feet ; some will hold fast their left thombe in their right hand 
when they hickot ; or else will hold their chinne with their right hand 
whiles a gospell is soong. It is thought verie ill lucke of some, that 
a child, or anie other living creature, should passe betweene two 
friends as they walke togither; for they say it portendeth a division 
of freendship. Among the papists themselves, if any hunters, as they 
were a hunting, chanced to meet a frier or a preest ; they thought it 
so ill lucke, as they would couple up their hounds, and go home, 
being in despaire of any further sport that daie. Marrie if they had 
used venerie with abegger, they should win all the monie they plaied 
for that daie at dice. The like follie is to be imputed unto them, that 
observe (as true or probable) old verses, wherein can be no reasonable 
cause of such effects ; which are brought to passe onlie by Gods 
power, and at his pleasure. Of this sort be these that follow : 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 1 6. 


Vincenti fesio si sol radiet vtemor esto, 

Remember on S. Vincents daie, 

If that the sunne his beames displaie. 

Clara dies Pauli bona tempora denotat anni^ 
If Paule th'' apostles daie be cleare, 
It dooth foreshew a liickie yeare. 

Si sol splendescat Maria purifcante, 

Major erit glacies post festwn quciiii fuit ante, II 

If Maries purifieng daie. 

Be cleare and bright with sttnnie raie, 

Then frost and cold shalbe much more. 

After the feast tJian was before. 
Serb rtibens ccelum eras indicat esse seremcm, 
Si fnane rubescit, ventus vel phivia crescit. 

The skie being red at evening, 
Forcshewes a faire and cleare morning; 
But if the mof-ning riseth red, 
Of wind or raine we shalbe sped. 

Some sticke a needle or a buckle into a certeine tree, neere to the 
cathedrall church of S. Christopher, or of some other saint ; hoping 
thereby to be dehvered that yeare from the headach. Item maids 
forsooth hang some of their haire before the image of S. Urbane, 
bicause they would have the rest of their haire grow long and be 
yellow. Item, women with child runne to church, and tie their girdles 
or shoo latchets about a bell, and strike upon the same thrise, think- 
ing that the sound thereof hasteth their good deliverie. But sithence 
these things beginne to touch the vanities and superstitions of incan- 
tations, I will referre you thither, where you shall see of that stuffe 
abundance ; beginning at the word Habar. 

Englished by 



By Ah. Fle- 

203. 149. 

By Ab. Fle- 

By A b. Fle- 

Seeke more 
hereof in 
the word 

The xvi. Chapter. 

How old writers varie about the matter, the maner and the meaftes, 
whereby things augurifcall are mooved. 

[HEOPHRASTUS and Themistius affirme, that whatso- 
ever happeneth unto man suddenlie and by chance, 
commeth from the providence of God. So as Themistius 
gathereth, that men in that respect/ prophesie, when they 206. 
speake what commeth in their braine, upon the sudden ; though not 
knowing or understanding what they saie. And that seeing God hath 

1 66 

II Booke. 

The discoverie 

Avcvroes. 12. ^ Care for us, it agreeth with reason (as TheopJu^astus saith) tliat he 

vidiithysu. shew US by some meane whatsoever shall happen. For with Pytha- 

goras he concludeth, that all foreshewcs and auguries are the voices 
and words of God, by the which he foretelleth man the good or evill 
that shall beetide. 

Trisniegistits affirmeth, that all augurificall things are mooved by 
divels ; Porpliyrie saith by gods, or rather good angels : according to 
the opinion of Plotimis and laiiib/ichus. Some other affirme they 
are mooved by the moone wandering through the twelve signes of 
the Zodiake : bicause the moone hath dominion in all sudden 
matters. The Aegyptian astronomers hold, that the moone order- 
eth not those portentous matters, but Stella errans, a wandering 
starre, &c./ 

150. The xvii. Chapter. 

Hotu ridiculous an art attgurie is, how Cato mocked it, Arista ties 
reasoti against it, fond collections of augurors, who allowed, and 
who disallowed it. 

iERELIE all these observations being neither grounded 

on Gods word, nor physicall or philosophical! reason, are 

vanities, superstitions, lies, and meere witchcraft ; as 

whereby the world hath long time beene, and is still 

abused and cousened. It is written ; Non est vestrum scire tempora 

6^ momenta, &r^c : It is not for you to knowe the times and seasons, 

which the father hath put in his owne power. The most godlie men 

and the wisest philosophers have given no credit hereunto. S. 

Augustifie saith ; Qui his divinationibtis credit, sciat sefideni christi- 

anavi &^ baptismum pravaricassc, &^ paganum Deiq; ini7nicJtm esse. 

One told Cato, that a rat had carried awaie and eaten his hose, which 

the partie said was a woonderfull signe. Naie (said Cato) I thinke not 

so ; but if the hose had eaten the rat, that had beene a wonderfull 

20"/. token indeed. When/ Nonius told Cicero that they should have good 

successe in battell, bicause seven eagles were taken in Ponipeies 

campe, he answered thus ; No doubt it will be even so, if that we 

chance to fight with pies. In the like case also he answered Labienzis, 

who prophesied like successe by such divinations, saieng, that 

through the hope of such toies, Pompcic lost all his pavillions not long 


What wiseman would thinke, that God would commit his counsell 
to a dawe, an owle, a swine, or a tode ; or that he would hide his 
secret purposes in the doong and bowels of beasts ? Aristotle thus 
reasoneth ; Augurie or divinations are neither the causes nor effects 

The fond 
art of augu- 
rie convin- 

Acts. I, 7. 

Arist. de 

of Witchcraft. chap. ib. 167 

of things to come ; Ergo, they doo not thereby foretell things trulie, 
but by chance. As if I dreame that my freend will come to my 
house, and he commeth indeed : yet neither dreame nor imagination 
is more the cause of my freends comming, than the chattering of 
a pie. 

When Haiiibnl overthrew Marcus Marcellus, the beast sacrificed 
wanted a peece of his hart ; therefore forsooth Afarius, when he 
sacrificed at Utica, and the beast lacked his liver, he must needs have 
the like successe. These are their collections, and as vaine, as if 
they said that the building of Tenderden steeple was the cause of 
Coodwine sands, or the decaie of Sa7idivicJi haven. 6". Augustine August, lib. 
saith, that these observations are most superstitious. But we read in j.'^af.'L "' 
the fourth psalme, a sentence which might dissuade anie christian Psai 4, '• 
from this follie and impietie ; O ye sonnes of men, how long will you 
turne my gloria into shame, loving vanitie, and seeking lies.'' The 
like is read in manie other places of scripture. 

Of such as allow this follie, I can commend Plinie best, who saith, FUn. lib. na- 
that the operation of these auguries is as we take them. For if we 28. 'i:<z/>. 2. ' 
take them in good part, they are signes of good lucke ; if we take '\ib\il\\'l.]]l 
them in ill part, ill lucke/ followeth ; if we neglect them, and wey 151. 
them not, they doo neither good nor harme. Thomas of AquiJie 
reasoneth in this wise ; The starres, whose course is certeine, have 
greater affinitie and communitie with mans actions, than auguries ; 
and yet our dooings are neither directed nor proceed from the starres. 
Which thing also Ptolome witnesseth, saieng ; Sapiens dominabitur 
asU'is^ A Wiseman overruleth the starres./ 

The 18. Chapter. 208 

Fond disti7ictiGns of the heatlieii writers, concerning augurie. 

|HE heathen made a distinction betweene divine, naturall, 
and casuall auguries. Divine auguries were such, as 
men were made beleeve were done miraculouslie, as 
when dogs spake ; as at the expulsion of Tarquinius out q Epidius. 
of his kingdome ; or when trees spake, as before the death of Ccesar ; Homer. lU- 
or when horsses spake, as did a horsse, whose name was Zaiithus. 
Manie learned christians confesse, that such things as may indeed 
have divine cause, may be called divine auguries ; or rather fore- 
warnings of God, and tokens either of his blessings or discontentation : 
as the starre was a token of a safe passage to the magicians that 
sought Christ ; so was the cockcrowing an augurie to Peter for his 
conversion. And manie such other divinations or auguries (if it be 
lawfull so to tcrme them) are in the scriptures to be found. 

ad. 19. 

1 68 

11. Booke. 

The discoverie 

The 19. Chapter. 


Of iiaiiirall and castiall miguric^ the one allowed, and the other 

ATURALL augurie is a physicall or philosophical! obser- 
vation ; bicause humane and naturall reason may be 
yeelded for such events : as if one heare the cocke crow 
aj manie times together, a man may ghesse that raine will 
follovve shortlie ; as by the crieng of rooks, and by their extraordi- 
narie using of their wings in their flight, bicause through a naturall 
instinct, provoked by the impression of the heavenlie bodies, they 
are mooved to know the/ times, according to the disposition of the 
weather, as it is necessarie for their natures. And therefore Jeremie 
saith ; Milviis in ccelo cogtiovit tenipus sinon. The physician may 
argue a strength towards in his patient, when he heareth him neeze 
twise, which is a naturall cause to judge by, and conjecture upon. 
But sure it is meere casuall, and also verie foolish and incredible, that 
by two neezings, a man should be sure of good lucke or successe in 
his businesse ; or by meeting of a tode, a man should escape a 
danger, or atchieve an enterprise, &c./ 


The XX. Chapter. 

The vani- 
tie of casu- 
all augurie. 

A confutation of castiall aitgurie which is nieere witchcraft, and upon 
what uncertaintie those diviiiations are grounded. 

JHAT imagination worketh in man or woman, many 
leaves would not comprehend ; for as the qualities 
thereof are strange, and almost incredible, so would the 
discourse thereof be long and tedious, wherof I had 
occasion to speake elsewhere. But the power of our imagination 
extendeth not to beasts, nor reacheth to birds, and therefore perteineth 
not hereunto. Neither can the chance for the right or left side be 
good or bad lucke in it selfe. Why should any occurrent or augurie 
be good ? Bicause it commeth out of that part of the heavens, where 
the good or beneficiall stars are placed 1 By that reason, all things 
should be good and happie that live on that side ; but we see the 
contrarie experience, and as commonlie as that. 

The like absurditie and error is in them that credit those divina- 
tions ; bicause the starres, over the ninth house have dominion at the 
time of augurie. If it should betoken good lucke, joy or gladnesse, to 
heare a noise in the house, when the moone is in Aries : and contrari- 

of II Ifchci'aft. 

Ch^p. 2\. 


wise, if it be a signe of ill lucke, sorrowe, or greefe for a beast to 

come into the house, the moone being in the same signe : here might 

be found a fowle error and contrarietie./ And forsomuch as both 210. 

may happen at once, the rule must needs be false and ridiculous. 

And if there were any certeine rules or notes to be gathered in these 

divinations ; the abuse therein is such, as the word of God must needs 

be verefied therein ; to wit, I will destroie the tokens of soothsaiers, isai. 44, 25. 

and make them that conjecture, fooles. 

The xxi. Chapter, 

That figure-casters are witches, the uncerteintie of their art, and of 
their contradictions, Cornelius Agrippas sentence against judiciall 

HESE casters of figures may bee numbred among the 
cousening witches, whose practise is above their reach, 
their purpose to gaine, their knowledge stolne from poets, 
their art uncerteine & full of vanitie, more plainly derided 
in the scriptures, than any other follie. And thereupon many other 
trifling vanities are rooted and grounded ; as physiognomic, palmes- 
trie, interpreting of dreames, monsters, auguries, &c ; the professors 
whereof confesse this to be the necessarie key to open the knowledge of 
all their secrets. For these fellowes erect a figure of the heavens, bj 
the exposition whereof (togither with the conjectures of similitudes 
and signes) they seeke to find out the meaning of the significators, 
attributing to them the ends of all things, contrarie to truth, reason, 
and divinitie : their rules being so inconstant, that few writers agree 
in/ the verie principles therof. For the Rabbins, the old and new 
writers, and the verie best philosophers dissent in the cheefe grounds 
thereof, differing in the proprietie of the houses, whereout they wring 
the foretelling of things to come, contending even about the number 
of spheres, being not yet resolved how to erect the beginnings and 
endes of the houses : for Ptolomie maketh them after one sort, Cani- 
patius after another, &c. 

And as Alpetragus thinketh, that there be in the heavens/ 
diverse movings as yet to men unknowne, so doo others afiirme (not 
without probabilitie) that there male be starres and bodies, to whome 
these movings male accord, which cannot be seene, either through 
their exceeding highnes, or that hitherto are not tried with anie obser- 
vation of the art. The true motion of Mars is not yet perceived, 
neither is it possible to find out the true entring of the sunne into 
the equinoctiall points. It is not denied, that the astronomers them- 


The vaine 
and trifling 
trickes of 
figure -ta- 


Johan. Mon- 
tiregius in 
cpistola ad 

1 70 

u. Booke. 

The discoveric 

&> Guliel- 
mus de san- 
cto Clodoald. 
Rabbi Levi. 
C. A grip, in 
lib. de vanit. 

selves have received their light, and their verie art from poets, with- 
out whose fables the twelve signes and the northerlie and southerlie 
figiu'cs had never ascended into heaven. And yet (as C. Agrippa 
saith) astrologers doo live, cousen men, and gaine by these fables ; 
whiles the poets, which are the inventors of them, doo live in 

The verie skilfuUest mathematicians confesse, that it is unpossible 
to find out anie certeine thing concerning the knowledge of judge- 
ments, as well for the innumerable causes which worke togither with 
the heavens, being all togither, and one with the other to be con- 
sidered : as also bicause influencies doo not constraine but incline. 
For manie ordinarie and extraordinarie occasions doo interrupt them ; 
as education, custome, place, honestie, birth, bloud, sickness'^, health, 
strength, weakenes, meate, drinke, libertie of mind, learning, &c. And 
they that have written the rules of judgement, and agree neerest 
therein, being of equall authoritie and learning, publish so contrarie 
opinions upon one thing, that it is unpossible for an astrologian to 
pronounce a certeintie upon so variable opinions ; & otherwise, upon 
so uncerteine reports no man is able to judge herein. So as 
(according to Ptolomie) the foreknowledge of things to come by the 
starres, dependeth as well upon the affections of the mind, as upon 
the observation of the planets, proceeding rather from chance than art, 
as whereby they deceive others, and are deceived themselves also./ 

gers prog- 
ons are like 
the answers 
of oracles. 


The xxii Chapter. 

The subtiltie of astrologers to maintei7te the credit of their art, why 
they remaine in credit, certeifte impieties conteined in astrologers 

|F you marke the cunning ones, you shall see them speake 
darkelie of things to come, devising by artificiall subtiltie, 
doubtfull prognostications, easilie to be applied to everie 
thing, time, prince, and nation : and if anie thing come to 
passe according to their divinations, they fortifie their old prognosti- 
cations with new reasons. Nevertheles, in the multitude/ and varietie 
of starres, yea even in the verie middest of them, they find out some 
places in a good aspect, and some in an ill ; and take occasion here- 
upon to sale what they list, promising unto some men honor, long life, 
wealth, victorie, children, marriage, freends, offices ; & finallie everlast- 
ing felicitie. But if with anie they be discontent, they saie the starres 
be not favourable to them, and threaten them with hanging, drowning, 
beggerie, sickenes, misfortune, -Sic. And if one of these prognostica- 

of IVitcJicraft. 

Chap. 21. 



tions fall out right, then they triumph above measure. If the 
prognosticators be found to forge and lie alwaies (without such 
fortune as the blind man had in killing the crow) they will excuse the 
matter, saieng, that Sapiens domiitatur astris, wheras (according to 
Ai^rippas words) neither the wiseman ruleth the starres, nor the 
starres the wiseman, but God ruleth them both. Corn. Tacitus saith, 
that they are a people disloiall to princes, deceiving them that 
beleeve them. And Varro saith, that the vanitie of all superstitions 
floweth out of the bosome of astrologie. And if our life & fortune 
depend not on the starres, then it is to be granted, that the astrologers 
seeke where nothing is to be found. But we are so fond, mistrustful! 
& credulous, that we feare more the fables of Robin good fellow ; as- 
trologers, & witches, &; beleeve more the things that are not, than the 
things that are. And the more unpossible a thing is, the more we stand 
in feare thereof; and the lesse likelie to be true, the more/ we beleeve it. 
And if we were not such, I thinke with Cornelius Agrippa, that these 
divinors, astrologers, conjurors, and cousenors would die for hunger. 

And our foolish light beleefe, forgetting things past, neglecting 
things present, and verie hastie to know things to come, doth so 
comfort and mainteine these cousenors ; that whereas in other men, 
for making one lie, the faith of him that speaketh is so much mis- 
trusted, that all the residue being true is not regarded. Contrariwise, 
in these cousenages among our divinors, one truth spoken by hap 
giveth such credit to all their lies, that ever after we beleeve whatso- 
ever they saie ; how incredible, impossible or false soever it be. Sir 
Thotnas Moore saith, they know not who are in their owne chambers, 
neither who maketh themselves cuckoldes that take upon them all this judidail 

1 11 1 r ■ 1 T-. 1 1- T astrologers. 

cunnnig, knowledge, and great foresight. But to enlarge their credit, 
or rather to manifest their impudencie, they saie the gift of prophesie, 
the force of religion, the secrets of conscience, the power of divels, 
the vertue of miracles, the efficacie of praiers, the state of the life to 
come, &c : doth onlie depend upon the starres, and is given and knowne 
by them alone. For they saie, that when the signe of Gemini is 
ascended, and Saturne and Mercuric be ioined in Aquarie, in the Astroiogi- 

■' call blas- 

nmth house of the heavens, there is a prophet borne : and therefore phemies. 
that Christ had so manie vertues, bicause he had in that place Saturne 
and Gemini. Yea these Astrologers doo not sticke to saie, that the 
starres distribute all sortes of religions: wherein y«/z7(?r is the especiall 
patrone, who being joined with Saturne, maketh the religion of the 
Jcwes; with Mercz{rie, of the Christians; with the Moone, of Anti- 
christianitie. Yea they affirme that the faith of everie man male be 
knowne to them as well as to God. And that Christ himselfe did use 
the election of houres in his miracles; so as the Jewes could not hurt 

S. Thomas 
frumpe at 


II. Booke. 

The disc over ie 


Joh II. 8. 

214. 155. 

The follie 
of our ge- 
or nativiti- 

Senec. lib. de 
quasi, na- 
tural. 4. 

Pirhmair in 
arte a f ode- 

him whilest he went io Jentsa/t'/ii., and therefore that *the said to his 
disciples that forbad him to go; Are there not twelve houres in the 
daie ?/, 

The xxiii. Chapter. 

IV/io have power to drive awaie divels with their o>ielie presence, 
who shall receive of God whatsoever they aske in praier, who shall 
obteine everlasting life by nieanes of constellations., as nativiiie- 
casters affirme. 

HEY sale also, that he which hath Alars happilie placed 
in the ninth house of the heavens, shall have power to 
drive awaie divels with his onelie presence from them 
that be possessed. And he that shall praie to God, when 
he findeth the Moone and y?////^r joined with the dragons head in the 
middest of the heavens, shall obteine whatsoever he asketh: and that 
fupiter and Saturne doo give blessednes of the life to come. But if 
anie in his nativitie shall have Sattirne happilie placed in Leone, his 
soule shall have everlasting life. And hereunto subscribe Peter de 
Appona, Roger Bacon, Guido Bonatus, Arnold de villa nova, and the 
Cardinall of Alia. Furthermore, the providence of God is denied, 
and the miracles of Christ are diminished, when these powers of the 
heavens and their influencies are in such sort advanced. Moses, 
Esaie, fob and feremie, seeme to dislike and reject it: and at Rome 
in times past it was banished, and by fnstinian condemmed under 
paine of death. Finallie, Seneca derideth these soothsaieng witches 
in this sort; Amongst the Cleones (saith he) there was a custome, that 
the -^fiXa^oc/yvXaKei (which were gazers in the aier, watching when a 
storme of haile should fall) when they sawe by anie cloud that the 
shower was imminent and at hand; the use was (I sale) bicause of the 
hurt which it might doo to their vines, &.c: diligentlie to warne the 
people thereof; who used not to provide clokes or anie such 
defense against it, but provided sacrifices; the rich, cockes and 
white lambes ; the poore would spoile themselves by cutting their 
thombes ; as though (saith he) that little bloud could ascend up 
to the cloudes, and doo anie good there for their releefe in this/ 

And here by the waie, I will impart unto you a Venetian supersti- 
tion, of great antiquitie, and at this daie (for ought I can read to the 
contrarie) in use. It is written, that everie yeere ordinarilie upon 
ascension daie, the Duke of Venice, accompanied with the States, 
goeth with great solemnitie unto the sea, and after ctrteine ceremonies 
ended, casteth thereinto a gold ring of great value and estimation for 

of Witchcraft. chap. j?. 173 

a pacificatorie oblation : wherewithal! their predecessors supposed 
that the wrath of the sea was asswaged. By this action, as a late 
writer saith, they doo Desponsare sibi inare, that is, espouse the sea Joannes Gar- 

ropius m Ve- 

unto themselves, &c. „,/. ^^^ Hy- 

Let us therefore, according to the prophets advise, aske raine f^'^^;^ 
of the Lord in the houres of the latter time, and he shall verse 2 

send white cloudes, and give us raine &c : for surelie, 
the idols (as the same prophet saith) have spoken 
vanitie, the soothsaiers have seene a lie, and 
the dreamers have told a vaine thing. 
They comfort in vaine, and therefore 
they went awaie like sheepe, &c. 
If anie sheepebiter or witch- 
monger will follow them, 
they shall go alone 
for me.// 

10. 1. 


i.v Booke. 

TJie discove7'ie 

3i6. 156. 

Prover. i8. 
Chron. 30. 
Psal. 10. 
Psal. 51. 
Psal. 139 
Jerem. 32. 
Isai. 6. 
Isai. 50. 
Exod. 7. 8. 9. 
Prov. 16. 

^ The twelfe Booke. 

The first Chapter. 

The Hebrue word Habar expounded, where also the supposed secret 
force of char vies and itichaiitmeiits is shewed, and the effuacie of 
words is diverse waies declared. 

Psal. 58. 

Psal. 58. 4. 5. 

Virgil, in 


By Ab.FU-217. 


HIS Hebrue word Habar, being in Greeke Epathi/i, and 
in Latine Incantat'e, is in English, To inchant, or (if you 
had rather have it so) to bewitch. In these inchant- 
ments, certeine wordes, verses, or charmes, &c : are 
secretlie uttered, wherein there is thought to be miraculous efficacie. 
There is great varietie hereof : but whether it be by charmes, voices, 
images, characters, stones, plants, metals, herbes, &c : there must 
herewithall a speciall forme of words be alwaies used, either divine, 
diabolicall, insensible, or papisticall, whereupon all the vertue of the 
worke is supposed to depend. This word is speciallie used in the 58. 
psalme, which place though it be taken up for mine adversaries 
strongest argument against me ; yet me thmkes it maketh so with 
me, as they can never be able to answer it. For there it plainelie 
appeareth, that the adder heareth not the voice of the charmer, 
charme he never so cunninglie : contrarie to the poets fabling, 

Frigidus in pratis cantando riimpitur anguis.\ 

The coldish snake in tnedowes greeiie. 
With charmes is burst in peeces cleene. 

But hereof more shall be said hereafter in due place. 

I grant that words sometimes have singular vertue and efficacie, 
either in persuasion or disuasion, as also diverse other waies ; so as 
thereby some are converted from the waie of perdition, to the 
estate of salvation : and so contrariwise, according to the 
saieng of Solomon ; Death and life are in the instru- 
ment of the toong : but even therein God worketh 
all in all, as well in framing the heart of 
the one, as in directing the toong of 
the other : as appeareth in 
manie places of the holie 

of If 'itchcraft. 



The second Chapter. 

What is forbidden in scriptiires concerning witchcraft, of the opera- 
tion of words, the superstition of the Cabalists and papists, who 
createth substances, to imitate God in some cases is presumption, 
words of sanctification. 

HAT which is forbidden in the scriptures touching in- 
ch antment or witch craft, is not the wonderfull working 
with words. For where/ words have had miraculous 
operation, there hath beene alwaies the special! provi- 
dence, power and grace of God uttered to the strengthening of the 
faith of Gods people, and to the furtherance of the gospell : as when 
the apostle with a word slue Ananias and Saphira. But the propha- 
nation of Gods name, the seducing, abusing, and cousening of the 
people, and mans presumption is hereby prohibited, as whereby manie 
take upon them after the recitall of such names, as God in the 
scripture seemeth to appropriate to himselfe, to foreshew things to 
come, to worke miracles, to detect fellonies, &c : as the Cabalists in 
times past tooke upon them, by the ten names of God, and his angels, 
expressed / in the scriptures, to worke woonders : and as the papists 
at this daie by the like names, by crosses, by gospels hanged about 
their necks, by masses, by exorcismes, by holie water, and a thousand 
consecrated or rather execrated things, promise unto themselves and 
others, both health of bodie and soule. 

But as herein we are not to imitate the papists, so in such things, 
as are the peculiar actions of God, we ought not to take upon us to 
counterfet, or resemble him, which with his word created all things. 
For we, neither all the conjurors, Cabalists, papists, soothsaiers, 
inchanters, witches, nor charmers in the world, neither anie other 
humane or yet diabolicall cunning can adde anie such strength to 
Gods workmanship, as to make anie thing anew, or else to exchange 
one thing into another. New qualities may be added by humane art, 
but no new substance can be made or created by man. And seeing 
that art faileth herein, doubtles neither the illusions of divels, nor 
the cunning cA witches, can bring anie such thing truelie to passe. 
For by the sound of the words nothing commeth, nothing goeth, other- 
wise than God in nature hath ordeined to be doone by ordinarie 
speech, or else by his speciall ordinance. Indeed words of sanctifica- 
tion are necessarie and commendable, according to S. Paules rule ; 
Let your meat be sanctified with the word of God, and by praier. But 
sanctification dooth not here signifie either change of substance of the 




Words of 
tion, and 
they con- 


I J Booke. 

The discoverie 

meate, or the adding of anie new strength thereunto ; but it is sanc- 
tified, in that it is received with thanksgiving and praier ; that our 
bodies may be refreshed, and our soule thereby made the apter to 
glorifie God. 

An ample 
of women 
called wit- 

The third Chapter. 

What effect and offense witches charmes bring, how unapt witches 
are^ and how unlikelie to worke those things which they are 
thought to doo, what would followe if those things were true which 
are laid to their charge. 

HE words and other the illusions of witches, charmers, 
and conjurors, though they be not such in opera- 
tion and efifect, as they are commonlie taken to be : 

21 g | R<MSg5SSig | yet they are offensive to the majestie/ and name of 
God, obscuring the truth of divinitie, & also of philosophie. For 
if God onlie give life & being to all creatures, who can put any 

158. such ver/tue or livelie feeling into a body of gold, silver, bread, or 
wax, as is imagined ? If either preests, divels, or witches could so 
doo, the divine power shuld be checked & outfaced by magicall 
cunning, & Gods creatures made servile to a witches pleasure. What 
is not to be brought to passe by these incantations, if that be true 
which is attributed to witches? & yet they are women that never went 
to schoole in their lives, nor had any teachers : and therefore without 
art or learning ; poore, and therefore not able to make any provision 
of metal or stones, &c : whereby to bring to passe strange matters, by 
naturall magicke ; old and stiffe, and therefore not nimble handed to 
deceive your eie with legierdemaine; heavie, and commonlie lame, 
and therefore unapt to flie in the aire, or to danse with the fairies ; 
sad, melancholike, sullen, and miserable, and therefore it should be 
unto them {Iiivita Minerva) to banket or danse with Minerva ; or 
yet with Herodias, as the common opinion of all writers heerein is. 
On the other side, we see they are so malicious and spitefull, that if they 
by themselves, or by their divels, could trouble the elements, we should 
never have faire weather. If they could kill men, children, or cattell, 
they would spare none ; but would destroy and kill whole countries 
and housholds. If they could transfer corne (as is affirmed) from 
their neighbors field into their owne, none of them would be poore, 
none other should be rich. If they could transforme themselves and 
others (as it is most constantlie affirmed) oh what a number of apes 
and owles should there be of us ! If Incubus could beget Merlins 
among us, we should have a joUie manie of cold prophets./ 

of Witchn^aft. chi,.. 4. 177 

The fourth Chapter. 220. 

Why God forbad the practise of witchcraft, the absttrditie of the 
lawe of the twelve tables, wherejtpon their estimation in miracu- 
lous actions is grounded, of their woonderotts works. 

HOUGH it be apparent, tjiat the Holie-ghost forbiddeth a common 
this art, bicause of the abuse of the name of God, and the ^^^ "f^' 

' _ ' versall er- 

cousenage comprehended therein : yet I confesse, the cus- ror. 

tomes and lawes ahnost of all nations doo declare, that all 
these miraculous works, before by me cited, and many other things 
more woonderfull, were attributed to the power of witches. The which 
lawes, with the executions and judicials thereupon, and the witches 
confessions, have beguiled almost the whole world. What absurdities 
concerning witchcraft, are written in the law of the twelve tables, 
which was the highest and most ancient law of the Romans } Where- 
upon the strongest argument of witches omnipotent power is 
framed ; as that the wisedome of such lawgivers could not be abused. 
Whereof (me thinks) might be made a more strong argument on our 
side; to wit. If the cheefe and principall lawes of the world be in this 
case ridiculous, vaine, false, incredible, yea and contrarie to Gods 
lawe ; the residue of the lawes and arguments to that effect, are to 
be suspected. If that argument should hold, it might proove all 
the popish lawes against protestants, & the hea/thenish princes lawes 159. 
against christians, to be good and in force : for it is like they would 
not have made them, except they had beene good. Were it not 
(thinke you) a strange proclamation, that no man (upon paine of 
death) should pull the moone out of heaven? And yet verie many of ^- Bodnms. 

, 1 1 • , 11- , DaniEus. 

the most learned witchmongers make their arguments upon weaker Hyperius. 
grounds; as namelie in this forme and maner; We find in poets, ^"'""fnuw 
that witches wrought such and such miracles ; Ergo they can accom- ^^'^^- ^^aicf. 
plish and doo this or that wonder. The words of the lawe are these ;/ * spiueeus. 
Qui friigcs incantasset pa^nas dato, Nei^e alicnam segetem pellexeris 221. 
excafitando, neq; incantando, Ne agrum dcfriiganto : the sense 
wherof in English is this ; Let him be executed that 
bewitcheth corne, Transferre not other mens 
corne into thy ground by inchantment, 
Take heede thou inchant not at all 
neither make thy neighbors 
field barren : he that dooth 
these things shall 
die, S;c. 

A A 


12. Bdoke. 

The discoverie 

A notable 
of C. F. C. 
for a witch. 

Jilal. malt/, 
far. 2. qua. i. 
cap. 5. 

[* moushoall] 


The fift Chapter. 

An instance of one arreigned upon the laive of tJte iivch'e tables, 
whereby the said la%ve is proved ridiculous., of two witches that 
could doo woonders. 

LTHOUGH among us, we thinke them bewitched that 
waxsuddenlie poore, and not them that growe hastilie rich ; 
yet at Rofne yon shall understand, that (as /^//w/Vreporteth) 
upon these articles one C. Fut'ius Cressus was convented 
before Spurius Albinus ; for that he being but a little while free, and 
delivered from bondage, occupieng onelie tillage ; grew rich on the 
sudden, as having good crops : so as it was suspected that he transferred 
his neighbors corne into his fields. None intercession, no delaie, 
none excuse, no deniall would serve, neither in jest nor derision, nor 
yet through sober or honest meanes : but he was assigned a peremp- 
torie dale, to answer for life. And therefore fearing the sentence of 
condemnation, which was to be given there, by the voice and verdict 
of three men (as we heere are tried by twelve) made his appearance 
at the dale assigned, and brought with him his ploughs and harrowes, 
spades and shovels, and other instruments of husbandrie, his oxen, 
horsses, and working bullocks, his servants, and also his daughter, 
which was a sturdie wench and a good huswife, and also (as Piso 
reporteth) well trimmed up in apparell, and said to the whole bench 
in this wise ; Lo heere my lords I make mine appearance, according 
to my promise and your pleasures, presenting unto you my charmes 
and witchcrafts, which have so inriched me. As for the labour, sweat, 
wat/ching, care, and diligence, which I have used in this behalfe, I 
cannot shew you them at this time. And by this meanes he was dis- 
missed by the consent of that court, who otherwise (as it was thought) 
should hardly have escaped the sentence of condemnation, and 
punishment of death. 

It is constantlie aftirmed in M. Mai. that Stafus used alwaies to 
hide himselfe in a *monshoall, and had a disciple called Hoppo., who 
made Stadlin a maister witch, and could all when they list invisiblie 
transferre the third part of their neighbours doong, hay, corne, &c : into 
theire owne ground, make/ haile, tempests, and flouds, with thunder 
and lightning; and kill children, cattell, &c : reveale things hidden, 
and many other tricks, when and where they list. But these two 
shifted not so well with the inquisitors, as the other with the Romanc 
and heathen judges. Howbcit, Stafus was too hard for them all : 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 6. 


for none of all the lawiers nor inquisitors could bring him to 
appeere before them, if it be true that witchmongers write in these 

The sixt Chapter. 

Lawes provided for the pii7iishment of such witches as worke 
tniracles, whereof some are mentioned^ and of certeinc popish 
lawes published a^s^ainst them. 

HERE are other lawes of other nations made to this in- 
credible effect : as Lex Salicartun provideth punishment 
for them that flie in the aire from place to place, and 
meete at their nightlie assemblies, and brave bankets, car- 
rieng with them plate, and such stuffe, &c : even as we should make 
a lawe to hang him that should take a church in his hand at Dover, 
and throvve it to Callice. And bicause in this case also popish lawes 
shall be scene to be as foolish and lewd as any other whatsoever, and 
speciallie as tyrannous as that which is most cruell : you shall heare 
what trim new lawes the church oi Rome hath latelie devised. These 
are therefore the words of pope Innocent the eight to the inquisitors/ 
oi Almanie, and oi pope /uli2is the second, sent to the inquisitors of 
Bergomen. It is come to our eares, that manie lewd persons, of both 
kinds, as well male as female, using the companie of the divels 
Incubus and Succubus, with incantations, charmes, conjurations, &c : 
doo destroie, &.c : the births of women with child, the yoong of all 
cattell, the corne of the feeld, the grapes of the vines, the frute of the 
trees : Item, men, women, and all kind of cattell and beasts of the 
feeld : and with their said inchantments, &c : doo utterlie extinguish, 
suffocate, and spoile all vineyards, ortchards, medowes, pastures, 
grasse, greene corne, and ripe corne, and all other podware : yea men 
and women themselves are by their imprecations so afflicted with 
externall and inward paines and diseases, that men cannot beeget, 
nor women bring foorth anie children, nor yet accomplish the dutie of 
wedlocke, denieng the faith which they in baptisme professed, to the 
destruction of their owne soules, &c. Our pleasure therefore is, 
that all impediments that male hinder the inquisitors office, be utterlie 
removed from among the people, least this blot of heresie proceed to 
poison and defile them that be yet innocent. And therefore we doo 
ordeine, by vertue of the apostolicall authoritie, that our inquisitors 
of high Almanie, maie execute the office of inquisition by all tortures 
and afflictions, in all places, and upon all persons, what and where- 

of impossi- 


A wise lawe 
of pope In- 
nocent and 
Julie, were 
it not that 
they wan- 
ted wit 
when they 
made it. 


12. Booke. 

T//e discoverie 

soever, as well in everie place and diocesse, as upon anie person ; 
and that as freelie, as though they were named, expressed, or cited in 
this our commission. 



Virg. eclog. 8. 
[* miitavit] 

Virg. eilog. 8. 

The seventh Chapter. 

Poetical authorities coininonlie alleaged by witchmongers, for the 
proof e of witches j>iiraculot(s actions, and for confirmation of their 
sitpcrnatKrall power. 

|ERE have I place and oportunitie, to discover the whole 
art of witchcraft ; even all their charmes, periapts, 
characters, amulets, praiers, blessings, curssings, hurtings, 
helpings, knaveries, cousenages, &c. But first I will 
shew what authorities are produced to defend and mainteine the 
same, and that in serious sort,' by Bodin, Spinaus, Hemingius, 
Vairus, Dancetts, Hyperijis : M. Mai. and the rest. 

Carmina vel ccelo posstint deducere lunam, 
Carminibtis Circe socios miit avit * Ulyssis, 
Frigidus in pratis caniando ruinpitiir attguis : 

Inchaniinents pliicke out of the skie, 
The nioone, though she be plaste on hie : 
Dame Circes with hir charmes so fine, 
Ulysses mates did ttcrne to swine : 
The snake with charmes is burst in twaine, 
hi medowes, where she dooth remaine. 

Againe out of the same poet they cite further matter. 

Has herbas, atqj hcec Panto mild lecta venena. 
Ipsa dedit Mceris : nascutttur plurima Ponto. 
His ego scepc lupain fieri, (&-» se condere sylvis, 
Mcerim scepe animas imis exire sepulchris, 
Atqj satas alio vidi traducere messes. 

These herbs did Meris give to me, 
And poisons plicckt at Pont us. 
For there they growe and multiplie, 
And doo not so amongst us. 
With these she made hir selfe become, 
A wolfe, and hid hir in the wood. 
She fetcht up soules out of their toome, 
Remoovijig come frotn luhere it stood. 

of WitcJicraft. 

FurtJicrmore out of Ovid tliey allcdi^e these folowiiig. 

Node volant, puerosq; pettint nutricis egentes, 
Et vitiant amis corpora capta stiis : 

Carper e dicuntitr lactentia viscera rostrisj 
Et plenwnpotir' sanguine gutur habent : 

To cliildren they doo flie by night. 

And catch them while their nursses sleepe, 

And spoile theit little bodies qieite, 

And home they beare them in their beake. 

Againc out of Virgill in forme following. 

Hinc mihi Massy Ics gentis monstrata sacerdos, 
Hesperidum templi custos, epuldsqj draconi 
Qttce dabat, &^ sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 
Sparge ns humida mella, soporiferi'imq; papaver. 
Hcec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 
Quas velit, ast aliis dur as'-' immittere curas, 
Sistere aquamfluvits, &^ vert ere sidera retro, 
Nocturnosq; ciet manes, nnigire videbis 
Sub pedibus terrain, &^ descendere montibus ornos . 

From thetice a virgifte preest is come, 

from out Massyla land. 
Sometimes the temple there she kept, 

and from hir heavenlie hand 
The dragon meate did take : she kept 

also the frute divine. 
With herbes and liquors sweete that still 

to sleepe did men incline. 
The minds of men {she saitJi) from love 

with charmes she can utibind. 
In who?n she list : but others can 

she cast to cares unkind. 
The running streames doo stand, and from 

their course the starres doo wreath. 
And soules she conjtire can : thou shall 

see sister underneath 
The ground with roring gape, and trees 
and tnountaines turne upright, &r^c. 
Moreover out of Ovid they al ledge as followeth. 
Ciim volui ripis ipsis jnirantibus amftes 
Infontes'^ rediere suos, coiiciissaqj sisto, 

Chap. 7. 


Ovid. fast. 6. 



Virg. Ai'ne. 4. 

[* duras] 

Tho. Phaiers 
translation of 
the former 
words of 

Ovid, mda- 
nior. 7. 

\r In fontes\ 

1 82 IS. Booke. The discover ie 

226. Stantia concutio^ cantii frcta mcbila pello, 

A^iibildq; tnduco^ ventos abigoq; vocoqj, 
Viper eas rumpo verbis 6^ carinhte fauces,l 

163. Vtvdqiie sax'a, sua conviclsdque robora terra, 

Et sylvas inovco, jubeoque tremescere monies, 
Et mu^i^Jre solum, matie'sque exire sepuhiiris, 
Te'que luna traho, ^c : 

The rivers I can make 7-etire, 

Into the fountaijies whence they Jlo, 

( Whereat the banks themselves admire) 

I can make standing waters go, 

With charnies I drive both sea and clowd, 

I make it calme and blowe alowd. 

The vipers jawes, the rockie stone, 

With words and charmes I breake iii twaine 

The force of earth congeald in one, 

I moove and shake both zuoods and plaitie ; 

I make the soules of men arise, 

I ptill the moone out of the skies. 

Also out of the same poet. 

Ovid, de Virbdquc ter dixit placidos facientia somnos, 

"■ Quce mare turbatum, qua fltatiina concita sis tan t . 

And thrise she spake the words that causd 
Sweete sleepe and quiet rest, 

She staid the raging of the sea, 
And jnightie flotids supp7'est. 

Ovid, de Et viiserum tenues in jecur uroet acus, ■ 

Medea, -^ "^ ' 

epis a. 4. ^j^^ sticketh also necdels fine 

In livers, whereby incn doo pine. 
3 . A mor. A Iso out of Other poets. 

Eilog. 6. 

Carjnine Icesa Ceres, sterilem vanescit in herbam, 

Deficitint Icesi carmine fontis aquce, 
Illicibus glandes, cantatdque vitibus uva\ 
22y. Decidit, 6^ nullo poma movente fluiait : 

With charnies the come is spoiled so, 
As that it vades to barren gras. 
With charmes the springs are dried loive, 
That none can see ivhere water was. 

of Witchcraft. 



The grapes fro»i vines, tJie mast from okes, 
And beats downefrute with charniiftg strokes, j 

(2u(£ sidera excantata 7)oce Thessala 

Lundmque ccelo diripit : 

She plucks downe moo7ie and starres/ro/n skie, 
With chaunting voice of Thessalie. 

Hanc ego de ca'lo ditcetitetn sidera vidi, 
Fluminis ac rapidi carmijie vertit iter, 

HcEC cantu fi)iditqiie solum, nia}iesque sepulchris 
Elicit, (St* tepido devorat ossa rogo : 

Ciitn lubet hcec tristi depellit bimina ca'lo. 
Cum lubet czstivo cojivocat orbe nives : 

She plucks each star out of his throne. 
And turneth backe the raging waves, 
With charmes she makes the earth to cone. 
And raiscth soules out of their graces : 
She bur7ies mens bofies as with afire, 
Aftd pulleth downe the lights front heaven. 
And makes it snowe at hir desire 
Even in the midst of summer season. 

Mens hausti nulla sanie polluta veneni, 
Incantata peril : 

A man inchanted runneth mad. 

That never anie poison had. 

Cessavere vices remm, dilatdgue lojiga 
Hasit fiocte dies, legi non paruit cether, 
Torpuit ^ prceceps audita carmine jnundus : 

The course of nature ceased quite, I 

The aire obeied not his lawe, 

The dale delaid by lengtJi of night, 

Wliich made both dale and night to yaive ; 

And all was through thai charming gearc. 

Which causd the world to quake for feaj-e. 

Carmine Thcssalidum dura in pnecordiajhcxit, 
Non fat is adductus amor, flajninisque sever i 
Illicitis arsere ignes : 

With Thcssall charmes, and not by fate 
Hot love is forced for toflowe, 
Even where before hath beene debate. 
They cause affection for to growc. 


Horac.^ epod. 5 

Tihul. de 
lib. I. EUg. 2. 

Lucan. lib. de 
bello civili. 6. 

Idem. Ibid. 


Idem. Ibid. 

1 84 

12. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

Idem. Ibid. 


C. Maui litis 
Slice, lib. I. 


Gens iiivisa diis uiaciilandi callida ccslij 
Qiios gemiit ierra, tnali qui sidera Diitndi 
fiirdqiie Jixaruin possiiiit pervertere rej'ioii : 
Nam nunc stare polos, ^ fliimma niittere Jioruni, 
Aethera sub terras adigiint, viontesqtce revelbuit : 

These witches haiefull unto Cod, 

A nd ctmnitig to defile the aire, 

Which can disorder with a nod 

The course of nature everie where, 

Doo cause the wandring starres to stale 

And drive the winds beelow the ground. 

They send the streaines another wale, 

And throwe downe hilles where they abound. 

Unguis dixere volucrum, 

Consultare fibras, 6^ rumpere vocibus angiies, 
Solicitare umbras, ipsunique Acheronta mover e, 
hi noctemque dies, ifi Itccem vertere nodes. 
Omnia conando docllls solertla vincii : 

They talked with the toongs of birds, 

Cojtsultlng tvlth the salt sea coasts, 

They burst the snakes with witching words,] 

Solllciting the splrltuall ghosts. 

They turne the flight Into the dale, 

And also drive the light awale : 

And what 1st that cannot be made 

By them that doo applle this trade f 

Ovid Mcta- 
nioi'plj. lib. 
fab. 2. 

The eight Chapter. 

Poetrle and poperle compared In inchantimnts, popish wltchmongers 
have more advantage herein than protestants. 

OU see in these verses, the poets (whether in earnest or 
in jest I know not)" ascribe unto witches & to their 
charmes, more than is to be found in humane or dia- 
bolicall power. I doubt not but the most part of the 
readers hereof will admit them to be fabulous ; although the most 
learned of mine adversaries (for lacke of scripture) are faine to pro- 
duce these poetries for proofes, and for lacke of judgement I am sure 
doo thinke, that Actceons transformation was true. And why not.'' 
As well as the metamorphosis or transubstantiation of Ulysses his 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 9. 


companions into swine : which S. Augustine, and so manie great 
clarkes credit and report. 

Neverthelesse, popish writers (I confesse) have advantage herein of 
our protestants : for (besides these poeticall proofes) they have (for 
advantage) the word and authoritie of the pope himselfe, and others 
of that/ holie crue ; whose charmes, conjurations, blessings, curssings, 
&c : I meane in part (for a tast) to set downe ; giving you to under- 
stand, that poets are not altogither so impudent as papists herein, 
neither seeme they so ignorant, prophane, or impious. And there- 
fore I will shew you how lowd also they lie, and what they on the 
other side ascribe to their charmes and conjurations ; and togither 
will set downe with them all maner of witches charmes, as conveni- 
entlie as I maie./ 

Ovid. Meta- 
mor/'li. 14. 
fab. 5, 6. 


The au- 
thors tran- 
sition to his 

The ninth Chapter. 

Popish periapts, amulets and charmes, agnus Dei, a wastcote of 
proof e, a charme for the falling evill, a writing broiight to S. Leo 
from heaven by an angell, the verities of S. Saviors epistle, a 
charme against theeves, a writitig found in Christs wounds, of 
the crosse, ^c. 

HESE vertues under these verses (written by pope Urbane 
the fift to the emperour of the Grcecians) are conteined in 
a periapt or tablet, to be continuallie worne about one, 
called Agnus Dei, which is a little cake, having the 
picture of a lambe carrieng of a flag on the one side ; and Christs 
head on the other side, and is hollow : so as the gospell of S. John, 
written in fine paper, is placed in the concavitie thereof : and it is 
thus compounded or made, even as they themselves report. 

Balsatnus (Sr* munda cera, cum chrisinatis unda 
CojtfciuTit agnunt, quod munus do tibi magnum, 
Fonte velut natum, per mystica sanctificatum : 
Fulgura desursum depellit, &> omne malignum, 
Peccatuin frangit, ut Christi sanguis, &> angit, 
PrcBgnans servatur, simul &^ partus liberaiur, 
Dona refert dignis, virtutem destruit ignis, 
Portatus munde de fluctibus eripit undce : 

Balme, virgine wax, attd holie water, 

an Agnus Dei make : 
A gift than which none can be grealer, 

1 send thee for to take. 

B B 


Englished by 
Looke in 
the Bee- 
hive of the 

1 86 


The disc over ie 

Lib. 4. cap. 
fol. 243. 



From foHiiteiHe cleere the same hath issue, 

VI secret sanctijide : 
Gainst ligJitning it hath soTcraigiie 7'ertiie, 

and thunder crackes beside.] 
Ech Jiainous sinnc it 7veares and wasteth, 

even as Christs precious blood. 
And women, whiles their travcll lasteth, 

it saves, it is so good. 
It doth bestow great gifts and graces,] 

on such as well deserve : 
And borne about in noisome places, 

frofn perill doth preserve. 
The force of fire, whose heat destroieth, 

it breaks and bringeth downe : 
And he or she that this enjoieth, 

no tvater shall them drowne. 

The maner 
of making 
a waste - 
cote of 

^1 A charme against shot, or a wastcote of proofe. 

BEfoie the comming up of these Agtms Deis, a holie garment 
called a wastcote for necessitie was much used of our forefathers, 
as a holy relike, &c : as given by the pope, or some such archcon- 
juror, who promised thereby all manner of immunitie to the wearer 
thereof ; in somuch as he could not be hurt with anie shot or other 
violence. And otherwise, that woman that would weare it, should 
have quicke deliverance : the composition thereof was in this order 

On Christmas daie at night, a threed must be sponne of flax, by a 
little virgine girle, in the name of the divell : and it must be by hir 
woven, and also wrought with the needle. In the brest or forepart 
thereof must be made with needle worke two heads ; on the head at 
the right side must be a hat, and a long beard ; the left head must 
have on a crowne, and it must be so horrible, that it maie resemble 
Belzebub, and on each side of the wastcote must be made a crosse. 



^ Against the falling evill. 

Oreover, this insuing is another counterfet charme of theirs, 
whereby the falling evill is presentlie remedied. 

Caspar fert tnyrrham, thus Melchior, BaltJiasar aurum, 
Hcec tria qui secutn portabit nomina regumj 
Solviiur a morbo Christi pictate caduco. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 9. 187 

Gasper with his niyrh begamie 

these presents to tin/old. 
Then Melchior brought in fnmkincense^ 

and Balthasar brought in gold. 
Now he that of these holie kings 

the tianies about shall beare, 
The falling yll by grace of Christ 

shall Jiever need tofeare. 

This is as true a copie of the holie writing, that was brought downe 
from heaven by an angell to S. Leo pope of Rome ; & he did bid / him 168. 
take it to king Charles, when he went to the battell at Roncevall. And These ef- 

. fects are 

the angell said, that what man or woman beareth this writing about them too good to be 
with good devotion, and saitheverie da\&\.\\ret Pater iiosters^ihree Aves, sucV" pat- 
and one Creede, shall not that daie be overcome of his enimies, either '^^.^'^ P^epe 
bodilie or ghostlie ; neither shalbe robbed or slaine of theeves, pesti- 
lence, thunder, or lightening ; neither shall be hurt with fier or water, 
nor combred with spirits, neither shall have displeasure of lords or 
ladies : he shall not be condemned with false witnesse, nor taken with 
fairies, or anie maner of axes, nor yet with the falling evill. Also, if a 
woman be in travell, laie this writing upo hir bellie, she shall have 
easie deliverance, and the child right shape and christendome, and 
the mother purification of holy church, and all through vertue of these 
holie names of Jesus Christ following : 

^fesus »J< Christus ^ Messias ^ Soter ^ Emmanuel ^ Sabbaoth 
►J* Adonai ^ Unigenitus ^ Majestas ^ Paracletus ^ Salvator noster 
4* A^iros iskiros ►J* Agios ^ Adanatos ^ Gasper *^ Melchior *^ &-• 
Balthasar ^ Matthceus ►J* Marcus ►J* Lucas ^fohannes. 

The epistle of S. Savior, which pope Leo sent to king Charles, 
saieng, that whosoever carrieth the same about him, or in what daie 
so ever he shall read it, or shall see it, he shall not be killed with anie 
iron toole, nor be burned with fier, nor be drowned with water, neither 
anie evill man or other creature male hurt him. The crosse of Christ 
is a woonderfuU defense >^ the crosse / of Christ be alwaies with 2jj. 
me "^ the crosse is it which I doo alwaies worship »I< the crosse of 
Christ is true health >^ the crosse of Christ dooth lose the bands of 
death ^ the crosse of Christ is the truth and the waie ^ I take my 
journie upon the crosse of the Lord >^ the crosse of Christ beateth 
downe everie evill »^ the crosse of Christ giveth all good things *f" the 
crosse of Christ taketh awaie paines everlasting ►{< the crosse of 
Christ save me ►J* O crosse of Christ be upon me, before me, and 
behind me ^J" bicause the ancient enimie cannot abide the sight of 

12. Booke. 

The discoverie 

thee 4* the crosse of Christ save me, keepe me, governe me, and direct 
me »^ Thomas bearing this note of thy divine majestie ^ Alpha »^ 
Omega ^ first ^ and last ^ middest ^ and end ^ beginning ^ and 
first begotten ^J* wisedome ^ vertue ^. 

[.p=per or par] 
[•* a m 2. ed.] 


^ A popish periapt or charme, which must never be said, but 
carried about one, against theeves. 

IDoo go, and I doo come unto you with the love of God, with 
the humilitie of Christ, with the holines of our blessed ladie, with the 
faith oi Abraham, with the justice oi Isaac, with the vertue oi David, 
with the might of Peter, with the constancie of Paule, with the word 
of God, with the authoritie of Gregorie, with the praier of Clement, 
with the floud oi Jordan, _p _p p c g e g a q q est p t \ kabglkiax 
t g t b am* g 2 4. 2 iqypxcgiqaggpo q q r. Oh onelie Father 
^ oh onlie lord *^ And Jesus ^ passing through the middest of 
them ^ went "^ In the name of/ the Father ^ and of the Sonne ^ 
and of the Holie-ghost ►f". 

[* From Fona is 
in Rom. from 
titulus in 

• If the party 
faile in the 
he may go 
whistle for 
a pirdon. 

TI Another amulet. 

^Oseph of Arimathea did find this writing upon the wounds of the 
^ side of Jesus Christ, written with Gods finger, when the bodie was 
taken away fro the crosse. Whosoever shall carrie this writing about 
him, shall not die anie evill death, if he beleeve in Christ, and in all 
perplexities he shall soone be delivered, neither let him feare any 
danger at all. Fons ►{< alpha 6^ omega 4* figa ^figalis ^ Sabbaoth 
»J< Eimnanuel ►J* Adonai ►f* <? ►J* Neray ^ Elay ^ I he ►{< Rentone ^ 
Neger '^ Sahe »^ Pangetofi ^ Conimen ^ a ^ g ^ I *b a 1^ Mat- 
tha:us ^ Marcus ^ Lucas »J< Johannes ^ >f" ►^ titulus triumphalis ►{< 
234. Jesus Nasajrejiics rex JudcEorum ^ ecce doininicce crucis signum 4< 
Jugite partes adversce, vicit leo de tribu Judcs, radix, David, aleluijah, 
Kyrie eleeson, Christe eleeson, pater nostcr, ave Maria, (Sr= ne nos, 
dr^ veniat super nos salutare tuum : Oretnus, &^c.* 

I find in a Primer intituled The houres of our Ladie, after the use of 
the church of Yorke, printed anno 15 16. a charme with this titling in 
red letters ; To all them that afore this image of pitie devoutlie shall 
saie * five Pater nosters, five Aves, and one Credo, pitiouslie behold- 
ing these armes of Christs passion, are granted thirtie two thousand 
seven hundred fiftie five yeares of pardon. It is to be thought that 
this pardon was granted in the time of pope Bonijace the ninth ; for 
Plaiina saith that the pardons were sold so cheape, that the apostoli- 
call authoritie grew into contempt. 

of Witchcraft . »^iiap. 9 189 

^[ A papisticall charme. 

Signum sanctce criicis defendat me ci }>ialis prcEscntlbus, prceterttis, 
^ futuris^ mteriortbus &^ exterioribtes : that is, The signe of the crosse 
defend me from evils present, past, and to come, inward and out- 

^1 A charme found in the canon of the masse. 

Also this charme is found in the canon of the masse, Hcec sacro- 
sancta commixtio corporis &^ sanguinis domini nostri fesu Christi 
fiat mihi, oninibiisque stnnentibus^ salus mentis 6r^ corporis, &^ ad 
vitam promerendam, &^ capessenda/n, prcFparatio salutaris : that is. 
Let this holie mixture of the bodie and bloud of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
be unto me, and unto all receivers thereof, health of mind and bodie, 
and to the deserving and receiving of life an healthful! preparative. 

^ Other papisticall charmes. 

Aqua benedicta, sit mihi salus &s^ vita : 

Let holie water be. both health and life to me. By Ab. FU- 

Adqtte nojnen Martini otnnis hcereticus fugiat pallidus^ 
When Martins name is soong or said., 
Let heretikes flie as men disjnaid.j 
But the papists have a harder charme than that ; to wit, Fier and ^jj. 
fagot, Fier and fagot./ 

% A charme of the holie crosse. 170. 

Nulla salus est in domo, 
Nisi cruce inunit homo 

Neque sentit gladium, 
Nee amisit filiuin, 

Quisquis egit talia. 

No health within the house dooth dwell, 
Except a man doo crosse him well., 

at everie doore or frame., 
He never feeleth the swords point., 
Nor of his sonne shall loose a Joint, 

that dooth performe the same. 

Furthermore as followeth. 

Ista SUOS fortiores Sancta crux 

temper facit, o^ vtctores, iah4ti/ero 


12. Bookc 

The discoverie 

O blasphoc- 
miani inc- 
narrabiUm ! 

Englished 2j6. 
by Abraham 
Looke in 
the Bee- 
hive of the 
church. lib. 
4. cap. 3. 
fol. 251, 252. 


Morbos sanat &-» lani^tcores, 

Repriviit dcetnonia. 
Dat captivis liberiateni, 
VitcB cofifert iiovitatem, 
Ad antiqiiain dia^nilafoii. 

Crux reduxit oninia. 
O Crux lignum trimnphale, 
Muudi vera salus vale, 
Inter ligna indium tale, 

Fronde, fiore, gerniine. 
Medicina Christiaiia, 
Salva sanos, agros saiia, 
Quod noft valet vis huniana, 

Fit in ttio nomine, dr^cj 

It makes Jiir sotildiers excellent, 

and crow net h them with victorie. 
Restores the lame and impotettt, 

and healeth everie maladie. 
The divels of hell it co7iquereth, 

release th from imprison men t, 
Newnesse of life it offereth, 

it hath all at commandement. 
O crosse of wood incomparable, 

to all the world most holsome : 
A^o wood is halfe so honoiirable,] 

in branch, in bud, or blossome. 
O medcine which Christ did ordaine, 

the sound save everie hower. 
The sicke and sore make whole againe, 

by vertue of thy power. 
And that which mans unablenesse, 

hath never coinprehended, 
Grant by thy name of holinesse, 

it may befullie ended, ^c. 

IT A chartne taken out of the Primer. 

This charme following is taken out of the Primer aforesaid. 
Omnipotens *f< Dominus ^ Christus *i> Messias *^ with 34. names more, 
& as many crosses, & then proceeds in this wise ; Ista nomina me 
protegant ab omni adversitate, plaga, &= infirmitate corporis (fr* 

of Witchcraft. chap. lo. 191 

aiiimcs, pleiic llberent, &^ asshfent in atixiliuni ista no)niiia regievi, 
Casper, dr'c : Qr^ 12 apostoli {videlicet) Petrus, &=€ .• fir* 4 evangelistce 
{videlicet) Matthceies, &^c: iiiihi assistent in omnibus necessitatibus 
fneis, ac me defendant &-= liberent ab omnibus periculis S^ corporis Ss-' 
an in ice, Si" omnibus i>ialis prceteritis, prcesentibus, &^ fttttiris, &^c.\ 

The tenth Chapter. 237. 

Ho7u to make holie water, and the vertues therof. S. Rufins 
charme, of the iveari7tg afid bearing of the name of fesus, that 
the sacrament of confession and the eucharist is of as much 
efficacie as other charmes, &-" magnified by L. Vairus. 

|F I did well, I should shew you the confection of all their 
stuffe, and how they prepare it; but it would be too long. 
And therefore you shall onlie have in this place a few 
notes for the composition of certeine receipts, which in 
stead of an Apothecarie if you deliver to any morrowmasse preest, 
he will make them as well as the pope himselfe. Marie now they 
wax everie parlement deerer and deerer ; although therewithal!, they 
utter many stale drugs of their owne. 

If you looke in the popish pontificall, you shall see how in eccUsia; 
they make their holie water ; to wit, in this sort : I conjure 
thee thou creature of water, in the name of the father, and of 
the Sonne, & of the Holie-ghost, that thou drive the divell out of 
everie corner and hole of this church, and altar ; so as he remaine 
not within our precincts that are just and righteous. And water thus 
used (as Durandiis saith) hath power of his owne nature to drive in rationali 
away divels. If you will learne to make any more of this popish 'lffi]^i°rum. 
stuffe, you may go to the verie masse booke, and find manie good 
receipts : marrie if you search Du?-andus, &c ; you shall find 

I know that all these charmes, and all these palterie confections 
(though/ they were farre more impious and foolish) will be mainteined 172. 
and defended by massemongers, even as the residue will be by witch- 
mongers : and therefore I will in this place insert a charme, the 
authoritie wherof is equall with the rest, desiring to have their Pom.ser- 
opinions herein. I find in a booke called Pomcct^ium sermonum quad- '«""• '^-■ 
ragesimalium, that S. F}-ancis seeing Rufnusj provoked of the divell 2j8. 
to thinke himselfe damned, charged Rufinus to saie this charme, when 
he next met with the divell ; Apej'i os, &^ ibi iinponam stircus, which is 


12. Booke, 

T/ie discoverie 

L. Vairtis. lib. 
de fascin. 3. 
cap. 10. 
Idem, ibid. 

as much to saie in English as, Open thy mouth and I will put in a 
plumme : a verie ruffinlie charme. 

Leonard Vairus writcth., De veris, pits, ac Sanctis amuletis fascinum 
atqj omnia venejicia destrnentibiis ; wherein he speciallie com- 
mendeth the name of Jesus to be worne. But the sacrament of con- 
fession he extoUeth above all things, saieng, that whereas Christ with 
his power did but throwe divels out of mens bodies, the preest 
driveth the divell out of mans soule by confession. For (saith he) 
these words of the preest, when he saith, Ego te absolvo, are as 
effectuall to drive awaie the princes of darknes, through the mightie 
power of that saieng, as was the voice of God to drive awaie the 
darknes of the world, when at the beginning he said, Fiat lux. He 
commendeth also, as holesome things to drive awaie divels, the sacra- 
ment of the eucharist, and solitarines, and silence. Finallie he saith, 
that if there be added hereunto an Agnus Dei, and the same be worne 
about ones necke by one void of sinne, nothing is wanting that is 
good and holesome for this purpose. But he concludeth, that you 
must weare and make dints in your forhead, with crossing your selfe 
when you put on your shooes, and at everie other action, &c : and 
that is also a present remedie to drive awaie divels, for they cannot 
abide it. 

The eleventh Chapter. 

Of the noble balnie used by Moses., apishlie counterfeited ifi the 
church of Rome. 

I HE noble balnie that i^/^J^i' made, having indeed manie 
excellent vertues, besides the pleasant and comfortable 
savour thereof ; wherewithall Moses in his pohtike lawes 
enjoined kings, queenes, and princes to be annointed in 
their true and lawfull elections and coronations, untill the everlasting 
2jg. king had put on/ man upon him, is apishlie counterfeited in the 
Romish church, with diverse terrible conjurations, three breathings, 
crossewise, (able to make a quezie stomach spue) nine mumblings, 
and three curtsies, saieng thereunto, Ave sa7tctum oleum, ter ave 
saiictum balsamum. And so the divell is thrust out, and the Holie- 
ghost let into his place. But as for Moses his balme, it is not now to 
be found either in Rome or elsewhere that I can learne. And accord- 
ing to this papisticall order, witches, and other superstitious people 
follow on, with charmes and conjurations made in forme ; which 
manie bad physicians also practise, when their learning faileth, as 
maie appeare by example in the sequele./ 

of WitcJicraft. 

Chap. 12. 


The twelfe Chapter. 173. 

The opinio7t of Ferraritts toicching charines, periapts^ appensions, 
at/iideis, &^c. Of Homericall viedici/ies, of consiani opifiton, and 
the effects thereof 

RGERIUS FERRARIUS, a physician in these daies of Arg.Fer.lib 
great account, doth sale, that for somuch as by no diet 


nor physicke anie disease can be so taken awaie or ex- 
tinguished, but that certeine dregs and rehkes will 
therefore physicians use physicall alligations, appensions, 

niethodo. 2. 
cap. II. 
De Homerica 


periapts, amulets, charmes, characters, &c, which he suppo'seth male 
doo good ; but harme he is sure they can doo none : urging that it is 
necessarie and expedient for a physician to leave nothing undone that 
may be devised for his patients recoverie ; and that by such meanes 
manie great cures are done. He citeth a great number of experiments 
out of Alexander Tralliaiites, Aetiiis, Octatnaims, Marcellus, PJiilo- 
dotus, Archigines, Philostratus, Flhiie, and Dioscorides ; and would 
make men beleeve that Galen (who in truth despised and derided all 
those vanities) recanted in his latter daies his former opinion, and all 
his invectives tending against these magicall cures : writing also a 
booke intituled De Homerica medicatione, which no man could ever 
see, but one Alexander Trallianus, who saith he saw it :/ and further 240 
affirmeth, that it is an honest mans part to cure the sicke, by hooke 
or by crooke, or by anie meanes whatsoever. Yea he saith that Galen 
(who indeed wrote and taught that Incantamenta sunt inuliercularuni 
figinenta, and be the onlie clokes of bad physicians) affirmeth, that 
there is vertue and great force in incantations. As for example (saith 
Trallian) Galen being now reconciled to this opinion, holdeth and 
writeth, that the bones which sticke in ones throte, are avoided and 
cast out with the violence of charmes and inchanting words ; yea and 
that thereby the stone, the choUicke, the falling sicknes, and all fevers, 
gowts, fluxes, fistulas, issues of bloud, and finallie whatsoever cure 
(even beyond the skill of himselfe or anie other foolish physician) is 
cured and perfectlie healed by words of inchantment. Marie M. 
Ferrarius (although he allowed and practised this kind of physicke) 
yet he protesteth that he thinketh it none otherwise effectuall, than 
by the waie of constant opinion : so as he affirmeth that neither the 
character, nor the charme, nor the witch, nor the devill accomplish 
the cure ; as (saith he) the experiment of the toothach will manifestlie 
declare, wherein the cure is wrought by the confidence or diffidence 


This would 
be exami- 
ned, to see 
if Galen be 
not slande- 


\2. Books. 

77/ c disc over ie 

Englished hy 




as well of the patient, as of the agent ; according to the poets 
saieng : 

Nos habitat 7ion tartara, sed nee sidera cceli, 
Spiritus in tiobis qui viget ilia facit. 

Not hellish furies dwell in us, 
Nor starres with itifluence heavenlie ; 
The spirit that lives and rules in its. 
Doth every thing ingeniouslie,i 

This (saith he) commeth to the unlearned, through the opinion 
which they conceive of the characters and holie words : but the 
learned that know the force of the mind and imagination, worke 
miracles by meanes thereof; so as the unlearned must have externall 
helps, to doo that which the learned can doo with a word onelie. He 
saith that this is called Homerica viedicatio, bicause Hotiter dis- 
covered the bloud of the word suppressed, and the infections healed 
by or in mysteries. 


The xili. Chapter. 

0/ the effects of amulets, the drift of Afgerius Ferrarius in the 
covnnendation of eharmes, Q^c : foure sorts of Homericall medi- 
cines, &= the choice thereof; of ifuagination. 

S touching mine opinion of these amulets, characters, and 
such other babies, I have sufficientlie uttered it elsewhere: 
and I will bewraie the vanitie of these superstitious 
trifles more largelie hereafter. And therefore at this 
time I onelie saie, that those amulets, which are to be hanged or 
carried about one, if they consist of hearbs, rootes, stones, or some 
other metall, they maie have diverse medicinable operations ; and 
by the vertue given to them by God in their creation, maie worke 
strange effects and cures : and to impute this vertue to anie other 
matter is witchcraft. And whereas A. Ferrarius commendeth cer- 
teine amulets, that have no shew of physicall operation ; as a naile 
taken from a crosse, holie water, and the verie signe of the crosse, 
with such like popish stuffe : I thinke he laboureth thereby rather to 
draw men to poperie, than to teach or persuade them in the truth of 
physicke or philosophie. And I thinke thus the rather, for that he 
himselfe seeth the fraud hereof ; confessing that where these magicall 
physicians applie three seeds of three leaved grasse to a tertian ague, 
and foure to a quartane, that the number is not materiall. 

of Witchcraft. 

Cliaii. 14. 


But of these Homericall medicines he saith there are foure sorts, 
whereof amulets, characters, & charmes are three : howbeit he com- 
mendeth and preferreth the fourth above the rest ; and that he saith 
consisteth in illusions, which he more properlie calleth stratagems. 
Of which sort of conclusions he alledgeth for example, how PJiilodotus 
did put a cap of lead upon ones head, who imagined he was headlesse, 
whereby the partie was delivered from his disease or conceipt. Item 
another cured a woman that imagined, that a serpent or snake did 
continuallie gnaw and/ teare hir entrailes ; and that was done onelie 
by giving hir a vomit, and by foisting into the matter vomited a little 
serpent or snake, like unto that which she imagined was in hir bellie. 

Item, another imagined that he alwaies burned in the fier, under 
whose bed a fier was privilie conveied, which being raked out before 
his face, his fancie was satisfied, and his heate allaied. Hereunto 
perteineth, that the hickot is cured with sudden feare or strange 
newes : yea by that meanes agues and manie other strange and 
extreame diseases have beene healed. And some that have lien so 
sicke and sore of the gowt, that they could not remove a joint, 
through sudden feare of fier, or ruine/ of houses, have forgotten their 
infirmities and greefes, and have runne awaie. But in my tract 
upon melancholic, and the effects of imagination, and in the discourse 
of naturall magicke, you shall see these matters largelie touched. 

Foure sorts 
of Homeri- 
call medi- 
cines, and 
which is 
the prin- 


The force 
of fixed 
fansie, opi- 
nion, or 
strong con- 


The xiiii. Chapter. 

Choice of Charmes against the falling evill, the biting of a mad 
dog, the stinging of a scorpion, the toothach, for a woman in 
travell,for the Kings evill, to get a thorne out of any member, 
or a bone out of ones throte, charmes to be said fasting, or at the 
gathering of hearbs, for sore eies, to open locks, against spirits, 
for the bots in a horsse, and spcciallie for the Duke of Albas 
horsse,for sowre wines, ^c. 

HERE be innumerable charmes of conjurers, bad physi- 
cians, lewd surgians, melancholike witches, and couseners, 
for all diseases and greefes ; speciallie for such as bad 
physicians and surgions knowe not how to cure, and in 
truth are good stufife to shadow their ignorance, whereof I will 
repeate some. 

For the falling evill. 

nPAke the sicke man by the hand, and whisper these wordes 
-^ softlie in his care, I conjure thee by the sunne and moone. 

1 96 >2 Booke. TJie discoverie 

24J. and by the gospell of this daie dehvered by God to Hubert, Giles, 
Corneliiis, 2it\A John, that thou rise and fall no more. ^> Otherwise : 
Drinke in the night at a spring water out of a skull of one that hath 
beene slaine. -;;•- Otherwise : Eate a pig killed with a knife that slew 
a man. 4^ Otherwise as foUoweth. 

Ananizapta ferit mortem, dtim ladere guar it. 
Est mala mors capta, dum dicitur Ananizapta, 
Ananizapta Dei nunc miserere mei. 

Englished by 
A! raham 
Flcm ing. 

i Ananizapta smite th death, ^ 

^ ivJiiles haj-me intendeth he, f 

K This word Ananizapta say, ," 

J a7id deatli shall captive be, V 

\ Ananizapta 6 of God, j 
have mercie now on me. 

\ A trains t the biting of a Diad dog. 

\i^°de'damcti TDUt a silver ring on the finger, within the which these words are 
3- cap. 5. JL graven ►{< Habay ►{< habar ►f" hebar ^ & saie to the person 

bitten with a mad dog, I am thy saviour, loose not thy life : and then 
pricke him in the nose thrise, that at each time he bleed. .?> Other- 
wise : Take pilles made of the skull of one that is hanged. -:> Other- 
wise : Write upon a peece of bread, Irioni, khiriora, esser, khuder, 
176. feres ; and let it be eaten by the/ partie bitten. -:>- Otherwise : O rex 
gloricE Jesu Christe, veni cuni pace : In nomine patris max, in nomine 
filii max, in nomine spirittts sancti prax : Gasper, Melchior, Balthasar 
►Ji prax ►^ max ^ Detes I max *i* 

But in troth this is verie dangerous ; insomuch as if it be not 
speedilie and cunninglie prevented, either death or frensie insueth, 
through infection of the humor left in the wound bitten by a mad 
dog : which bicause bad surgions cannot cure, they have therfore 
used foolish cousening charmes. But Dodonaus in his herball saith, 
that the hearbe Alysson cureth it : which experiment, I doubt not, 
will proove more true than all the charms in the world. But where 
he saith, that the same hanged at a mans gate or entrie, preserveth 
him and his cattell from inchantment, or bewitching, he is overtaken 
with foUie.,/ 

244. % Against the biting of a scorpion. 


Aie to an asse secretlie, and as it were whispering in his eare ; 
I am bitten with a Scorpion. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 14. 197 


If Against tJie toothach. 
Carifie the\gums in the greefe, with the tooth of one that 

That 1 

hath beene slaine. -'t- Oiherviise : Galbes galbaf, galdes galdat. 
■if Otherwise : A ab hur hus, &c. •:>■ Otherwise : At saccaring of 
masse hold your teeth togither, and say * Os non cotiimhmetis ex eo. You Thafi 
-it- Otherwise : stnn/es falcesq: dentata, dentiiaii doloroji iersanate ; "«' b^ake 

' A ./ Z-' 3 1- 1 or diminish 

O horssecombs and sickles that have so many teeth, come heale me a bone of 
now of my toothach. ""' 

•[] A chariiie to release a zvomati in traiiell. 

THrowe over the top of the house, where a woman in travell 
Heth, a stone, or any other thing that hath killed three living 
creatures ; namelie, a man, a wild bore, and a she beare. 

^ To heale the Kings or Queenes evilly or any other sorenesse in 
the throte. 

REmedies to cure the Kings or Queenes evill, is first to touch 
the place with the hand of one that died an untimelie death. 
-;;s- Otherwise : Let a virgine fasting laie hir hand on the sore, and 
sale ; Apollo denieth that the heate of the plague can increase, 
where a naked virgine quencheth it : and spot three times upon it. 

5f A charnie rend in the Romish church, iipon saint Blazes dale, 
that will fetch a thorne out of anie place of ones bodie, a bone 
07it of the throte., Qr^c : Led. 3. 

FOr the fetching of a thorne out of any place of ones bodie, or 
a bone out of the throte, you shall read a charnie in the Romish 
church upon S. Blazes dale ; to wit. Call upon God, and remember 
S. Blaze. This S. Blaze could also heale all wild beasts that were 
sicke or lame, with laieng on of his hands : as appeareth in the 
lesson red on his dale, where you shall see the matter at large./ / 

^ A charnie for the hcadach. 2^j. 177 

' I "le a halter about your head, wherewith one hath beene hanged. 

^ A char me to be said each morning by a 7vitch fasting, or at least 
before she go abroad. 

THE fier bites, the fier bites, the fier bites ; Hogs turd over it, 
hogs turd over it, hogs turd over it ; The father with thee, the 


12. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

• Though 
neither the 
hearbe nor 
the witch 
never camo 

Sonne with me, the hoHe-ghost betweene us both to be : ter. Then 
spit over one shoulder, and then over the other, and then three times 
right forward. 

^ Another charme that witches use at the gathering of their 
medicinable Jiearbs. 

Haile be thou holie hearbe 

groiving on the grottnd 
All in the mount ''^Calvarie 

first wert thou fou7id^ 
Thou art good for tnanie a sore, 

A nd healest matiie a woutid, 
In the name of sweete fesus 

J take thee from the ground. 

^ An old womatis cJiarme, whereivith she did much good in the 
countrie, and grew famous thereby. 

AN old woman that healed all diseases of cattell (for the which 
she never tooke any reward but a penie and a loafe) being 
seriouslie examined by what words she brought these things to passe, 
confessed that after she had touched the sicke creature, she alwaies 
departed immediatelie ; saieng : 

My loafe in my lap, 

my penie in my pursse ; 
Thou are ne'uer the better, 

and I am never the ^aursse.j 

Note the 
force of 
opinion, or 
fixed fancy. 

^^6. Another like charme. 

A Gentlewoman having sore eies, made hir monc to one, that 
promised hir helpe, if she would follow his advise : which 
was onelie to weare about hir necke a scroll sealed up, whereinto 
she might not looke. And she conceiving hope of cure thereby, 
received it under the condition, and left hir weeping and teares, where- 
with she was woont to bewaile the miserable darkenesse, which she 
doubted to indure : whereby in short time hir eies were well amended. 
But alas ! she lost soone after that pretious Jewell, and thereby 
returned to hir woonted weeping, and by consequence to hir sore 
eies. Howbeit, hir jewell or scroll being found againe, was looked 
into by hir deere friends, and this onelie posie was conteined 
therein ; 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 14 


The div ell pull ojct both thine eies, 
Afid *etish in the holes likewise. 


may see what constant opinion can doo, 

* Spell the 
word back- 
ward, and 
you shall 

of Plato; If a mans fansie or mind give him soonesee 
assurance that a hurtfull thing shall doo him good, it may doo so, liecharme 

Rtq or appensi- 

Whereby partlie you 
according to the saienf 


A char me to open locks. 

S the hearbes called Aethiopides will open all locks (if all be Theevish 
true that inchanters sale) with the help of certeine words : '^ =^''"'^^- 

so be there charmes also and periapts, which without any hearbs 
can doo as much : as for example. Take a peece of wax crossed in 
baptisme, and doo but print certeine floures therein, and tie them in 
the hinder skirt of your shirt ; and when you would undoo the locke, 
blow thrise therin, saieng ; Arato hoc partiko hoc vtaratarykiit. I 
open this doore in thy name that I am forced to breake, as thou 
brakest hell gates, In nomine patris, &^ Jilii., &^ spirittis sancii, Amen. 

^ A charme to drive awaie spirits that haittit anie house. This is cal- 

led and 
HAng in everie of the foure corners of your house this sentence counted 
written upon virgine parchment ; * Omnis spiritus laudet ceLian^^ 
Dominum : '^ Mosen habent S^ irophetas : <= Exurmt Deus et dissi-l charme. 

^ ^ '^ ' »Psal. I'^o. 

b Luk. 16. 
c Psa. 64. 

Pentur inimici ejus. 

^ A prettie charme or conchisiott for one possessed. 

THe possessed bodie must go upon his or hir knees to the church, 
how farre so ever it be off from their lodging ; and so must 
creepe without going out of the waie, being the common high waie, in 
that sort, how fowle and durtie soever the same be ; or whatsoever lie 
in the waie, not shunning anie thing whatsoever, untill he come to the 
church, where he must heare* masse devoutlie, and then followeth 

51 Another for the same purpose. 

'"pHere must be commended to some poore begger the saieng 
A of five Pater nosters, and five Aves ; the first to be said in the 
name of the partie possessed, or bewitched : for that Christ was led 
into the garden ; secondlie, for that Christ did sweat both water and 
bloud ; thirdlie, for that Christ was condemned ; fourthlie, for that he 
was crucified guiltlesse ; and fiftlie, for that he suffered to take awaie 

• Memo- 
that hea- 
ring of 
masse be 
in no case 



12. Booke. 

The discoverie 

our sinnes. Then must the sicke bodie heare masse eight dales to- 
gether, standing in the place where the gospell is said, and must 
mingle holie water with his meate and his drinke, and holie salt also 
must be a portion of the mixture. 

Anglicus ex 
Gilberto, iic. 

^ Another to the same effect. 

THe sicke man must fast three daies, and then he with his parents 
must come to church, upon an embering fridaie, and must heare 
the masse for that daie appointed, and so likewise the saturdaie and 
sundaie following. And the preest must read upon the sicke mans 
head, that gospell which is read in September, and in grape harvest, 
after the feast of holie crosse In diebus quatuor temporuni, in ember 
daies : then let him write it and carrie it aboute his necke, and he 
shall be cured./ 


Barnard, de 
bustis in Ro- 
sa r. serm. 
serm. 15. 

% Another charme or witch-craft for the sajne, 

THis office or conjuration following was first authorised and 
printed at Rome, and afterwards at Avenzon, Anno. 1515. And 
least that the divell should lie hid in some secret part of the/ bodie, 
everie part thereof is named ; Obsccro te festi Chrisfe, &^c: that is : 
I beseech thee O Lord Jesus Christ, that thou pull out of everie 
member of this man all infirmities, from his head, from his haire, 
from his braine, from his forhead, from his eies, from his nose, from 
his eares, from his mouth, from his toong, from his teeth, from his 
jawes, from his throte, from his necke, from his backe, from his brest, 
from his paps, from his heart, from his stomach, from his sides, from 
his flesh, from his bloud, from his bones, from his legs, from his feete, 
from his fingers, from the soles of his feete, from his marrowe, from 
his sinewes, from his skin, and from everie joint of his members, &c. 

Doubtles Jesus Christ could have no starting hole, but was hereby 
everie waie prevented and pursued ; so as he was forced to doo the 
cure : for it appeareth hereby, that it had beene insufficient for him 
to have said ; Depart out of this man thou uncleane spirit, and that 
when he so said he did not performe it. I doo not thinke that there 
will be found among all the heathens superstitious fables, or among 
the witches, conjurors, couseners, poets, knaves, fooles, &c : that ever 
wrote, so impudent and impious a lie or charme as is read in Barnar- 
di7ie de bustis ; where, to cure a sicke man, Christs bodie, to wit: a 
wafer cake, was outwardlie applied to his side, and entred into his 
heart, in the sight of all the standers by. Now, if grave authors 
report such lies, what credit in these cases shall we attribute unto the 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 14. 


old wives tales, that Sprenger, Insiitor, Bodhie, and others write ? 
Even as much as to Ovids Metamorphosis, Aesops fables, Moores 
Utopia, and diverse other fansies; which have as much truth in them, 
as a blind man hath sight in his eie. 

^ A cha7-})ie for the bots in a horsse. 

YOu must both saie and doo thus upon the diseased horsse three 
dales together, before the sunne rising: In no))iine pa^tris &^ 
fi^lii Ss^ spirittis^^sancti; Exorcizo te verinem per Deuiii pa\^trem, 
&^ fi*^liuiii &^ spiritiiDi^sanctuni: that is, In the name of God the 
Father, the Sonne, & the Holy-ghost, I conjure thee O worme by God 
the Father, the Sonne, & the Holy-ghost ; that thou neither eat nor 
drinke the flesh bloud or bones of this horsse ; and that thou 
hereby maist be made as patient as fob, and as good as S. fohii\ 
Baptist, when he baptised Christ in fo7-dan. In nomine pa^iris &= 
fi>^lii &^ spiritus^sancti. And then saie three Pater nosters, and 
three Aves, in the right eare of the horsse, to the glorie of the holie 
trinitie. Do^})iiiuis fili\iis spiri-^tiis AIari>^a. 

There are also divers bookes imprinted, as it should appeare 
with the authoritie of the church of Rome, wherein are conteined 
manie medicinall praiers, not onelie against all diseases ofhorsses, 
but also for everie impediment and fault in a horsse : in so much as 
if a shoo fall off in the middest of his journie, there is a praier to 
warrant your horsses/ hoofe, so as it shall not breake, how far so ever 
he be from the Smithes forge. 

Item, the Duke of Alba his horsse was consecrated, or canonized, 
in the lowe countries, at the solemne masse ; wherein the popes bull, 
and also his charme was published (which I will hereafter recite) he 
in the meane time sitting as Vice-roy with his consecrated standard 
in his hand, till masse was done. 



The smiths 
will canne 
them small 
thankes for 
this praier. 


^ A charme against vineager. 

Hat wine wax not eager, write on the vessell,* Gitstate Ss-' videte, [*Ps 33 gVuig.] 
qjiofiiam snavis est Dominus. blas°'h '^-'^ 



12. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

The XV, Chapter. 

The inchaiitifig of serpetiis atid sfiakes, objections aunsivered con- 
cerning the same j fond 7'easons ivhie charmes take effect therin^ 
Mahoniets pigeon, miracles wrotight by an Asse at Memphis in 
Aegypf, popish charjnes against serpents, of miracle workers, the 
taiiu'i?!g of snakes, Bodins lie of snakes. 

[ONCERNING the charming of serpents and snakes, 

mine adversaries (as I have said) thinke they have great 

advantage by the words of David in the fiftie eight 

psalme ; and by Jeretnie, chapter eight, expounding 

the one prophet by Virgil, the other by Ovid. For the words of 

Psai. 58. David are these ; Their poison is Hke the poison of a serpent, and 

2^0. hke a deafe adder, that stoppeth his/ eare, and heareth not the voice 

of the charmer, charme he never so cunningHe. The words of Virgil 

are these, Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. As he might 

saie, David thou hest ; for the cold natured snake is by the charmes 

of the inchanters broken all to peeces in the field where he lieth. 

Then commeth Ovid, and he taketh his countriemans part, saieng in 

the name and person of a witch ; Vipereas rumpo verbis &^ carmine 

fauces ; that is, I with my words and charmes can breake in sunder 

the vipers jawes. Marrie feremie on the other side encountereth 

this poeticall witch, and he not onelie defendeth, but expoundeth his 

fellowe prophets words, and that not in his owne name, but in the 

name of almightie God ; saieng, I will send serpents and cockatrices 

among you, which cannot be charmed. 

Now let anie indifferent man (christian or heathen) judge, whether 
the words and minds of the prophets doo not directlie oppugne these 
poets words (I will not saie minds :) for that I am sure they did therein 
but jest and trifle, according to the common fabling of lieng poets. 
And certeinlie, I can encounter them two with other two poets ; 
namelie Propertius and Horace, the one merrilie deriding, the other 
seriouslie impugning their fantasticall poetries, concerning the power 
and omnipotencie of witches. For where Virgil, Ovid, &^c : write 
that witches with their charmes fetch downe the moone and starres 
from heaven, etc. ; Propertitis mocketh them in these words fol- 
lowing : / 
181 . At vos deducta: quibus est fallacia Lunce, 

Et labor ift magicis sacra piare focis. 
En agedum domince fnetttem convertite nostrce, 
Et facite ilia meo palleat ore magis. 

Virg. eclog. 8. 

Oz'id. tneta- 
mcr. 7. 

Jerern. 8. 17. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 15. 


Ttnic ego crediderivi vobis &^ sidera ^r' amnes 
Posse Circe is due ere carniinibus : 

But you that hane the sub till slight, 
Of/etching doivne the rnoone front skies; 
And with inchanting fier bright, 
A t tempt to purge your sacrifies: 
Lo now, go to, turne {if you can) 
Our niada))is mind and sturdie hart,l 
And make hir face more pale and wan, 
Than mine : which if by magicke art 
You doo, then will I soone beleeve, 
That by your witching charmes you can 
From skies aloft the starres remeeve. 
And rivers tttrne from whence they ran. 

And that you may see more certeinlie, that these poets did but jest 
and deride the credulous and timerous sort of people, I thought 
good to shew you what Ovid saith against himselfe, and such as have 
written so incrediblie and ridiculouslie of witches omnipotencie : 

A^ec medice magicis finduntur cantibus angties. 
Nee redit in font es tinda supina suos : 

Snakes in the middle are not rive?i 

with charmes of witches cu fining, 
Nor waters to their fountaines driven 

by force of backivard rumiing. 

Englished by 




Englished by 
Flem ing. 

As for Horace his verses I omit them, bicause I have cited them in 
another place. And concerning this matter Cardanus saith, that at Card. lib. 15. 
everie eclipse they were woont to thinke, that witches pulled downe /ap'so. 
the sunne and moone from heaven. And doubtles, hence came the 
opinion of that matter, which spred so farre, and continued so long in 
the common peoples mouthes, that in the end learned men grew to 
beleeve it, and to affirme it in writing. 

But here it will be objected, that bicause it is said (in the places by Anobjecti- 
me alledged) that snakes or vipers cannot be charmed ; Ergo other °^^^ 
things may : To answer this argument, I would aske the witchmonger 
this question, to wit ; Whether it be expedient, that to satisfie his 
follie, the Holie-ghost must of necessitie make mention of everie 
particular thing that he imagineth may be bewitched ? I would also 
aske of him, what privilege a snake hath more than other creatures, 
that he onelie may not, and all other creatures may be bewitched ? 

on answe- 

204 li.Booke. The discoverie 

182. I hope they will not sale, that either/ their faith or infidelitie is the 
cause thereof; neither doo I admit the answer of such divines as saie, 
2j2. that he cannot be bewitched :/ for that he seduced Eve ; by meanes 
whereof God himselfe curssed him ; and thereby he is so privileged, 
as that no witches charme can take hold of him. But more shall be 
said hereof in the sequele. 
Dan. in dia- Danaiis saith, that witches charmes take soonest hold upon snakes 

and adders ; bicause of their conference and familiaritie with the 
divell, whereby the rather mankind through them was seduced. Let 
us seeke then an answer for ttiis cavill ; although in truth it needeth 
not : for the phrase of speach is absolute, & importes not a speciall 
qualitie proper to the nature of a viper anie more, than when I saie ; 
A connie cannot flie: you should gather & conclude thereupon, that 
I ment that all other beasts could flie. But you shall understand, that 
the cause why these vipers can rather withstand the voice & practise 
of inchanters and sorcerers, than other creatures, is: for that they 
being in bodie and nature venomous, cannot so soone or properlie 
receive their destruction by venome, wherby the witches in other 
creatures bring their mischeefous practises more easilie to passe, 
according to Vir^ils saieng 

Virg. gto. 4. CorrupUque lacus, infecit pabtila tabo, 

AbfJimm *^ -^^^^ ^^^ "^fi^^ '^^^^^ poisoji Strong 

Fleming. Both ponds and pastures all along. 

And thereupon the prophet alludeth unto their corrupt and in- 
flexible nature, with that comparison: and not (as Treijielius is faine 
to shift it) with stopping one eare with his taile, and laieng the other 
close to the ground ; bicause he would not heare the charmers voice. 
For the snake hath neither such reason ; nor the words such effect: 
otherwise the snake must know our thoughts. It is also to be con- 
sidered, how untame by nature these vipers (for the most part) are ; 
in so much as they be not by mans industrie or cunning to be made 
familiar, or traind to doo anie thing, whereby admiration maie be 
Feates his procured: as Bomelio Feates his dog could doo ; or MaJioniets pigeon, 

Mahomets which would resort unto him, being in the middest of his campe, and 

pigeon. picke a pease out of his eare ; in such sort that manie of the people 

thought that the Holie-ghost came and told him a tale in his eare: 
the same pigeon also brought him a scroll, wherein was written. Rex 
esto, and laid the same in his necke. And bicause I have spoken of 
^53- ^'^^ doci/litie of a dog and a pigeon, though I could cite an infinite 
number of like tales, I will be bold to trouble you but with one 

of IVitchcraft. 

Cliap, 15. 



At Memphis in ^^;cr|''//, among other juggling knacks, which were A stone 
there usuallie shewed, there was one that tooke such paines with an thegreaf 
asse, that he had taught him all these qualities following. And for t'o^iiiue of 

' '^ ^ ° an asse. 

gaine he caused a stage to be made, and an assemblie of people to 
meete ; which being done, in the maner of a plaie, he came in with 
his asse, and said ; The Sidtatie hath great need of asses to helpe to 
carrie stones and other stuffe, towards his great building which he 
hath in hand. The asse im/mediallie fell downe to the ground, and 
by all signes shewed himselfe to be sicke, and at length to give up 
the ghost : so as the juggler begged of the assemblie monie towards 
his losse. And having gotten all that he could, he said ; Now my 
maisters, you shall see mine asse is yet alive, and dooth but counter- 
fet ; bicause he would have some monie to buie him provender, 
knowing that I was poore, and in some need of releefe. Hereupon he 
would needs laie a wager, that his asse was alive, who to everie mans 
seeming was starke dead. And when one had laid monie with him 
thereabout, he commanded the asse to rise, but he laie still as though 
he were dead : then did he beate him with a cudgell, but that would 
not serve the turne, untill he addressed this speech to the asse, saieng 
(as before) in open audience ; The Sultane hath commanded, that 
all the people shall ride out to morrow, and see the triumph, and 
that the faire ladies will then ride upon the fairest asses, and will give 
notable provender unto them, and everie asse shall drinke of the 
sweete water of lYilus : and then lo the asse did presentlie start up, 
and advance himselfe exceedinglie. Lo (quoth his maister) now I 
have wonne : but in troth the Maior hath borrowed mine asse, for 
the use of the old ilfavoured witch his wife : and thereupon immediat- 
lie he hoong downe his eares, and halted downe right, as though he 
had beene starke lame. Then said his maister ; I perceive you love 
yoong prettie wenches : at which words he looked up, as it were with 
joifull cheere. And then his maister did bid him go choose one that 
should ride upon him ; and he ran to a verie handsome woman, and 
touched hir with his head : &c. A snake will never be brought to 
such familiaritie, &c. Bodin saith, that this was a man in the like- 
nesse of an asse : but I male/ rather thinke that he is an asse in 
the likenesse of a man. Well, to returne to our serpents, I will tell 
you a storie concerning the charming of them, and the event of 
the same. 

In the citie of Salisborogli there was an inchanter, that before all 
the people tooke upon him to conjure all the serpents and snakes 
within one mile compasse into a great pit or dike, and there to kill John. Bodin 
them. When all the serpents were gathered togither, as he stood 
upon the brinke of the pit, there came at the last a great and a 

J. Bod. lih. de 
da'm. 2, cap. 6. 


Mai. male/, 
fart 2. qu. 2. 
cap 9. 


13. Booke. 

The discoverie 

or conj ura- 
tiOs against 184. 

L. Vair. lib. 
de fascinat. 
I. cap. 4. 


Usurpers of 
kinred with 
Paule and 
S Katha- 

horrible serpent, which would not be gotten downe with all the force 
of his incantations : so as (all the rest being dead) he flew upon the 
inchanter, and clasped him in the middest, and drew him downe into 
the said dike, and there killed him. You must thinke that this was 
a divell in a serpents likenesse, which for the love he bare to the 
poore snakes, killed the sorcerer ; to teach all other witches to be- 
ware of the like wicked practise. And surelie, if this be not true, 
there be a great number of lies conteined in M. Mai. and iny. Bodin. 
And if this be well weighed, and conceived, it beateth downe to the 
ground all those witchmongers arguments, that contend to wring 
witching miracles out of this place. For they disagree notablie, some 
denieng and some affirming that serpents male be bewitched. 
Neverthelesse, bicause in everie point you shall see how poperie 
agreeth with paganisme, I will recite certeine charmes against vipers, 
allowed for the most part in and by the church of Rojue : as 

I conjure thee O serpent in this houre, by the five holie woonds 
of our/ Lord, that thou remove not out of this place, but here stale, 
as certeineUe as God was borne of a pure virgine. -$- Otherwise : 
I conjure thee serpent Iti noj/tine patris, &^ Jilii, dr' spiritus sancti : 
I command thee serpent by our ladie S. Marie., that thou obeie 
me, as wax obeieth the fier, and as fier obeieth water ; that thou 
neither hurt me, nor anie other christian, as certeinelie as God 
was borne of an immaculate virgine, in which respect I take thee 
up. In nomine patris &^ filii, &^ spiritus sancti : Ely lash eiter, ely 
lash eiter, ely lash eiter. ■0- Otherwise : O vermine, thou must come 
as God came unto the Jewes. 4^ Otherwise : L. Vairus saith, 
that Serpens quernis frondibus contacta, that a serpent touched with 
oke leaves dieth, and staieth even in the beginning of his going, if 
a feather of the bird Jbis be cast or throwne upon him : and that/ 
a viper smitten or hot with a reed is astonied, and touched with a 
beechen branch is presentlie numme and stiffe. 

Here is to be remembred, that manie use to boast that they are of 
S. Patties race and kinred, shewing upon their bodies the prints of 
serpents : which (as the papists affirme) was incident to all them of 
S. Paules stocke, Marie they sale herewithall, that all his kinsfolks 
can handle serpents, or anie poison without danger. Others likewise 
have (as they brag) a Katharine wheele upon their bodies, and they 
sale they are kin to S. Katharine, and that they can carrie burning 
coles in their bare hands, and dip their said hands in hot skalding 
liquor, and also go into hot ovens. Whereof though the last be but a 
bare jest, and to be doone by anie that will prove (as a bad fellow in 
London had used to doo, making no tariance at all therein :) yet there 

of Witchcraft. (hap. 15 207 

is a shew made of the other, as though it were certeine and undoubted ; 
by annointing the hands with the juice of mallowes, mercuiie, urine, 
&c: which for a Httle time are defensatives against these scalding 
liquors, and scortching fiers. 

But they that take upon them to worke these mysteries and 
miracles, doo indeed (after rehearsall of these and such like words 
and charmes) take up even in their bare hands, those snakes and 
vipers, and sometimes put them about their necks, without receiving 
anie hurt thereby, to the terror and astonishment of the beholders, 
which naturallie both feare and abhorre all serpents. But these char- 
mers (upon my word) dare not trust to their charmes, but use such 
an inchantment, as everie man male lawfuUie use, and in the lawful! 
use thereof maie bring to passe that they shalbe in securitie, and take 
no harme, how much soever they handle them : marie with a woollen 
rag they pull out their teeth before hand, as some men sale ; but as 
truth is, they wearie them, and that is of certeintie. And surelie this is 
a kind of witchcraft, which 1 terme private confederacie. Bodin J-Bodin.iib. 

. . . 1 '^^ deem . I . 

saith, that all the snakes m one countne were by charmes and cap. 3. 
verses driven into another region : perhaps he meaneth h-eland, 
where S. Patrike is said to have doone it with his holinesse, &c. 

James Sprenger, and Henrie histitor afifirme, that serpents and 

snakes, and their skins exceed all other creatures for witchcraft : in 

so much as witches doo use to burie them under mens/ threshholds, 2,56. 

either of the house or stalles, whereby barrennes is procured both to 

woman and beast : yea and that the verie earth and ashes of them 

continue to have force of fascination. In respect whereof they wish all 

men now and then to dig/ awaie the earth under their threshholds, and 185. 

to sprinkle holie water in the place, & also tohang boughes (hallowed 

on midsummer dale) at the stall doore where the 

cattell stand : & produce examples thereupon, 

of witches lies, or else their owne, which 

I omit ; bicause I see my booke 

groweth to be greater 

than I meant it 




12. Booke. 

The discover ie 

L. Vairus lib. 
fascin. i. ca. 5. 
Onitio Tus- 
can vesialis. 

Of the 
word (Bud) 
and the 
Gieeke let- 
ters n & A- 


The xvi. Chapter. 

Char7nes to carrie water in a sive, to kfiow ivJiat is spoke7i of us behind 
our backs, for bleare eies, to 7/iake seeds to growe well, of images 
made of wax, to be rid of a witch, to hang hir up, notable 
authorities against liMxxen images, a storie bewraieng the knaverie 
of waxen images. 

EONARDUS VAIRUS saith, that there was a praier 
extant, whereby might be carried in a sive, water, or 
other liquor : I thinke it was Clam claie ; which a crow 
taught a maid, that was promised a cake of so great 
quantitie, as might be kneded of so much floure as she could wet 
with the water that she brought in a sive, and by that meanes she 
clamd it with claie, & brought in so much water, as whereby she 
had a great cake, and so beguiled hir sisters, &c. And this tale 
I heard among my grandams maides, whereby I can decipher this 
witchcraft. Item, by the tingling of the eare, men heretofore could tell 
what was spoken of them. If anie see a scorpion, and saie this word 
{Bud) he shall not be stoong or bitten therewith. These two Greeke 
letters n and A written in a paper, and hoong about ones necke, pre- 
serve the partie from bleereiednesse. Cummin orhempseed sowne with 
curssing and opprobrious words grow the faster and the better. Berosus 
Aniafius maketh witchcraft of great antiquitie : for he saith, that/ 
Cham touching his fathers naked member uttered a charme, wherby 
his father became emasculated or deprived of the powers generative. 

1| A chartne teaching how to hurt whom you list with images of 
wax, &^c. 

MAke an image in his name, whom you would hurt or kill, of new 
virgine wax ; under the right arme poke whereof place a swal- 
lowes hart, and the liver under the left ; then hang about the necke 
thereof a new thred in a new needle pricked into the member which you 
would have hurt, with the rehearsall of certeine words, which for the 
avoiding of foolish superstition and credulitie in this behalfe is to be 
omitted. And if they were inserted, I dare undertake they would doo 
no harme, were it not to make fooles, and catch gudgins. ^^ Other- 
wise : Sometimes these images are made of brasse, and then the 
hand is placed where the foote should be, and the foote where the 
hand, and the face downeward. -%■ Otherwise : For a greater mischeefe, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 1 6. 


the like image is made in the forme of a man or woman, upon whose 
head is written the certeine name of the partie : and on his or hir 
ribs these -words, A iltf, casyl, zaze, hitj mel meltai : then the same 
must be buried. •^]^ Otherwise : In the dominion of Mars, two images 
must be prepared, one of wax, the other of the earth of a dead man ; 
each image must have in his hand a sword wherwith a man hath 
beene slaine, & he that must be slaine may have his head thrust 
through with a foine. In both must be written certeine peculiar 
characters, and then must they be hid in a certeine place. -:>• Other- 
wise : To obteine a womans love, an image must be made in the 
houre of Venus, of virgine wax, in the name of the beloved, wher- 
upon a character is written, & is warmed at a fier, and in dooing 
therof the name of some angell must be mentioned. To be utterlie 
rid of the witch, and to hang hir up by the haire, you must prepare 
an image of the earth of a dead man to be baptised in another mans 
name, whereon the name, with a character, must be written : then 
must it be perfumed with a rotten bone, and then these psalmes read 
backward: Doinine Domiiuts nosie?; Dominies illuininaiio niea, Do/nine 
exaudi orationein meant, Deiis laudem 7neatn ne tacueris : and then 
burie it, first in one place, and/ afterwards in another. Howbeit, it is 
written in the 21 article of the determination of Paris, that to affirme 
that images of brasse, lead, gold, of white or red wax, or of any 
other stufife (conjured, baptised, consecrated, or rather execrated 
through these magicall arts at certeine days) have woonderfuU vertues, 
or such as are avowed in their bookes or assertions, is error in faith, 
naturall philosophic, and true astronomic : yea it is concluded in the 
22 article of that councell, that it is as great an error to beleeve 
those things, as to doo them. 

But concerning these images, it is certeine that they are much 
feared among the people, and much used among cousening witches, 
as partlie appeereth in this discourse of mine else-where, & as partlie 
you may see by the contents of this storie following. Not long 
sithence, a yoong maiden (dwelling at new Romnie heere in Kent) 
being the daughter of one M. L. Sttippenie (late Jurat of the same 
towne but dead before the execution hereof) and afterwards the 
wife of Thomas Eps, who is at this instant Maior oi Romjiie) was visited 
with sicknesse, whose mother and father in lawe being abused with 
credulitie concerning witches supernaturall power, repaired to a 
famous witch called mother Baker, dwelling not far from thence at a 
place called Stonstreet, who (according to witches cousening custome) 
asked whether they mistrusted not some bad neighbour, to whom 
they answered that indeed they doubted a woman neere unto them 
(and yet the same woman was, of the honester «& wiser sort of hir 

E E 


The practi- 
ser of these 
must have 
skill in the 
motions, or 
else he miy 
go shoo the 


A proved 
storie con- 
cerning the 


12. Booke. 

The discoverie 



neighbors, reputed a good creature.) Nevertheles the witch told 
them that there was great cause of their suspicion : for the same (said 
she) is the verie partie that wrought the maidens destruction, by 
making a hart of wax, and pricking the same with pins and needels ; 
affirming also that the same neighbor of hirs had bestowed the 
same in some secret corner of the house. This being beleeved, the 
house w^as searched by credible persons, but nothing could be found. 
The witch or wise woman being certified hereof, continued hir 
assertion, and would needs go to the house where she hir selfe (as she 
affirmed) would certeinlie find it. When she came thither, she 
used hir cunning (as it chanced) to hir owne confusion, or at least wise 
to hir detection : for heerein she did, as some of the wiser sort mis- 
trusted that she woulde doo, laieng downe privilie such an/ image (as 
she had before described) in a corner, which by others had beene 
most diligentlie searched & looked into, & by that means hir cousen- 
age was notablie bewraied. And I would wish that all witchmongers 
might paie for their lewd repaire to inchantors, and consultation with 
witches, and such as have familiar spirits, as some of these did, and 
that by the order of the high commissioners, which partlie for respect 
of neighborhood, .and partlie for other considerations, I leave un- 
spoken of. 

This ch-irm 
seemeth to 
iillude to 
Clirist cru- 
ciiied be- 
tweene the 
two theevs. 

Englished by 



Psal. 44. 

The xvii. Chapter. 

Snndrie sorts of chaj-mes tcTidi7tg to dh'erse purposes, and first^ 
certeine charines to make taciturnitie in torttcres. 

M PARI BUS meritis tria 
pendent corpora rami's, 
Dismas &= Gestas, 

in medio est divina potestas, 
Dismas damnatiir, 

Gestas ad astra levatur : 

Three bodies on a bough doo hang, 

for merits of inequalitie, 
Distnas and Gestas, in the midst 

the power of the divinitie. 
Dismas is damned, bnt Gestas lif- 
ted 7(p above the starres on hie. 

Also this : Eructnvit cor meum verbum boniim 7'eritatem nnnquani 
dicam regi. 4^ Otherwise : As the milke of our ladie was lussious to 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; so let this torture or rope be pleasant to mine 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 17. 

21 I 

amies and members. 4}r 0\\\&\\^\?>&: Jesus auteiii transiois per medium Luk. 4. 
illorum ibat. -J,?- Otherwise : You shall not break a bone of him./ •^°''"" '^' 

^ Counter cJiarmes against these and all other 7aitchcra/ts, in the 260. 
saieng also whereof witches are vexed, &^c. 

TI?Ructavit cor meunt verbum bomim. dicam cuncta ofiera iiiea P^^'- 44- 

JZLr 1 • -r-. • r 7 r- Scripture 

regi. •$■ Otherwise : Domine labia tnea aperies, &' os meum piopc-riie 
annunciabit veritatem. -j;?- Otherwise : Contere brachia iniqui rei, &^ ^'''^ "^^ " 
lingua maligna subvertetur. 

^ A char me for the choine cough. 

TAke three sips of a chalice, when the preest hath said masse, 
and swallow it downe with good devotion, &c./ 

^f For corporall or spirituall rest. 

Jn fiomi?ie patris, up and downe, 

Et filii &^ spiritus sancti upon my crowne, 

Crux CJiristi upon my brest, 

Sweete ladie send me eternall rest !*-' 


[* Ital. & Rom.] 

^ Charmes to find out a theefe. 

THe meanes how to find out a theefe, is thus : Turne your face to 
the east, and make a crosse upon christall with oile olive, and 
under the crosse write these two words \_Saint Helen\^ Then a child 
that is innocent, and a chast virgine borne in true wedlocke, and not 
base begotten, of the age of ten yeares, must take the christall in his 
hand, and behind his backe, kneeling on thy knees, thou must 
devoutlie and reverentlie saie over this praier thrise : I beseech thee 
my ladie S. Heleti, mother of king Constantine, which diddest find 
the crosse whereupon Christ died : by that thy holie devotion, and 
invention of the crosse, and by the same crosse, and by the joy 
which thou conceivedst at the finding thereof and by the love which 
thou barest to thy sonne Constantine, and by the great goodnes 
which thou dooest alwaies use, that thou shew me in this christall, 
whatsoever I aske or desire to knowe ; Amen. And when the child 
seeth the angell in the christall, demand what you will, and the angell 
will make answer thereunto. Memorandum,* that this be doone just 
at the sunne/ rising, when the wether is faire and cleere. 

Cardanus derideth these and such like fables, and setteth downe 
his judgement therein accordinglie, in the sixteenth booke De rerum 

O most 
full vertue 
hidden in 
the letters 
of S. He- 
lens holie 
name ! 

[» So in text.] 


Card. lib. i6. 
de var. rcr. 
cap. 93- 

212 I-'. Booke. The discover ie 

var. These conjurors and couseners forsooth will shew you in a 

glasse the theefe that hath stolne anie thing from you, and this is 

their order. They take a glasse viall full of holie water, and set it 

upon a linnen cloth, which hath beene purified, not onelie by washing, 

but by sacrifice, &c. On the mouth of the viall or urinall, two olive 

leaves must be laid acrosse, with a litle conjuration said over it, by a 

child; to wit thus : Angele bone, angele canduie,per iuam sanctitatem, 

mcdniq; virginiiatem, ostettde inihi furem : with three Pater nosters, 

•For if the three Aves, and betwixt either of them a *crosse made with the naile 

forgotten of the thumbc upon the mouth of the viall ; and then shall be scene 

all IS not angrels ascending and descending as it were motes in the sunne 

V oorth a '^ ° ° 

pudding. beames. The theefe all this while shall suffer great torments, and 

his face shall be scene plainlie, even as plainlie I beleeve as the man 
in the moone. For in truth, there are toies artificiallie conveied into 
the glasse, which will make the water bubble, and devises to make 
images appeare in the bubbles : as also there be artificiall glasses, 
which will shew unto you that shall looke thereinto, manie images 
of diverse formes, and some so small and curious, as they shall in 
favour resemble whom so ever you thinke upon. Looke in John 
Bap. Neap, for the confection of such glasses. The subtilties hereof 
are so detected, and the mysteries of the glasses so common now, 
189- and their / cousenage so well knowne, &c : that I need not stand 
upon the particular confutation hereof. Cardanus in the place 
before cited reporteth, how he tried with children these and diverse 
circumstances the whole illusion, and found it to be plaine knaverie 
and cousenage. 

^ Another waie to find out a theefe that hath stolne anie thing 
fro7n you. 


O to the sea side, and gather as manie pebles as you suspect 
persons for that matter ; carrie them home, and throwe them into 
the fier, and burie them under the threshhold, where the parties are like 
to come over. There let them lie three dales, and then before sunne 
262. rising take them awaie. Then set a porrenger/ full of water in a 
circle, wherein must be made crosses everie waie, as manie as can 
stand in it ; upon the which must be written : Christ overcommeth, 
Christ reigneth, Christ commandeth. The porrenger also must be 
signed with a crosse, and a forme of conjuration must be pronounced. 
Then each stone must be throwne into the water, in the name of the 
suspected. And when you put in the stone of him that is guiltie, 
the stone will make the water boile, as though glowing iron were put 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 17. 


thereinto. Which is a meere knacke of legier de maine, and to be 
accomplished diverse waies. 

^ To put Old the theeves eie. 

REad the seven * psalmes with the Letanie, and then must be [« penitential] 
said a horrible praier to Christ, and God the father, with a cursse 
against the theefe. Then in the middest of the step of your foote, on 
the ground where you stand, make a circle like an eie, and write 
thereabout certeine barbarous names, and drive with a coopers ham- 
mar, or addes into the middest thereof a brasen naile consecrated, 
saieng -.Justus es Donu'fie,&^ justaj'udida tua. Then the theefe shall 
be bewraied by his crieng out. 

These be 
meere toies 
to raocke 

them no 
dable de- 

^ Another waie to find out a theefe. 

STicke a paire of sheeres in the rind of a sive, and let two 
persons set the top of each of their forefingers upon the upper 
part of the sheeres, holding it with the sive up from the ground apes, and 
steddilie, and aske Peter and Paule whether A. B. or C. hath stolne 
the thing lost, and at the nomination of the guiltie person, the sive 
will turne round. This is a great practise in all countries, and in- 
deed a verie bable. For with the beating of the pulse some cause of 
that motion ariseth, some other cause by slight of the fingers, some 
other by the wind gathered in the sive to be staid, &c : at the 
pleasure of the holders. Some cause may be the imagination, which 
upon conceipt at the naming of the partie altereth the common course 
of the pulse. As may well be conceived by a ring held steddilie by a 
thred betwixt the finger and the thombe, over or rather in a goblet or 
glasse ; which within short space will strike against the side therof so 
manie strokes as the holder thinketh it/ a clocke, and then will staie : 
the which who so prooveth shall find true. 


^ A charme to find out or spoile a theefe. 

OF this matter, concerning the apprehension of theeves by words, 
I will cite one charme, called S. Adelberts cursse, being both 
for/ length of words sufficient to wearie the reader, and for substan- 
tiall stuffe comprehending all that apperteineth unto blasphemous 
speech or curssing, allowed in the church oi Rome,SiS an excommuni- 
cation and inchantment. 


2 14 i.\Buoke. Xhe discoverie 


^1 Saint Adelberts cursse or charine against theeves. 

^Y the authoritie of the omnipotent Father, the Sonne, and the 
HoHe-ghost,and by the holie virgine Marie mother of our Lord 
Jesu Christ, and the hoHe angels and archangels, and S. Michaell, 
and S. John Baptist, and in the behalfe of S. Peter the apostle, and 
the residue of the apostles, and of S. Steeven, and of all the 
martyrs, of S. Sylvester, and of S. Adelbert, and all the con- 
fessors, and S. Alegand, and all the holie virgins, and of all the 
saints in heaven and earth, unto whom there is given power to 
bind and loose : we doo excommunicate, damne, cursse, and bind 
with the knots and bands of excommunication, and we doo segregate 
from the bounds and lists of our holie mother the church, all those 
theeves, sacrilegious persons, ravenous catchers, dooers, counsellers, 
coadjutors, male or female, that have committed this theft or mis- 
This is not chcefe, or have usurped any part therof to their owne use. Let their 

to our eni- share be with DatJian and Abiran, whome the earth swallowed up 

praie'foT'° ^^^ their sinnes and pride, and let them have part with yzifrt'flj' that 

them that betraied Christ, Amen : and with Po7itiiis Pilat, and with them that 

hate us ; as Said to the Lord, Depart from us, we will not understand thy waies ; 

h^^'t'W'^^' ^^^ their children be made orphanes. Curssed be they in the field, in 

the grove, in the woods, in their houses, barnes, chambers, and beds ; 
and curssed be they in the court, in the waie, in the towne, in the 
castell, in the water, in the church, in the churchyard, in the tribunall 
place, in battell, in their abode, in the market place, in their talke, in 
264. silence, in eating, in watching, in sleeping, in drinking/ in feeling, in 
sitting, in kneeling, in standing [,] in lieng, in idlenes, in all their 
worke, in their bodie and soule, in their five wits, and in everie place. 
Curssed be the fruit of their wombs, and curssed be the fruit of their 
lands, and curssed be all that they have. Curssed be their heads, 
their mouthes, their nostrels, their noses, their lips, their jawes, their 
teeth, their eies and eielids, their braines, the roofe of their mouthes, 
their toongs, their throtes, their breasts, their harts, their bellies, their 
livers, all their bowels, and their stomach. 

Curssed be their navels, their spleenes, their bladder. Curssed 
be their thighs, their legs, their feete, their toes, their necks, their 
shoulders. Curssed be their backs, curssed be their armes, curssed be 
their elbowes, curssed be their hands, and their fingers, curssed be 
both the nails of their hands and feete ; curssed be their ribbes and 
their genitals, and their knees, curssed be their flesh, curssed be their 
bones, curssed be their bloud, curssed be the skin of their bodies, 
curssed be the marrowe in their bones, curssed be they from the 
crowne of the head, to the sole of the foote : and whatsoever is be- 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 17. 


twixt the same, be it accurssed, that is to saie, their five senses ; to 
wit, their seeing, their hearing, their smelling, their tasting, and their 
feeling. Curssed be they in the holie crosse, in the passion of Christ, 
with his five wounds, with the efiusi/on of his bloud, and by the milke 
of the virgine Marie. I conjure thee Lucifer., with all thy soldiers, by 
the *father, the son, and the Holie-ghost, with the humanitie and 
nativitie of Christ, with the vertue of all saints, that thou rest not day 
nor night, till thou bringest them to destruction, either by drowning 
or hanging, or that they be devoured by wild beasts, or burnt, or 
slaine by their enimies, or hated of all men living. And as our Lord 
hath given authoritie to Peter the apostle, and his successors, whose 
place we occupie, and to us (though unworthie) that whatsoever we 
bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever we loose on 
earth, shall be loosed in heaven : so we accordinglie, if they will not 
amend, doo shut from them the gates of heaven, and denie unto them 
christian buriall, so as they shall be buried in asses leaze. Further- 
more, curssed be the ground wherein they are buried, let them be 
confounded in the last daie of judgement, let them have no con- 
versation among christians, nor be/houseled* at the houre of death ; 
let them be made as dust before the face of the wind : and as Lucifer 
was expelled out of heaven, and Adam and Eve out of paradise ; so 
let them be expelled from the daie light. Also let them be joined with 
those, to whome the Lord saith at the judgement ; Go ye curssed into 
everlasting fier, which is prepared for the divell and his angels, where 
the worme shall not die, nor the fier be quenched. And as the candle, 
which is throwne out of my hand here, is put out : so let their works 
and their soule be quenched in the stench of hell fier, except they 
restore that which they have stolne, by such a daie : and let everie 
one saie. Amen. After this must be soong *Ln media vita in tnorfe 
sum us, &^c. 

This terrible cursse with bell, booke, and candell added thereunto, 
must needs worke woonders : howbeit among theeves it is not much 
weighed, among wise and true men it is not well liked, to them that 
are robbed it bringeth small releefe : the preests stomach may well 
be eased, but the goods stolne will never the sooner be restored. 
Hereby is bewraied both the malice and follie of popish doctrine, 
whose uncharitable impietie is so impudentlie published, and in such 
order uttered, as everie sentence (if oportunitie served) might be 
prooved both hereticall and diabolicall. But I will answer this cruell 
cursse with another cursse farre more mild and civill, performed by 
as honest a man (I dare saie) as he that made the other, whereof 
mention was latelie made. 

So it was, that a certeine sir Jo/m,* with some of his companie, once 


**Thus they 
make the 
holie trini- 
tie to beare 
a part in 
their exor- 
cisnie, or 
else it is no 
bargain e. 



» That is, In 
the midst of 
life we are 
in deith, 

[* i.e. a priest.] 


12. Booke. 

The discoverie 

[» Rom.] 

A cursse 
for theft. 

went abroad a jetting, and in a moone light evening robbed a millers 
weire, and stole all his eeles. The poore miller made his mone to sir 
John himselfe, who willed him to be quiet ; for he would so cursse 
the theefe, and all his confederates, with bell, booke, and candell, 
that they should have small joy of their fish. And therefore the next 
sundaie, s\r John got him to the pulpit, with his surplisse on his backe, 
and his stole about his necke, and pronounced these words following 
in the audience of the people. 

All yoit that have siohie the millers eeles^ 

Laiidate Doniijuun de cadis, 
And all they that have consented thereto,* j 
192. Benedicamtis Domino.] 

266. Lo (saith he) there is sauce for your eeles my maisters. 

\ Another inchanttnent. 

CErteine preests use the hundred and eight psalme as an in- 
chantment or charme, or at the leastwise saieng, that against 
whome soever they pronounce it, they cannot live one whole yeere at 
the uttermost. 

[* = seekers] 

tives from 
a cording 
to M. Mai. 
& otners. 

[« Rom.] 

The xviii Chapter. 

^ A charme or experiment to fitid out a witch. 

N' die domi?iico sotularia juvetuan axiaigia seu pingiiedine 

porci, ut moris est, pro restaiiratione Jieri perii7ig7i7it : 

and when she is once come into the church, the witch 

can never get out, untill the *seachers for hir give hir 

expresse leave to depart. 

But now it is necessarie to shew you how to prevent and cure all 
mischeefes wrought by these charmes & witchcrafts, according to the 
opinion of M. Mai. and others. One principall waie is to naile a 
horsse shoo at the inside of the outmost threshhold of your house, and 
so you shall be sure no witch shall have power to enter thereinto. 
And if you marke it, you shall find that rule observed in manie 
countrie houses. -Jit- Otherwise : Item the triumphant title to be written 
crossewise, in everie corner of the house, thus : Jesus ^ Nazarejiits 
>^rex^Judcio?'um ►{<. Memorandum* you may joine heerewithall, the 
name of the virgine Marie, or of the foure evangelists, or Verbiim caro 
Jactum est. ik Otherwise : Item in some countries they naile a 
woolves head on the doore. -5> Otherwise : Item they hang Scilla 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap i8. 

21 7 

(which is either a loote, or rather in this place garhke) in the roofe 
of the house, for to keepe awaie witches and spirits : and so they doo 
Alicium also. <:- Otherwise : Item perfume made of the gall of a 
blake dog, and his bloud besmeered on the posts and walles of the 
house, driveth out of the doores both devils and witches, ^j:- Other- 
wise : The house/ where Herba betonica is sowne, is free from all 
mischeefes. ■iis- Otherwise : It is not unknowne that the Romish 
church allowed and used the smoke of sulphur, to drive spirits out of 
their houses ; as they did frankincense and water hallowed. •^,^ Other- 
wise : Apuleiiis saith, that Mercurie gave to Ulysses, when he came 
neere to the inchantresse Circe, an hearbe called Verbasctem, which in 
English is called Pullein, or Tapsus barhahis, or Longwoort; and 
that preserved him from the inchantments. -:;:- Otherwise : Item 
Plinie and Homer both doo sale, that the herbe called Molie is an 
excellent herbe against inchantments ; and saie[,] all that thereby 
Ulysses escaped Circes hir sorceries, and inchantments. -:> Other- 
wise also diverse waies they went to worke in this case, and 
some used this defensative, some that preservative against incan- 

And heerein you shall see, not onelie how the religion of papists, and 
infidels agree ; but also how their ceremonies and their opinions are 
all one concerning witches and spirits. 


For thus luriteth Ovid touching that matter :* 

Terque senem Jiamma, ter aqtta, ter sulphure lustrat . 
She ptirijies until fier thrise 

old horie headed Aeson,l 
With water thrise, and sulphur thrise, 
as she thought meet in reason. 

A^aine, the same Ovid comineth in as before : * 

Adveniat, qucB liistret anus, lecti'imque locumque^ 
Deferat &^ tremula sitlphur &^ ova mariu. 

Let some old woman JiitJier come., 
and purge both bed and place, 

And bring in trembling hand new egs 
and sulpJtur in like case. 

[ - //«/.] 

Ovid de Me- 

Etiglished by 


By Ab. Fle- 

A nd Virgil also harpeth upon the like string : ** 
baccare frontem 

Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro .•/ 

Virg. in Bu- 

F F 



The discoverie 

Englished by 268. 



[• ?of or in.l 

Olaus Goth, 
lib. de gentib. 
lib. 3. cap. 8. 

* A witches 
to make 
haile cease 
and be dis- 



[* Rom.] 

L. Vair 

lib. de 
:. cap. 

Of berrie beartjii^ baccar bowze \boughs\ 

a wreath or garland knit, 
And round about his head and browze 

see decent lie it sit ; 
That of an evill talking tung 

Our future poet be not stung. 

Furthermore, was it not in times of tempests the papists use, *or 
superstition, to ring their belles against divels ; trusting rather to 
the tonging of their belles, than to their owne crie unto God with 
fasting and praier, assigned by him in all adversities and dangers : 
according to the order of the Thracian preests, which would rore and 
crie, with all the noise they could make, in those tempests. Olaus 
Gothus saith, that his countriemen would shoot in the aire, to assist 
their gods, whome they thought to be then togither by the eares with 
others, and had consecrated arrowes, called Sagittcs foviales, even as 
our papists had. Also in steed of belles, they had great hammers, 
called Afallei Joviales, to make a noise in time of thunder. In some 
countries they runne out of the doores in time of tempest, blessing 
themselves with a cheese, whereupon there was a crosse made with 
a ropes end upon ascension daie. Also three hailestones to be 
throwne into the fier in a tempest, and thereupon to be said three 
Pater nosters, and three Aves, S. Johns gospell, and in fine fttgiat 
tempestas, is a present remedie. Item, to hang an eg laid on ascen- 
sion daie in the roofe of the house, preserveth the same from all 
hurts. *Item, I conjure you haile and wind by the five wounds of 
Christ, by the three nailes which pearsed his hands and his feete, 
and by the foure evangelists, Mattheiv, Afarke, Luke, andjohri, that 
thou come downe dissolved into water. Item, it hath beene a usuall 
matter, to carrie out in tempests the sacraments and relikes, &c. 
Item, against stormes, and mania dumme creatures, the popish 
church useth excommunication as a principal! charme. And now to 
be delivered from witches themselves, they hang in their entries an 
hearbe called pentaphyllon, cinquefole, also an olive branch, also 
frankincense, myrrh, valerian, verven, palme, antirchmon, &c : also 
haythorne, otherwise white[t]horne gathered on Male daie : also the 
smoke of a lappoints fethers driveth spirits/ awaie. There be 
innumerable popish exorcismes, and conjurations for hearbs and 
other things, to be thereby made wholsome both for the bodies and 
soules of men and beasts, and also for/ contagion of weather. 
Memorandum,^ that at the gathering of these magicall herbs, the 
Credo is necessarie to be said, as Vairus afifirmeth ; and also the 
Pater noster, for that is not superstitious. Also Sprenger saith, that 

of Witchcraft. chap. is. 219 

to throw up a blacke chicken in the aire, will make all tempests to ^«'- MaUf. 

:,, -iiiir IT/- 1 1 t<^*'- 2- QUCP. I. 

cease : so it be done with the hand of a witch. If a soule wander cap. 15. 
in the likenesse of a man or woman by night, molesting men, with Note that 
bewailing their torments in purgatorie, by reason of tithes forgotten, y"" ''^^ 
&c : and neither masses nor conjurations can helpe ; the exorcist in nie spirit 
his ceremoniall apparell must go to the toome of that bodie, and bj^dEae, 
spurne thereat, with his foote, saieng ; Vade ad geJietuiatn, Get thee '^""'^ ^°'^ 
packing to hell : and by and by the soule goeth thither, and there 
remaineth for ever, -^s- Otherwise : There be masses of purpose for 
this matter, to unbewitch the bewitched. -:> Otherwise : You must 
spet into the pissepot, where you have made water, ■*i^ Otherwise : 
Spet into the shoo of your right foote, before you put it on : and that 
Vairus saith is good and holsome to doo, before you go into anie 
dangerous place. 4^ Otherwise : That neither hunters nor their 
dogs male be bewitched, they cleave an oken branch, and both they 
and their dogs passe over it. ^c- Otherwise: S. Augustine saith, Aug.deci- 
that to pacifie the god Liber., whereby women might have fruite of ^y, cap! 12. 
the seeds they sowe, and that their gardens and feelds should not be 
bewitched ; some cheefe grave matrone used to put a crowne upon 
his genitall member, and that must be publikelie done. 

To spoile a theefe., a witch., or anie other eniinie, and to be deliv- 
ered from the evill. 

UPon the Sabboth daie before sunrising, cut a hazell wand, 
saieng : I cut thee O bough of this summers growth, in the 
name of him whome I meane to beate or maime. Then cover the 
table, and sale ^ hi nomine patris 4* &^ filii ^ <S^ spiritus sancti ^ 
ter. And striking thereon sale as foUoweth (english it he that can) 
Drochs myroch, esetiaroth, ^ beiu ►{< baroch ^ ass ►{< maaroth *I< : 
and then saie ; Holie trinitie punish him that hath/ wrought this 2^0. 
mischiefe, & take it away by thy great justice, Esoti ►{* elio7i ►{< emaris^ 
ales, age ; and strike the carpet with your wand. 

^ A notable charme or medicine to pull out an arrowhead, or 
anie stich thing that sticketh in the flesh or bones, and can- 
not otherwise be had out. 

SAie three severall times kneeling ; Oremus, prcEceptis salutaribus 
moniti. Pater noster, ave Maria. Then make a crosse saieng : 
The Hebrew knight strake our Lord Jesu Christ, and I beseech thee, The H?- 


12. Booke. 

The discoverie 

brue knight 
was cano- 
nized a 
saint to wit, 
S. Longinus. 

O Lord Jesu Christ ►J* by the same iron, speare, bloud and water, 
to pull out this iron : In nomine patris 4* ^ filii *^ ^ spiritus 
sancti ►f* 

^ Charmes against a quotidian a^tee. 

Cut an apple in three peeces, and write upon the one ; The father 
is uncreated : upon the other ; The father is incomprehensible: 
upon the third ; The father is eternall. -:> Otherwise : Write upon 
a massecake cut in three peeces ; O ague to be worshipped : on the 
second ; O sicknesse to be ascribed to health and joies : on the third ; 
Pax ^ tnax ^ fax ►f" and let it be eaten fasting. -:^ Otherwise : 
Paint upon three like peeces of a massecake, Pater pax ►!< Adonai 
^ Jilius vita ►{< sabbaoth ^ spiritus sanctus ^ Tetragrammaton ^ 
and eate it, as is afore said./ 

A crossed 
with other 


196 ^ For all maner of agues interinittajit. 

Oine two little stickes togither in the middest, being of one 
length, and hang it about your necke in the forme of a crosse. 
4}e Otherwise : For this disease the Turkes put within their doublet 
a ball of wood, with an other peece of wood, and strike the same, 
speaking certeine frivolous words. ^^ Otherwise : Certeine monks 
hanged scrolles about the necks of such as were sicke, willing them 
to saie certeine praiers at each fit, and at the third fit to hope well : 
and made them beleeve that they should thereby receive cure. 

For bodie 
and soule. 


S. Barnard 
cheth the 
divell for 
all his sub- 

Periapts, characters, Sr'c : for agues, ajid to cure all diseases, 
and to deliver from all evill. 

THe first chapter of S. foJins gospell in small letters consecrated 
at a masse, and hanged about ones necke, is an in/comparable 
amulet or tablet, which delivereth from all witchcrafts and divelish 
practises. But me thinkes, if one should hang a whole testament, or 
rather a bible, he might beguile the divell terribhe. For indeed so 
would S. Barnard have done, whom the divell told, that he could 
shew him seven verses in the psalter, which being dailie repeated, 
would of themselves bring anie man to heaven, and preserve him 
from hell. But when S. Barnard deswed the divell to tell him which 
they were, he refused, saieng, he might then thinke him a foole so to 
prejudice himselfe. Well (quoth S. Bariiard) I will doo well enough 
for that, for I will dailie saie over the whole psalter. The divell 
hearing him saie so, told him which were the verses, least in reading 

of WitcJicraft. 

Chap. 1 3. 


over the whole psalter dailie, he should merit too much for others. 
But if the hanging of S. Johns gospell about the necke be so bene- 
ficiall ; how if one should cate up the same ? 

\ More charmes for agues. 

TAke the partie by the hand, and sale ; Aequi facilis sit tibi hcec 
febris, atque Marice virgini Christi partus. -$- Otherwise : 
Wash with the partie, and privilie saie this psalme, Exaltabo te Deus 
vieus, rex., &^c. ^ Otherwise : Weare about your necke, a peece of 
a naile taken from a crosse, and wrapped in wooll. -:1:- Otherwise : 
Drinke wine, wherein a sworde hath beene drowned that hath cut off 
ones head. -:!:- Otherwise : Take three consecrated massecakes, and 
write upon the first : Quails est pater tails est vita : on the second ; 
Quails est Jilltes, tails est sanctus : on the third ; Quails est splrltus 
tale est remedluiu. Then give them to the sicke man, enjoining him P.-etious 
to eate none other thing that dale wherein he eateth anie of them, 
nor yet drinke : and let him saie fifteene Pater nosters, and as manie 
Aves, in the honour and praise of the Trinitie. 4fr Otherwise : Lead 
the sicke man on a fridaie before sunne rising towards the east, and 
let him hold up his hands towards the sunne, and saie : This is the 
daie, wherein the Lord God came to the crosse. But as the crosse 
shall never more come to him : so let never the hot or cold fit of this 
ague come anie more unto this man, /;/ notnine patrls ►f* &r'Jl*itlu\ 
dr' splrltus ►J" sancti^. Then saie seven and twentie Pater nosters y 
and as manie Aves., and use this three dales togither. -j;:- Otherwise:/ 


[*? restorati[v]es] 

Fe'cana, cagdti, daphnes, gebdre, geddco, 

Gebali slant, sednon slant phebas, hecas,^ 6^ hedas. 

This is too 

Everie one of these words must be written upon a peece of bread, gHshed 
and/ be given in order one daie after another to the sicke bodie, and '';^°'^ ^°^^- ^^*'* 
so must he be cured. This saith Nicholas Heminglus he chanced to i,ec as^ ' 
read in the schooles in jest ; so as one noting the words, practised 
the medicine in earnest ; and was not onelie cured himselfe, but also 
cured manie others thereby. And therefore he concludeth, that this 
is a kind of a miraculous cure, wrought by the illusion of the divell : 
whereas in truth, it will fall out most commonlie, that a tertian ague 
will not hold anie man longer than so, though no medicine be given, FerneHus. 
nor anie words spoken. 4jt- Otherwise : This word, Abra cadabra 
written on a paper, with a certeine figure joined therewith, and hanged 
about ones necke, helpeth the ague. -;;:- Otherwise : Let the urine of 
the sicke bodie made earlie in the morning, be softlie heated nine 
daies togither continuallie, untill all be consumed into vapor. 


I J. Booke. 

The discoverie 

follies of 
the Spa- 
niards & 


•^l^ Otherwise : A crosse made of two litle twigs joined togither, 
wherewith when the partie is touched, he will be whole ; speciallie if 
he weare it about his necke. -^ Otherwise : Take a like quantitie of 
water out of three ponds of equall bignesse, and tast thereof in a new 
earthen vessell, and drinke of it when the fit commeth. 

In the yeare of our lord 1568. the Spaniards and Italians received 
from the pope, this incantation following ; whereby they were pro- 
mised both remission of sinnes, and good successe in their warres 
in the lowe countries. Which whether it be not as prophane and 
impious, as anie witches charme, I report me to the indifferent 
reader. ►{< Criicem pro nobis subiit ^ &^ stans in ilia sitiit 4* Jesus 
sacratis manibus, clavis ferreis, pedibtis perfossis, Jesus, Jesus, 
Jesus : Yiomine libera nos ab hoc malo, &^ ab hac peste : then three 
Pater nosters, and three ave Maries. Also the same yeere their 
ensignes were by the authoritie aforesaid conjured with certeine 
ceremonies, & consecrated against their enimies. And if you read 
the histories of these warres, you maie see what victorie they gained 
hereby. Item, they baptised their cheefe standard, and gave it to 
name S. Margaret, who overthrew the divell. And bicause you 
shall under/stand the mysterie hereof, I have the rather set it downe 
elsewhere, being indeed worth the reading. 

He must 
answer by 
none o- 
ther, for 
she per- 
haps hath 
the curing 
thereof by 


^ For a bloudie Jlitx, or rather an issue oj bloud. 

TAke a cup of cold water, and let fall thereinto three drops 
of the same bloud, and betweene each drop saie a Pater 
noster, and an Ave, then drinke to the patient, and saie ; Who 
shall helpe you ? The patient must answer S. Marie. Then saie 
you ; S. Marie stop the issue of bloud. -:|;- Otherwise : Write upon 
the patients forhead with the same bloud ; Consummattwt est. 
-:|;- Otherwise : Saie to the patient ; Sanguis mane in te, sicut Jecit 
Christus in sej Sanguis mane in tua vena, sicut Christus in stiaposna j 
Sanguis mane Jixtis, sicut Christus quando Juit crucijixus : ter. 
•jIj- Otherwise, as followeth. 

In the blotid oJ Adam death was taken »J< 

In the bloud oJ Christ it was all to shaken *^ 

And by the same bloud I doo thee charge. 

That thou doo runne no longer at large. 4jr Otherwise. 

Christ was borne at Bethele7n, and suffered at Jerusalem, where 
his bloud was troubled. I command thee by the vertue of God, 
and through the helpe of all saincts, to staie even as Jordan did, 

of Witchcraft. chap. is. 223 

when John baptised Christ Jesus ; In nomine patris ^ &'filii^ &^ 

spiritus \sancti ►{< -s> Otherwise : Put thy nameles finger in the 

wound, and make therwith three crosses upon the wound, and saie 

five Pater 7tosters, five Aves, and one Credo, in the honour of the five 

wounds. ■<> Otherwise : Touch that part and saie, De latere ejus sce j. iFier. 

exivit sanguis &^ aqua. 4^- Otherwise : Jn nomine patris ►J* &^Jilii ►!< ^"^' "' ""^' 

(&-» spiritus sancti ►{< b^c. Chimrat, chara, sarite, cojifirvia, consona, 

Imohalite. -:> Otherwise : Scpa ^ sepaga ^ sepagoga ^ sta sanguis 

in notnine patris ^ podendii^ &^ filii ^ podera ^ &^ spiritus sancti 

y^ pandorica >^ pax tecum, Ameji. 

*\ Cures coftimensed and finished by witchcraft. 

THere was a jollie fellovve that tooke upon him to be a notable 
surgion, in the dutchie oi Mentz, 1567. to whom there resorted 
a Gentleman that had beene vexed with sicknesse, named/ Elibert, zy^. 
having a kerchiefe on his head, according to the guise of sicke folke. 
But the surgion made him pull off his kerchiefe, and willed him to 
drinke with him freelie. The sickeman said he durst not ; for he was 
forbidden by physicke so to doo. Tush (said this cunning man) they 
know not your disease : be ruled by me, and take in your drinke 
lustilie. For he thought that when he was well tippled, he might the 
more easilie beguile him in his bargaine, and make his reward the 
greater, which he was to receive in part aforehand. When they had 
well droonke, he called the sicke man aside, and told him the great- 
nes and danger of his disease, and how that it grew by meanes of 
witchcraft, and that it would be universallie spread in his house, and 
among all his cattell, if it were not prevented : and impudentlie per- 
suaded the sicke man to receive cure of him. And after bargaine The surgi- 
made, he demanded of the sicke man, whether he had not anie at m"osnmpu- 
home, whom he might assuredlie trust. The sicke man answered, denti'^set- 

teth his 

that he had a daughter and a servant. The cousener asked how old knavene 
his daughter was ? The patient said, twentie. Well (said the ^^'^"'^ ' 
cousener) that is fit for our turne. Then he made the mother and father 
to kneele on their knees to their daughter, and to desire hir in all 
things to obey the physician, and that she would doo in everie thing 
as he commanded hir ; otherwise hir father could not be restored to 
his health. In which respect hir parents humblie besought hir on 
their knees so to doo. Then he assigned hir to bring him into his 
lodging hir fathers haire, and hir mothers, and of all those which he 
kept in his house, as well of men and women, as also of his cattell. 
When she came therewith unto him, according to the match made, 
and hir parents commandement, he lead hir downe into a lowe parlor, 


The discoverie 

A preten- 
ded conju- 


Ad vada 

tot vadit 
uma quod 
ipsa cadit. 

where having made a long speech, he opened a booke that laie on the 
boord, and laieth thereon two knives acrosse, with much circumstance 
of words. Then conjureth he, and maketh strange characters, and at 
length he maketh a circle on the ground, whei-ein he causeth hir to 
sticke one of those conjured knives ; and after manie more strange 
words, he maketh hir sticke the other knife beside it. Then fell downe 
the maid in a swoone for feare ; so as he was faine to frote hir and put 
a sop into hir mouth, after the receipt whereof she was sore troubled 
and amazed. Then he made hir brests to be uncovered, so as when/ 
198- they were bare, he dal/Iied with them, diverslie and long together. 
Then he made hir lie right upward, all uncovered and bare belowe 
hir pappes. Wherein the maid being loth to obeie him, resisted, and 
in shame forbad that villanie. Then said the knave ; Your fathers 
destruction is at hand : for except you will be ruled, he and all his 
familie shall susteine greater greefe and inconvenience, than is yet 
happened unto him. And no remedie, except you will seeke his 
utter overthrowe, I must have carnall copulation with you, and there- 
withall fell into hir bosome, and overthrew hir and hir virginitie. So 
did he the second daie, and attempted the like on the third daie. 
But he failed then of his purpose, as the wench confessed after- 
wards. In the meane time he ministred so cruell medicines to the 
sicke man, that through the torments therof he feared present death, 
and was faine to keepe his bed, whereas he walked about before 
verie well and lustilie. The patient in his torments calleth unto 
him for remedie, who being slacke and negligent in that behalfe, 
made roome for the daughter to accompanie hir father, who asked 
hir what she thought of the cure, and what hope she had of his 
recoverie. Who with teares remained silent, as being oppressed 
with greefe ; till at the last in abundance of sorrowe she uttered the 
whole matter to hir father. This dooth Joliannes Wiems report, 
saieng, that it came unto him by the lamentable relation of the 
father himselfe. And this is here at this time for none other purpose 
rehearsed, but that men may hereby learne to take heed of such 
cousening merchants, and knowe what they be that take upon them 
to be so cunning in witchcraft ; least they be bewitched : as maister 
Elibert and his daughter were. 

the first 
with christs 
birth, the 

^ Another witchcraft or knaverie, practised by the same surgion. 

THis surgion ministred to a noble man, that laie sicke of an 
ague, offering unto him three peeces of a roote to be eaten at 
three morsels ; saieng to the first : I would Christ had not beene 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 1 8. 


borne ; unto the second : I would he had not suffered ; unto the 
third : I would he had not risen againe. And then putting them 
about the sicke mans necke, said ; Be of good cheere. And if he 
lost them, whosoever tooke them up, should therewithall take awaie/ 
his ague. ^ Otherwise : Jesus Christ, which was borne, deliver thee 
from this infirmitie 4^ Jesus Christ which died »t" deliver thee from this 
infirmitie ^ Jesus Christ which rose againe "i* deliver thee from this 
infirmitie. Then dailie must be said five Pater nosters, and five 

with his 
passion, the 
third with 
his resur- 


^ Another experiment for one beivitched. 

ANother such cousening physician persuaded one which had a 
timpanie, that it was one old viper, and twoo yoong mainteined 
in his bellie by witchcraft. But being watched, so as he could not 
conveie vipers into his ordure or excrements, after his purgations : 
at length he told the partie, that he should suffer the paines of child- 
birth, if it were not prevented ; and therefore he must put his hand 
into his breech, and rake out those wormes there. But the mother 
of the sicke partie having warning hereof, said she could doo that hir 
selfe. So the cousener was prevented, and the partie died onelie of 
a timpanie, and the knave ran awaie out of the countrie. 

A couse- 
ning phy- 
sician, and 
a foolish 

^ Otherwise. 

"h/TOnsieur Bodin telleth of a witch, who undertaking to cure John. Bodin. 
a woman bewitched, caused a masse to be soong at mid- 
night in our ladies chap/pell. And when she had overlien the 199. 
sicke partie, and breathed certeine words upon hir, she was healed. 
Wherein Bodin saith, she followed the example of Elias the prophet, Kakozelia. 
who raised the Stmaniitie. And this storie must needs be true : for 
goodman Hardivin Blesensis his host at the signe of the lion told 
him the storie. 

*\ A knacke to knowe whether you be bewitched., or no, &^c. 

IT is also expedient to learne how to know whether a sicke man 
be bewitched or no : this is the practise thereof. You must 
hold molten lead over the sicke bodie, and powre it into a porrenger 
full of water ; and then, if there appeare upon the 
lead, anie image, you may then 
knowe the partie is 


Ma!, malcf. 
pa. I. qua. 17. 
Barth. Spin, 
in novo 
Mai. malcf. 



The discoverie 


The xix. Chapter. 

Scotus in 4. 
distinct. 34. 
de imperio. 

Dist. 4. 

Go/red. in 
sicnima sua. 

That one %uitchcraft male laTvfiillie meete ivith afiotlier. 

jCOTUS, Hostiensis, Go/ridns, and all the old canonists 
agree, that it is lawfull to take awaie witchcraft by witch- 
craft, Et vana vanis contundere. And Scotus saith, It 
were follie to forbeare to encounter witchcraft by witch- 
craft ; for (saith he) there can be none inconvenience therein ; 
bicause the overthrower of witchcraft assenteth not to the works 
of the divell. And therefore he saith further, that it is meritorious 
so to extinguish and overthrow the divels workes. As though he 
should saie ; It maketh no matter, though S. Paiile sale ; Non fades 
mahan, ut hide ve7iiat bonicjii, Thou shalt not doo evill, that good 
maie come thereof. Htimberttis saith, that witchcraft male be taken 
awaie by that meanes whereby it was brought. But Gofredus in- 
veieth sore against the oppugners thereof. Pope Nicholas the fift 
gave indulgence and leave to bishop Miraties (who was so bewitched 
in his privities, that he could not use the gift of venerie) to seeke 
remedie at witches hands. And this was the clause of his dispensa- 
tion, Ut ex dnobus vialis fiigiatiir Jitajus, that of two evils, the greater 
should be avoided. And so a witch, by taking his doublet, cured 
him, and killed the other witch : as the storie saith, which is to be 
seene in M. Mai. and diverse other writers. 

* Whereof 
looke more 
in a little 
booke set 
fooith in 

The XX. Chapter. 

Who are privileged from witches, what bodies are aptest to be 
bewitched, or to be witches, why women are rather witches than 
men, and what they are. 

OW if you will know who and what persons are privileged 
from witches, you must understand, that they be even 
such as cannot be bewitched. In the number of whome 
first be the in/quisitors, and such as exercise publike 
justice upon them. Howbeit,* a justice in Essex, whome for diverse 
respects I have left unnamed, not long since thought he was be- 
witched, in the verie instant whiles he examined the witch ; so as 
his leg was broken thecby, &c : which either was false, or else this 
rule untrue, or both rather injurious unto Gods providence. Second- 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 20. 


lie, such as observe dulie the rites and ceremonies of holie church, 
and worship them with reverence, through the sprinkHng of holie 
water, and receiving consecrated salt, by the lawfull use of candles 
hallowed on Candelmas daie, and greene leaves consecrated on 
Palme sundaie (which things they saie the/ church useth for the 
qualifieng of the divels power) are preserved from witchcraft. 
Thirdlie, some are preserved by their good angels, which attend and 
wait upon them. 

But I maie not omit here the reasons, which they bring, to prove 
what bodies are the more apt and effectuall to execute the art of 
fascination. And that is, first they saie the force of celestiall bodies, 
which indififerentlie communicate their vertues unto men, beasts, 
trees, stones, &c. But this gift and naturall influence of fascination 
maie be increased in man, according to his affections and perturba- 
tions ; as thorough anger, feare, love, hate, &c. For by hate (saith 
Vairies) entereth a fierie inflammation into the eie of man, which 
being violentlie sent out by beams and streames, &c : infect and be- 
witch those bodies against whome they are opposed. And therefore 
he saith (in the favour of women) that that is the cause why women 
are oftener found to be witches than men. For (saith he) they 
have such an unbrideled force of furie and concupiscence naturallie, 
that by no meanes it is possible for them to temper or moderate the 
same. So as upon everie trifling occasion, they (like brute beasts) 
fix their furious eies upon the partie whom they bewitch. Hereby 
it commeth to passe, that whereas women having a mervellous fickle 
nature, what greefe so ever happeneth unto them, immediatlie all 
peaceablenes of mind departeth ; and they are so troubled with 
evill humors, that out go their venomous exhalations, ingendred 
thorough their ilfavoured diet, and increased by meanes of their 
pernicious excrements, which they expell. Women are also (saith 
he) monethlie filled full of superfluous humors, and with them/ 
the melancholike bloud boileth ; whereof spring vapors, and are 
carried up, and conveied through the nosethrels and mouth, &c ; to 
the bewitching of whatsoever it meeteth. For they belch up a 
certeine breath, wherewith they bewitch whomsoever they list. And 
of all other women, leane, hollow eied, old, beetlebrowed women 
(saith he) are the most infectious. Marie he saith, that hot, subtill, 
and thin bodies are most subject to be bewitched, if they be moist, 
and all they generallie, whose veines, pipes, and passages of their 
bodies are open. And finallie he saith, that all beautifull things 
whatsoever, are soone subject to be bewitched ; as namelie goodlie 
yoongmen, faire women, such as are naturallie borne to be rich, goodlie 
beasts, faire horsses, ranke corne, beutifuU trees, &c. Yea a freend 


L. Vair. lib. de 
fascin. i. c. 12. 

Much like 
the eiebi- 
ting wit- 
ches, of 
whom we 
have els- 


Who are 
most likelie 
to bewitch, 
and to be 


13. Booke. 

The discoverie 

of his told him, that he saw one with his eie breake a pretious stone 
in peeces. And all this he telleth as soberlie, as though it were true. 
And if it were true, honest women maie be witches, in despight of 
all inquisitors : neither can anie avoid being a witch, except shea 
locke hir selfe up in a chamber. 

L. Vair. lib. de 
fascin. i. ca. 5. 


* According 
to Ovids sai- 
eng of Pro- 
tetis & Me- 
dea, which he 
indeed al- 
Nunc aqua, 
7uinc ales, 
■modb bos, 
modb cer- 
vus abibat. 

The xxi. Chapter, 

What miracles witchmon^ers report to have beene done by witches 
words, ^T'c : contradictions of witch7nongers a7notig themselves, 
how beasts are cured her by, of bewitched butter, a char me against 
witches, and a counter charme, the effect of charmes and words 
■proved by L. Vairus to be woonderfull. 

IJF I should go about to recite all charmes, I should take 
an infinite worke in hand. For the witching writers 
hold opinion, that anie thing al/most maie be therby 
brought to passe ; & that whether the words of the 
charme be understandable or not, it skilleth not : so the charmer 
have a steddie intention to bring his desire about. And then what 
is it that cannot be done by words 1 For L. Vairus saith, that old 
women have infeebled and killed children with words, and have 
made women with child miscarrie ;/ they have made men pine awaie 
to death, they have killed horsses, deprived sheepe of their milke, 
*transformed men into beasts, flowne in the aire, tamed and staled 
wild beasts, driven all noisome cattell and vermine from corne, vines 
and hearbs, staled serpents, &c : and all with words. In so much 
as he saith, that with certeine words spoken in a bulles eare by a 
witch, the bull hath fallen downe to the ground as dead. Yea some 
by vertue of words have gone upon a sharpe sword, and walked upon 
hot glowing coles, without hurt ; with words (saith he) verie heavie 
weights and burthens have beene lifted up ; and with words wild 
horsses and wild bulles have beene tamed, and also mad dogs ; with 
words they have killed wormes, and other vermine, and staled all 
maner of bleedings and fluxes : with words all the diseases in mans 
bodie are healed, and wounds cured ; arowes are with wonderfull 
strangenesse and cunning plucked out of mens bones. Yea (saith 
he) there be manie that can heale all bitings of dogs, or stingings of 
serpents, or anie other poison : and all with nothing but words 
spoken. And that which is most strange, he saith, that they can 
remedie anie stranger, and him that is absent, with that verie sword 
wherewith they are wounded. Yea and that which is beyond all 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 21, 


admiration, if they stroke the sword upwards with their fingers, the 
partie shall feele no paine : whereas if they drawe their finger 
downewards thereupon, the partie wounded shall feele intollerable 
paine. With a number of other cures, done altogither by the vertue 
and force of words uttered and spoken. 

Where, by the waie, I male not omit this speciall note, given by 
M. Mai. to wit, that holie water male not be sprinkled upon be- 
witched beasts, but must be powred into their mouthes. And yet he, 
and also Nzde7', sale, that It is lawfuU to blesse and sanctifie beasts, 
as well as men ; both by charmes written, and also by holie words 
spoken. For (saith Nider) if your cow be bewitched, three crosses, 
three Pater nosters, and three Aves will certeinlie cure hir : and 
likewise all other ceremonies ecclesiasticall. And this is a sure 
Maxime* that they which are delivered from witchcraft by shrift, are 
ever after in the night much molested (I beleeve by their ghostlie 
fathers.) Also they loose their monie out of their pursses and 
caskets : as M. Mai. saith he knoweth by experience./ Also one 
generall rule is given by M. Mai. to all butter wives, and dairie 
maides, that they neither give nor lend anie butter, milke, or cheese, 
to anie witches, which alwaies use to beg therof, when they meane 
to worke mischeefe to their kine or whitmeats. Whereas indeed 
there are in milke three substances commixted ; to wit, butter, 
cheese, and whaie : if the same be kept too long, or in an evill 
place, or be sluttishlie used, so as it be stale and sower, which hap- 
peneth sometimes in 1 winter, but oftener in summer, when it is set 
over the fier, the cheese and butter runneth togither, and congealeth, 
so as it will rope like birdlime, that you male wind it about a sticke, 
and/ in short space it will be so drie, as you male beate it to powder. 
Which alteration being strange, is woondered at, and imputed to 
witches. And herehence sometimes proceedeth the cause, why 
butter commeth not, which when the countrie people see that it com- 
meth not, then get they out of the suspected witches house, a little 
butter, whereof must be made three balles, in the name of the holie 
trinitie ; and so if they be put into the cherne, the butter will 
presentlie come, and the witchcraft will cease ; Sic ars deltiditur arte. 
But if you put a little sugar or sope into the cherne, among the 
creame, the butter will never come : which is plaine witchcraft, if it 
be closelie, cleanlie, and privilie handled. There be twentie severall 
waies to make your butter come, which for brevitie I omit ; as to 
bind your cherne with a rope, to thrust thereinto a red hot spit, &c : 
but your best remedie and surest waie is, to looke well to your dairie 
maid or wife, that she neither eat up the creame, nor sell awaie your 

Mai. Male/, 
par. 2. guts. 2. 
cap. 7. 

Nider in prtr- 
ceptorio, prce- 
cept. I. ca. II. 

Nider in for- 

Mai. Malef. 
part. 2. cap. 8. 


A good de- 
vise to 
starve up 
poore wo- 

Mai. Malef. 
part. 2. qua. i, 
cap. 7. 




12. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

A ridi- 

^ A charme to find Mr that bewitched your kine. 

Put a paire of breeches upon the cowes head, and beate hir out 
of the pasture with a good cudgell upon a fridaie, and she 
will runne right to the witches doore, and strike thereat with hir 

^ Another, for all that have bewitched anie kind of cat tell. 

WHen anie of your cattell are killed with witchcraft, hast you 
to the place where the carcase lieth, and traile the bowels of 
282. the beast unto your house, and drawe them not in at/ the doore, but 
under the threshhold of the house into the kitchen ; and there make 
a fier, and set over the same a grediron, and thereupon laie the 
inwards or bowels ; and as they wax hot, so shall the witches 
entrailes be molested with extreame heate and paine. But then 
must you make fast your doores, least the witch come and fetch 
awaie a cole of your fier : for then ceaseth hir torments. And we 
have knowne saith 31. Mai. when the witch could not come in, that 
the whole house hath beene so darkened, and the aire round about 
the same so troubled, with such horrible noise and earthquakes ; 
that except the doore had beene opened, we had thought the house 
would have fallen on our heads. Thoj/tas Aquinas, a principall 
treator herein, alloweth conjurations against the changelings, and in 
diverse other cases : whereof I will saie more in the word lidoni. 

In anie case 
observe the 
time, or 
else you 
marre all. 

[* or] 



^ A speciall charme to preserve all cattell from witchcraft. 

AT Easter you must take certeine drops, that lie uppermost of 
the holie paschall candle, and make a little waxe candle 
thereof : and upon some sundaie morning rath, light it, and hold it, 
so as it maie drop upon and betweene the homes and eares of the 
beast, saieng : In nomine patris, &^ filii, et duplex j j.* and burne 
the beast a little betweene the homes on* the eares with the same 
wax : and that which is left thereof, slicke it in crossewise about the 
stable or stall, or upon the threshold, or over the doore, where the 
cattell use to go in and out, and for all that yeare your cattell shall 
never be be/witched. 4f- Otherwise : facobiis de Chusa Carthiisianus 
sheweth, how bread, water, and salt is conjured, and saith, that if 
either man or beast receive holie bread and holie water nine dales 
together, with three Pater nosiers, and three Aves, in the honour of 
the trinitie, and of S. Huberty it preserveth that man or beast from 

of Witchcraft. chap. 22. 231 

all diseases, and defendeth them against all assaults of witchcraft, 
of satan, or^of a mad dog, &c. 

Lo this is their stuffe, mainteined to be at the least effectuall, if 
not wholsome, by all papists and witchmongers, and speciallie of 
the last and proudest writers. But to proove these things to be 
effectuall, God knoweth their reasons are base and absurd. For 
they write so, as they take the matter in question as granted,/ and 283. 
by that meanes go awaie therewith. For L. Vairtis saith in the L.Vair.Ub. 
beginning of his booke, that there is no doubt of this supernatural! cap. i. 
matter, bicause a number of writers agree herein, and a number of 
stories confirme it, and manie poets handle the same argument, and 
in the twelve tables there is a lawe against it, and bicause the consent 
of the common people is fullie with it, and bicause immoderate 
praise is to be approoved a kind of witchcraft, and bicause old 
women have such charmes and superstitious meanes as preserve 
themselves from it, and bicause they are mocked that take awaie the 
credit of such miracles, and bicause Salomon saith ; Fascinatio Sapj. a- 
7nalignitatis obsctirat bona, and bicause the apostle saith ; O insensati Psai 119. 
GalatcE^ quis vosfascinavit? And bicause it is written. Qui timent 
fe, vidcbtiiit me. And finallie he saith, least you should seeme to 
distrust and detract anie thing from the credit of so manie grave 
men, from histories, and common opinion of all men : he meaneth 
in no wise to proove that there is miraculous working by witchcraft 
and fascination ; and proceedeth so, according to his promise. 

The xxii. Chapter. 

Lawfull charmes., or rather medicinable cures for diseased cattell. 
The char me of charmes., and the power thereof 

jUTif you desire to learne true and lawfull charmes, to Direct and 
cure diseased cattell, even such as seeme to have extra- mLnes 
ordinarie sicknesse, or to be bewitched, or (as they sale) "^'^"n"! 
strangelie taken : looke in B. Googe his third booke, 
treating of cattell, and happilie you shall find some good medicine or 
cure for them : or if you list to see more ancient stuffe, read Vegetius 
his foure bookes thereupon : or, if you be unlearned, seeke some 
cunning bullocke leech. If all this will not serve, then set fobs 
patience before your eies. And never thinke that a poore old woman 
can alter supernaturallie the notable course, which God hath appointed 
among his/ creatures. If it had beene Gods pleasure to have per- 284. 
niitted such a course, he would no doubt have both given notice in 


The discoverie 

his word, that he had given such power unto them, and also would 
have taught remedies to have prevented them. 

Furthermore, if you will knowe assured meanes, and infallible 
charmes, yeelding indeed undoubted remedies, and preventing all 
maner of witchcrafts, and also the assaults of wicked spirits ; then 
200.'^-' despise first all cou/sening knaverie of priests, witches, and couseners: 
and with true faith read the sixt chapter of S. Paule to the Ephesians, 
and foUowe his counsell, which is ministred unto you in the words 
following, deserving worthilie to be called by the name insuing : 

A charme 
of charmes 
taken out 
of the sixt 
chapter of 
S. Paule 
to the E- 

The charvie of charmes. 

Finallie my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of 
his 7night. Put on the whole armotir of God, that you may stand 
agaitist the assaults of the divell. For ive wrestle not against fesh 
and bloud, bttt against principalities and powers, &= against worldlie 
governors the princes of the darkenes of this world, against spirituall 
wickednes, which are in the high places. For this cause take unto 
you the armour of God, that you may be able to resist in the evill 
dale; and havitig finished all thiftgs, stand fast. Stand therefore, 
and your loines girded about with veritie, a7id having on the brestplate 
of righteo7ts?ies, Qr'c : as followeth in that chapter, verses 15. 16. 17. 
18. I Thes. 5. I Pet. 5, verse. 8. Ephes. i. and elsewhere in the 
holie scripture. 

^ Otherwise. 

IF you be unlearned, and want the comfort of freends, repaire to 
some learned, godlie, and discreet preacher. If otherwise need 
require, go to a learned physician, who by learning and experience 
knoweth and can discerne the difference, signes, and causes of such 
diseases, as faithlesse men and unskilful! physicians impute to 
witchcraft./ / 

283. 201. The xxiii. Chapter. 

A confutation of the force and vertue falselie ascribed to charjnes 
and amulets, by the authorities of aticient writers, both divines 
atid physicians. 

Y meaning is not, that these words, in the bare letter, can 

doo anie thing towards your ease or comfort in this 

behalfe ; or that it were wholesome for your bodie or 

soule to weare them about your necke : for then would 

I wish you to weare the whole Bible, which must needs be more 

of IVitchcraft. ciiap. 2^. 233 

cffectuall than anie one parcell thereof. But I find not that the 

apostles, or anie of them in the primitive church, either carried S. 

Johns gospell, or anie Agnus Dei* about them, to the end they might [«//<?/.] 

be preserved from bugges : neither that they looked into the foure 

corners of the house, or else in the roofe, or under the threshhold, to 

find matter of witchcraft, and so to burne it, to be freed from the 

same; according to the popish rules. Neither did they by such and Mai. Male/. 

such verses or praiers made unto saints, at such or such houres, ^J^''p'^' ^"' ^' 

seeke to obteine grace : neither spake they of anie old women that 

used such trades. Neither did Christ at anie time use or command 

holie water, or crosses, &c : to be used as terrors against the divell, 

who was not affraid to assault himselfe, when he was on earth. And 

therefore a verie vaine thing it is to thinke that he feareth these 

trifles, or anie externall matter. Let us then cast awaie these , -j-j^ 

prophane and old wives fables. For (as Origen saith) Iticantationes Origin. Ub. 3. 

su7it dcEinoml irrisioncs idololat7'ia: fcsx., animaridn infatuatio, &^c. 

Chrysostome saith ; There be some that carrie about their necks a y. chiysost. 
peece of a gospell. But* is it not dailie read (saith he) and heard of ^" Mattk. 
all men t But if they be never the better for it, being put into their that here 
eares, how shall they be saved, by carrieng it about their necks ? ^V^^ ^°x^-' 
And further he saith; Where is the vertue of the gospell .'' In the idem. ibid. 
figure of the letter, or in the understanding of the sense ? If in the 
figure, thou dooest well to weare it about thy/ necke ; but if in the 286. 
understanding, then thou shouldest laie it up in thine heart. Angus- ^;,g„^/ ,6 
tine saith ; Let the faithfull ministers admonish and tell their people, qucB.uUivi. 
that these magicall arts and incantations doo bring no remedie to the 
infirmities either of men or cattell, &c. 

The heathen philosophers shall at the last dale confound the 
infidelitie and barbarous foolishnes of our christian or rather anti- 
christian and prophane witchmongers. For as Aristotle saith, that 
Incantanienta siait niulierctdarinii fignienta : so dooth Socrates (who 
was said to be cunning herein) affirme, that Incantationes sunt verba 
anijnas decipientia hunianas. Others sale ; Inscitice pallium sutit 
carinitta., malejiciuin., &^ incantatio. Galen also saith, that such as 
impute the falling e/vill, and such like diseases to divine matter, and 285. [ = 203.] 
not rather to naturall causes, are witches, conjurers, &c. Hippocrates Cjaien. in lib. 
calleth them arrogant ; and in another place amrmmg that in his morbo. 
time there were manie deceivers and couseners, that would undertake Hiptocrat. 
to cure the falling evill, &c : by the power and helpe of divels, by saa-o\ """ 
burieng some lots or inchantments in the ground, or casting them 
into the sea, concludeth thus in their credit, that they are all knaves 
and couseners : for God is our onlie defender and deliverer. O 
notable sentence of a heathen philosopher !/ 

11 H 


13. Booke. 

The discoverie 


\ The xiii. booke. 

hi Gen. 41. 8, 
&= 24. In 
Exod. 7, 13. 
In Dan. I, 20 


The au- 
thors in- 
the matter 
to be dis- 

The first Chapter. 

7'he signification of the Hebrue word Harttiinim., where it is fottnd 
written in the scriptures, and how it is diverslie translated : 
whereby the objection of Pharaos juagicians is afterward answered 
in this booke J also of naturall magi eke not evil I in it selfe. 

1'ARTUMIM is no naturall Hebrue word, but is borrowed 
of some other nation : howbeit, it is used of the Hebrues 
in these places ; to wit, Gen. 4. i. 8. 24. Exod. 7. 13. 24. 
& 8. 7. 18. & 9. II. Dan. i, 20. & 2. 2. Hierome some- 
times translateth it Co7ijectores, sometimes Malefci, sometimes 
Arioli : which we for the most part translate by this word witches. 
But the right signification heereof may be conceived, in that the 
inchanters of Pharao, being magicians of Aegypt, were called Har- 
tiimirn. And yet in Exodus they are named in some Latine trans- 
lations Venefci. Rabbi Levi saith, it betokeneth such as doo strange 
and woonderfuU things, naturallie, artificiallie, and deceitfuUie. 
Rabbi Isaac Natar ai^rmtih, i\ia.\. SMch. were so termed, as amongst 
the Gentiles professed singular wisedome. Aben Ezra expoundeth 
it, to signifie such as knowe the secrets of nature, and the qualitie of 
stones and hearbs, &c : which is atteined unto by art, and/ speciallie 
by naturall magicke. But we, either for want of speach, or know- 
lege, call them all by the name/ and terme of witches. 

Certeinlie, God indueth bodies with woonderfuU graces, the perfect 
knowledge whereof man hath not reached unto : and on the one 
side, there is amongst them such mutuall love, societie, and consent ; 
and on the other side, such naturall discord, and secret enimitie, that 
therein manie things are wrought to the astonishment of mans 
capacitie. But when deceit and diabolicall words are coupled there- 
with, then extendeth it to witchcraft and conjuration ; as whereunto 
those naturall effects are falselie imputed. So as heere I shall have 
some occasion to say somewhat of naturall magicke ; bicause under 
it lieth hidden the venome of this word Hartuniitn. This art is said 
by some to be the profoundnesse, and the verie absolute perfection 
of naturall philosophie, and shewing foorth the active part thereof, 
& through the aid of naturall vertues, by the convenient applieng of 

of Witchcraft. chap. 2. 235 

them, works are published, exceeding all capacitie and admiration ; 
and yet not so much by art, as by nature. This art of it selfe is not 
evill ; for it consisteth in searching foorth the nature, causes, and 
effects of things. As farre as I can conceive, it hath beene more 
corrupted and prophaned by us Christians, than either by Jewes or 

The second Chapter. 

How the philosophers in times past travelled for the knowledge oj 
naturall vingicke, of Saloiiions knowledge therein, who is to be 
called a naturall magician, a distinction thereof and why it is 
co)idcmned for witchcraft. 

I AN IE philosophers ; as namely Plato, Pythagoras, 
Empedocles, Democritiis, &c : travelled over all the 
world, to find out & learne the knowlege of this art ; & 
at their returne they preached and taught, professed 
and published it. Yea, it should appeere by the magicians that 
came to adore Christ, that the knowledge and re/putation thereof 28g. 
was greater, than we conceive or make account of But of all other, 
Salomon was the greatest traveller in this art, as may appeere 
throughout the booke of Ecclesiastcs : and speciallie in the booke of 
Wisedome, where hee saith* God hath given me the true science of Sap. 7, 17 
things, so as I knowe how the world was made, and the power of the 19.' 

elements, the beginning and the end, and the middest of times, how ^°- 

the times alter, and the change of seasons, the course of the yeare, 
and the situation of the starres, the nature of living things, and the 
furiousnesse of beasts, the power of the wind, and the imaginations 
of men, the diversities of plants, and the vertues of roots, and all 
things both secret and knowne, &c. Finallie, he was so cunning in ^'^ 

this art, that he is said to have bene a conjurer or witch, and is so ryy J«;'T'' 
reputed in the Romish church at this daie. Whereby you may see, 
how fooles and papists are inclined to credit false accusations in 
matters of; witchcraft and conjuration. The lesse knowledge we 204. 
have in this art, the more we have it in contempt : in which respect 
Plato saith trulie to Dioiiysitis ; They make philosophic a mockerie, 
that deliver it to prophane and rude people. Certeinlie, the witch- 
craft, conjuration, and inchantment that is imputed to 6'<^:/(9;;^(7«, is Eccie. i.&r. 
gathered out of these his words following : I applied my mind to 
knowledge, and to search and seeke out science, wisedome and 
understanding, to knowe the foolishnesse of the ungodlie, and the 


i^ Booke. 

The discoverie 

A magician 

and the art 

error of doting fooles. In this art of naturall magike (without great 
heed be taken) a student shall soone be abused. For manie (writing 
by report, without experience) mistake their authors, and set downe 
one thing for another. Then the conclusions being found false, the 
experiment groweth into contempt, and in the end seemeth ridiculous, 
though never so true. Plinie and Albert being curious writers 
heerein, are often deceived ; insomuch as Plinie is called a noble 
lier, and Albert a rusticall lier ; the one lieng by heeresaie, the other 
by authoritie. 

A magician is indeed that which the Latines call a wise man, as 
Ahima Pompilius was among the Romans ; The Greeks, a philosopher, 
as Socrates was among them ; the Aegyptians a preest, as Hermes 
was ; the Cabalists called them prophets. But although these 
2go. distinguished this art, accounting the one part/ thereof infamous, as 
being too much given unto wicked, vaine, and impious curiositie, as 
unto moovings, numbers, figures, sounds, voices, tunes, lights, affec- 
tions of the mind, and words ; and the other part commendable, as 
teaching manie good and necessarie things, as times and seasons to 
sowe, plant, till, cut, &c : and diverse other things, which I will make 
manifest unto you heereafter : yet we generallie condemne the whole 
art, without distinction, as a part of witchcraft ; having learned to 
hate it, before we knowe it ; affirming all to be witchcraft, which our 
grosse heads are not able to conceive, and yet can thinke that an 
old doting woman seeth through it, &c. Wherein we consider not 
how God bestoweth his gifts, and hath established an order in his 
works, grafting in them sundrie vertues to the comfort of his severall 
creatures ; and speciallie to the use and behoofe of man : neither 
doo we therein weigh that art is servant unto nature, and waiteth 
upon hir as hir handmaiden. 

The third Chapter, 

Read Plinie 
in natural, 
hist. Cardan 
de reritm 
variet. Al- 
bert us de oc- 
culta ren/m 

What secrets do lie Itiddeji, and what is taught iti naturall 
magicke, how Gods glorie is viagnijled therein., and that it is 
jtothitig but the worke of nature. 

|N this art of naturall magicke, God almightie hath hidden 
manie secret mysteries ; as wherein a man may learne 
the properties, qualities, and knowledge of all nature. 
For it teacheth to accomplish maters in such sort and 
oportunitie, as the common people thinketh the same to be miraculous; 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 4. 


and to be compassed none other waie, but onelie by witchcraft. And 
yet in truth, naturall magicke is nothing else, but the worke of 
na/ture. For in tillage, as nature produceth corne and hearbs ; so 
art, being natures minister, prepareth it. Wherein times and seasons 
are greatlie to be respected : for Annus non arviis prodiicit aristas. 

But as mania necessarie and sober things are heerein taught : so 
dooth it partlie (I sale) consist in such experiments and conclu/sions 
as are but toies, but neverthelesse lie hid in nature, and being 
unknowne, doo seeme miraculous, speciallie when they are inter- 
medled and corrupted with cunning illusion, or legierdemaine, from 
whence is derived the estimation of witchcraft. But being learned 
and knowne, they are contemned, and appeere ridiculous : for that 
onelie is woonderfuU to the beholder, whereof he can conceive no 
cause nor reason, according to the saieng of Ephesiics, Miraculum 
solvilur itnde vidcttir esse iniracubim. And therefore a man shall 
take great paines heerein, and bestow great cost to learne that which 
is of no value, and a meere jugling knacke. Whereupon it is said, 
that a man may not learne philosophic to be rich ; but must get 
riches to learne philosophie : for to sluggards, niggards, & dizzards, 
the secrets of nature are never opened. And doubtlesse a man may 
gather out of this art, that which being published, shall set foorth 
the glorie of God, and be many waies beneficiall to the common- 
wealth : the first is doone by the manifestation of his works ; the 
second, by skilfullie applieng them to our use and service. 

Bart hoi. Xe- 
iif'. in natu- 
ral, magi a, &" 
many others. 



lialh a dou- 
ble end, 
which pro- 
veth y' ex- 
cellencie of 
the same. 

The fourth Chapter. 

What strange things a7-e brought to passe by naturall magicke. 

|HE dailie use and practise of medicine taketh awaie all 
admiration of the woonderfuU effects of the same. 
Manie other things of lesse weight, being more secret 
and rare, seeme more miraculous. As for example (if it 
be true that J. Bap. Neap, and many other writers doo constantlie 
affirme.) Tie a wild bull to a figtree, and he will be presentlie tame ; 
or hang an old cocke thereupon, and he will immediatlie be tender ; 
as also the feathers of an eagle consume all other feathers, if they 
be intermedled together. Wherein it may not be denied, but nature 
sheweth hir selfe a proper workwoman. But it seemeth unpossible, 
that a little fish being but halfe a foot long, called Reniora or Remi- 
ligo, or/ of some Echeneis, staieth a mightie ship with all hir loade 2g2. 


13- Booke. 

The discoverie 

us. lib. de in- 
cant, cap. 3. 
J. Wierus 
de lain i is. 
Jasp. Pcucer 
H. Cardan. 

and tackling, and being also under saile. And yet it is affirmed by 
so manie and so grave authors, that I dare not denie it ; speciallie, 
bicause I see as strange effects of nature otherwise : as the propertie 
of the loadstone, which is so beneficiall to the mariner ; and of 
Rheubarb, which onelie medleth with choler, and purgeth neither 
flegme nor melancholie, & is as beneficiall to the physician, as the 
other to the mariner./ 

Of late ex- 
neere Co- 
ventrie, &c. 

Aristot. in 
lib. de hist. 

Plin. de la- 
nicii colore. 

206. The fift Chapter. 

77/6' incredible opcj'ation of waters., both standing and runninp; j of 
wels, lakes, rivers, aiid of their woonderfull effects. 

HE operation of waters, and their sundrie vertues are 
also incredible, I meane not of waters compounded and 
distilled : for it were endlesse to treate of their forces, 
speciallie concerning medicines. But we have heere 
even in England naturall springs, wels, and waters, both standing 
and running, of excellent vertues, even such as except we had scene, 
and had experiment of, we would not beleeve to be In rertan natiira. 
And to let the physicall nature of them passe (for the which we 
cannot be so thankefuU to God, as they are wholsome for our bodies) 
is it not miraculous, that wood is by the qualitie of divers waters 
heere in England transubstantiated into a stone ? The which vertue 
is also found to be in a lake besides the citie Masaca in Cappadocia, 
there is a river called Scarniandrus, that maketh yellow sheepe. 
Yea, there be manie waters, as in Pontns & Thessalia, and in the 
land of Assyrides, in a river of Thracia (as Aristotle saith) that if 
a white sheepe being with lambe drinke thereof, the lambe will be 
blacke. Strabo writeth of the river called Crantes, in the borders of 
Italic, running towards Tarenttini, where mens haire is made white 
and yellow being washed therein. Plinie dooth write that of what 
^93- colour the veines are under the rammes toong, of/ the same colour 
or colours will the lambs be. There is a lake in a field called 
Cornettis, in the bottome whereof manifestlie appeareth to the eie, 
the carcases of snakes, ewts, and other serpents : whereas if you 
put in your hand, to pull them out, you shall find nothing there. 
There droppeth water out of a rocke in Arcadia, the which neither 
a silverne nor a brasen boll can conteine, but it leapeth out, and 
sprinkleth awaie ; and yet will it remaine without motion in the hoofe 
of a mule. Such conclusions (I warrant you) were not unknowne to 
f amies ■A.x\6. fanibres. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 6. 


The sixt Chapter. 

Tlie vert lies a/id qualities of siaidrie pretious stones, of coiiscnins:; 
Lapidaries, &^c. 

HE excellent vertiies and qualities of stones, found, con- 
ceived and tried by this art, is woonderfull. Howbeit 
many things most false and fabulous are added unto 
their true effects, wherewith I thought good in part to 
trie the readers patience and cunning withall. An Aggat (they saie) 
hath vertue against the biting of scorpions or serpents. It is written 
(but I will not stand to it) that it maketh a man eloquent, and pro- 
cureth the favour of princes ; yea that the fume thereof dooth turne 
awaie tempests. Alectorius is a stone about the bignesse of a beane, 
as cleere as/ the christall, taken out of a cocks bellie which hath 
beene gelt or made a capon foure yeares. If it be held in ones 
mouth, it asswageth thirst, it maketh the husband to love the wife, 
and the bearer invincible : for heereby Afi/o was said to overcome 
his enimies. A crawpocke delivereth from prison. Chelidonius is 
a stone taken out of a swallowe, which cureth melancholic : how- 
beit, some authors saie, it is the hearbe wherbythe swallowes recover 
the sight of their yoong, even if their eies be picked out with an 
instrument. Geranites is taken out of a crane, and Draconites out 
of a dragon. But it is to be noted, that such stones must be taken 
out of the bellies of the serpents, beasts, or birds,/ (wherein they 
are) whiles they live : otherwise, they vanish awaie with the life, and 
so they reteine the vertues of those starres under which they are. 
Amethysus maketh a droonken man sober, and refresheth the wit. 
The* corrall presei'veth such as beare it from fascination or bewitch- 
ing, and in this respect they are hanged about childrens necks. But 
from whence that superstition is derived, and who invented the lie, 
I knowe not : but I see how readie the people are to give credit 
thereunto, by the multitude of corrals that waie emploied. I find 
in good authors, that while it remaineth in the sea, it is an hearbe ; 
and when it is brought thence, into the aire, it hardeneth, and 
becommeth a stone. 

Heliotropius stancheth bloud, driveth awaie poisons, preserveth 
health : yea, and some write that it provoketh raine, and darkeneth 
the sunne, suffering not him that beareth it to be abused. Hyacinthus 
dooth all that the other docth, and also preserveth from lightening. 
Dinothera hanged about the necke, collar, or yoke of any creature, 
tameth it presentlie. A Topase healeth the lunatike person of his 


Coelins. Rho- 
do. lib. antiq. 
U'ct. II. ca. 70. 
Bar thai. An- 
gltcus, lib. 16. 


* Aviceiina 
cano. 2. tract. 
2. cap. 124. 
Scrap io agg. 
cap. TOO. 
Dioscor. lib. 5. 
cap. 93. 


M. Booke. 

The discovei'ie 

Plin. lib. 37. 
cap. 10. 
Albert, lib. 2. 
cap. J. 
Solm. cap. 32. 


* Rabbi Mo- 
ses aphorism, 
partic. 22. 
Isidor. lib. 14. 
cap 3. 


passion of lunacie. Aitites, if it be shaken, soundelh as if there 
were a little stone in the bellie thereof: it is good for the falling 
sicknesse, and to prevent untimelie birth. Amethysus aforesaid 
resisteth droonkenesse, so as the bearers shall be able to drinke 
freelie, and recover themselves soone being droonke as apes : the 
same maketh a man wise. Chalcedonius maketh the bearer luckie 
in lawe, quickeneth the power of the bodie, and is of force also 
against the illusions of the divell, and phantasticall cogitations 
arising of melancholie. Corneolus mitigateth the heate of the mind, 
and qualifieth malice, it stancheth bloudie fluxes, speciallie of women 
that are troubled with their flowers. Heliotropius aforesaid darken- 
eth the sunne, raiseth shewers, stancheth bloud, procureth good 
fame, keepeth the bearer in health, and suffereth him not to be 
deceived. If this were true, one of them would be deerer than a 
thousand diamonds. 

Hyacinthus deliveteth one from the danger of lightening, driveth 
awaie poison and pestilent infection, and hath manie other vertues. 
Iris helpeth a woman to speedie deliverance, and maketh raine- 
bowes to appeere. A Saphire preserveth the members, and 
maketh them livelie, and helpeth agues and gowts, and suffereth 
not the bearer to be afraid : it hath vertue against/ venome, and 
staieth bleeding at the nose being often put thereto. *A Smarag 
is good for the eiesight, and suffereth not carnall copulation, it 
maketh one rich and eloquent. A Topase increaseth riches, heal- 
eth the lunatike passion, and stancheth bloud. Mephis (as Aaroft 
and Hermes', report out of Alberhis Magnus) being broken into 
powder, and droonke with water, maketh insensibilitie of torture. 
Heereby you may understand, that as God hath bestowed upon these 
stones, and such other like bodies, most excellent and woonderfuU 
virtues ; so according to the abundance of humane superstitions and 
follies, manie ascribe unto them either more vertues, or others tlfan 
they have : other boast that they are able to adde new qualities unto 
them. And heerin consisteth a part of witchcraft and common 
cousenage used sometimes of the Lapidaries for gaines ; sometimes 
of others for cousening purposes. Some part of the vanitie heereof I 
will heere describe, bicause the place serveth well therefore. And it 
is not to be forgotten or omitted, that Pharos magicians were like 
enough to be cunning therein. 

Neverthelesse, I will first give you the opinion of one, who pro- 
fessed himselfe a verie skilfull and well experimented Lapidarie, as 
appeereth by a booke of his owne penning, published under this title 
of Dactylotlieca, and (as I thinke) to be had among the bookesellers. 
And thus followeth his assertion : 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap, 6. 


Evax rex Arabian fartur scripsisse Neroni, 
{Qui post Augustum regnavit in orbe secundtis) 
Quot species lapidis, qticE nontitta, quive colores, 
QucEqj sit his regio, vel quanta pote7itia cuiq;, 
Ocult as* etenim lapidtan cognoscere vires, 
Quonan causa latens effectus dat manifestos, 
Egregiuni quiddam volumits rari'inique videri. 
Scilicet hinc solers viedicoruni cura juvaturJ^ 
Auxilio lapiduni morbos expel/ere docta. 
Nee miniis inde dari cunctarum cotnmoda reriun 
Atttores perhibent, quibtis hcec perspecta fenmtur. 
Nee diibiuni cuiquam debet falsumque videri, 
Quin sua sit genimis divinities insita virtus :\ 

Galliis in sua 
pas. 5, 6. 

[» Ocnlias] 


Evax an old A rabian king 

is ftanied to have writ 
A treatise, and on Neros Grace 

to have bestowed it, 
{ Who in the zvorld did second reigne 

after Aligns tus time) 
Of pretious stones the sundrie sorts, 

their names, and ill what clime 
And coicntrie they were to be found, 

their colours and their hue. 
Their privie power and secret force, 

the which with knowledge true 
To understand, their hidden cause 

most plaine effects declare : 
And this will we a noble thing 

have counted be and rare.j 
The skilfull care of leeches learnd 

is aided in this case. 
And hereby holpen, and are taught 

with aid of stones to chase 
Awaie from men such sicknesses 

as have in them a place. 
No less precise commodities 

of althings else therebie 
Are ministred and given to men, 

if authors doo not lie. 
To whome these things are said to bee 

most manifestlie knowne. 


Englished by 




Vis gemma- 
rum &^ lapil- 
lonim pretio- 
soruni 7iega- 
tur, quia oc- 
culta est, ra- 
sub sensum 



13. Booke. 

The discoverie 


Manie mo 
may be na- 
med of no 
lesse anti- 
quitie and 

// shall no false or donbtftdl case 

appeare to atiie one. 
But that by heavenlie influence 

each pretioiis pearle and stone, 
Hath in his s^ibstance fixed force 

and vertiie largelie sowne. 

Whereby it is to be concluded, that stones have in them cer/teine 
proper vertues, which are given them of a speciall influence of the 
planets, and a due proportion of the elements, their substance being 
a verie fine and pure compound, consisting of well tempered matter 
wherein is no grosse mixture : as appeareth by plaine proofe oi India 
and Aethopia, where the sunne being orient and meridionall, dooth 
more effectuallie shew his operation, procuring more pretious stones 
there to be ingendred, than in the countries that are Occident and 
septentrionall. Unto this opinion doo diverse ancients accord ; 
namelie, Alexander Peripatetictts, Hermes^ Evax, Bacchus Zoroastes, 
Isaac fudcEus, Zacharias Babylonicus, and manie more beside. 

The seventh Chapter. 

Whence the pretioits stories receive their operations, how curious 
Magicians use them, arid of their scales. 

PI 171. lib. 37. 
cap. 10. 
Albert, mi- 
ner, li. 2. ca. I. 
Solin. cap. 11. 
Diurius in 210. 
bus 6t' cotn- 


URIOUS Magicians afifirme, that these stones receive their 
vertues altogether of the planets and heavenlie bodies, 
and have not onelie the verie operation of the planets, 
but sometimes the verie images and impressions of the 
starres naturallie ingraffed in them, and otherwise ought alwaies to 
have graven upon them, the similitudes of such monsters, beasts, and 
other devises, as they imagine to be both internallie in operation, and 
externallie in view, expressed in the planets. As for example, upon 
the Achate are graven serpents or venomous beasts ; and some- 
times a man riding on a serpent : which they know to he Aesculapius, 
which is the celestiall serpent, whereby are cured (they sale) poisons 
and stingings of serpents and scorpions. These grow in the river of 
Achates, where the/ greatest scorpions are ingendred, and their 
noisomnes is thereby qualified, and by the force of the scorpions the 
stones vertue is quickened and increased. Also, if they would induce 
love for the accomplishment of venerie, they inscribe and expresse in 
the stones, amiable embracings and love/lie countenances and ges- 
tures, words and kissings in apt figures. For the desires of the mind 
are consonant with the nature of the stones, which must also be set 

of Witchcraft. chap. 7. 243 

in rings, and upon foiles of such metals as have afifinitie with those 
stones, thorough the operation of the planets vvhereunto they are 
addicted, whereby they may gather the greater force of their working. 

As for example. They make the images of Saticrne in lead, of Sol Gear. P'fto- 

. . . J i_ i_ J '"'"•f- Villang. 

in gold, of Luna m silver. Marrie there is no small regard to be had doct. media 
for the certeine and due times to be observed in the graving of them: ["permr- 
for so are they made with more life, and the influences and configura- bod. dactyl. 
tions of the planets are made thereby the more to abound in them. As 
if you will procure love, you must worke in apt, proper, and freendlie 
aspects, as in the houre of Vefu/s, Ss^c : to make debate, the direct 
contrarie order is to be taken. If you determine to make the image 
of Venus., you must expect to be under Aquarius or Caprzcornus : for 
Saiurne, Taurus, and Libra must be taken heed of. Manie other 
observations there be, as to avoid the infortunate seate and place 
of the planets, when you would bring a happie thing to passe, and 
speciallie that it be not doone in the end, declination, or heele (as 
they terme it) of the course thereof : for then the planet moorneth and 
is dull. 

Such signes as ascend in the daie, must be taken in the dale ; if 
in the night they increase, then must you go to worke by night, 
&c. For in Aries, Leo, and Sagittarie is a certeine triplicitie, wherein 
the sunne hath dominion by dsae, Jupiter by night, and in the twie- 
light the cold star of Saturne. But bicause there shall be no ex- 
cuse wanting for the faults espied herein, they sale that the vertues 
of all stones decaie through tract of time : so as such things are 
not now to be looked for in all respects as are written. Howbeit 
Jannes and Jambres were living in that time, and in no inconvenient 
place ; and therefore not unlike to have that helpe towards the 
abusing of PJiarao. Cardane saith, that although men attribute no H. Card. hb. 
small force unto such seales ; as to the seale of the sunne, autho- '^" t^-'^°- 
rities, honors, and favors of princes ; of Jupiter, riches and freends ; 
of Venus, pleasures ; of Mars, boldnes ; of Mercicrie, diligence ; of 
Saturne, patience and induring of labour ; of Luna, favour of 
people : I am not ignorant (saith he) that stones doo good, and yet 
I knowe the seales or figures doo/ none at all. And when Cardane zgg. 
had shewed fullie that art, and the follie thereof, and the maner of H. Card. lib. 
those terrible, prodigious, & deceitful! figures of the planets with i6. cap. 90! 
their characters, &c. : he saith that those were deceitfull inventions 
devised by couseners, and had no vertue indeed nor truth in them. 
But bicause we spake somewhat even now of signets and seales, I 
will shew you what I read reported by Vincentius in suo spcculo, 
where making mention of the Jasper stone, whose nature and pro- 
pertie Mai-bodeus Gallus describeth in the verses following :/ 



The discoverie 

Marbodeus 211. 
in sua dacty- 
lotheca, pag. 

Jaspidis esse decern species sepiemque feruntur^ 
Hie (Sr^ mieltorum cognoscittir esse colorunif 
Et mziltis nasci perhibetttr partibiis orbis^ 
Optivms in viridi trajishicentique colore, 
Et qui plus soleat viriutis habere probatur. 
Caste gestatus febreni fugat, arcet hydropein^ 
Adposit usque juvat nmlierem parturietitetiiy 
Et tiitamc7iium portanti creditur esse. 
Nam consecratus gratian facit atque potenton^ 
Et., sicut perhibent, phantas?nata noxia pellit, 
Cujtcs in argent vis fortior esse pututur. 

Englished by 



dum the ^ 
is, that this 
stone be selJOO. 
in silver, & 
wprne on 
the finger 
for a ring: 
as you shall 
see after- 

Seven kinds and ten of Jasper stones 

reported are to be, 
Of manic colours this is knoivne 

luhich noted is by me, 
And said in manie places of 

the world for to be scene, 
Where it is bred ; but yet the best 

is thorough shining greene. 
And that which prooved is to have 

in it more virtue plaste : 
For being borne about of such 

as are of livifig chaste,\ 
It drives atvaie their ague fits, 

the dropsie thirsting drie, 
And put unto a woman weake 

in travell which dooth lie 
It helps, assists, and comforts hir 

in pangs whe7i she dooth crie. 
Againe, it is beleevd to be 

A safegard franke and free, 
To such as weare and beare the same j 

and if it hallowed bee 
It makes the parties gratious, 

and mightie too that have it, 
And noysome faiisies {as they write 

that ment 7iot to deprave it) 
It dooth displace out of the mind : 

the force thereof is stronger. 
In silver if the same be set, 

and 7vill endure the longer. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 8. 


But (as I said) Vincentius making mention of the Jasper stone, Vincent, ut. 
touching which (by the waie of a parenthesis) I have inferred Marbo- 'i)ioicoJ]iib. 
dens his verses, he saith that some Jasper stones are found having in 5- cap. 100. 

, ,,.,.. ^ ,, . , ,,,,., Aristot. in 

them the nvehe miage of a natural! man, with a sheeld at his necke Lapidario. 
and a speare in his/ hand, and under his feete a serpent : which stones 212. 
so marked and signed, he preferreth before all the rest, bicause they 
are antidotaries or remedies notablie resisting poison. Othersome also 
are found figured and marked with the forme of a man bearing on 
his necke a bundle of hearbs and flowres, with the estimation and 
value of them noted, that they have in them a facultie or power re- 
strictive, and will in an instant or moment of time stanch bloud. 
Such a kind of stone (as it is reported) Galen wore on his finger. 
Othersome are marked with a crosse, as the same author writeth, 
and these be right excellent against inundations or overflowings of 
waters. I could hold you long occupied in declarations like unto 
these, wherein I laie before you what other men have published and 
set foorth to the world, choosing rather to be an academicall dis- 
cour/ser, than an universall determiner : but I am desirous of brevitie. jo/. 

The eight Chapter. 

The sympathie and antipathie of naturall and elenientarie bodies 
declai'ed by diverse examples of beasts., birds., plants., &^c. 

F I should write of the strange effects of Sympathia and Agreement 
Antipathia, I should take great paines to make you nientln^uf- 
woonder, and yet you would scarse beleeve me. And if I ferance. 
should publish such conclusions as are common and 
knowne, you would not regard them. And yet Enipedocles thought 
all things were wrought hereby. It is almost incredible, that the 
grunting or rather the wheekingofa little pig, or the sight of a simple 
sheepe should terrifie a mightie elephant : and yet by that meanes the 
Romans did put to flight Pyrhtis and all his hoast. A man would 
hardlie beleeve, that a cocks combe or his crowing should abash a 
puissant lion : but the experience herof hath satisfied the whole 
world. Who would thinke that a serpent should abandon the shadow 
of an ash, &c '^. But it seemeth not strange, bicause it is common, 
that some man otherwise hardie and stout enc^ugh, should not dare 
to abide or endure the sight of a cat. Or that a draught of drinke 
should so overthrow a man, that never a part or member of his bodie 
should be able to performe his dutie and office ; and should also so 


13. Booke. 

The discoverie 

Englished by 
A braha m 


corrupt and alter his senses, understanding, memorie, and judgement, 
that he should in everie thing, saving in shape, beecome a verie beast. 
And herein the poets experiment of liquor is verified, in these words 
foUow^ing : 

■sunt qui non corpora tantum, 

Veriim miivias etiani valeant vmtare liqiiores 

Some waters have so power/nil ben., 
As could 7iot onelie bodies change,\ 
But even the verie minds of men, 
Their operation is so strange.\. 

Readalitle 213. 
tract of E- 
rasmus in- 
tituled De 
where e- 
nough is 
said tou- 
ching this 

Xantkjts in 
hist, prima. 

Jub. lib. 25. 
cap. 2. 

The freendlie societie betwixt a fox and a serpent is almost in- 
credible : how loving the lizzard is to a man, we male read, though we 
cannot see. Yet some affirme that our newt is not onlie like to the 
lizzard in shape, but also in condition. From the which affection to- 
wards a man, a spaniell doth not much differ, whereof I could cite 
incredible stories. The amitie betwixt a castrell and a pigeon is much 
noted among writers ; and speciallie how the castrell defendeth hir 
from hir enimie the sparovvhawke : whereof they sale the doove 
is not ignorant. Besides, the woonderfuU operation and vertue of 
hearbs, which to repeat were infinite : and therfore I will onlie referre 
you to Mattheolus his herball, or to Dodoncctis. There is among them 
such naturall accord and discord, as some prosper much the better 
for the others companie, and some wither awaie being planted neere 
unto the other. The lillie and the rose rejoise in ech others neigh- 
borhood. The flag and the fernebush abhorre each other so much, 
that the one can hardlie live besides the other. The cowcumber 
loveth water, and hateth oile to the death. And bicause you shall not 
sale that hearbs have no vertue, for that in this place I cite none, I 
am content to discover two or three small qualities and vertues, which 
are affirmed to be in hearbs : marie as simple as they be, Jannes and 
Ja7nbres might have done much with them, if they had had them. If 
you pricke out a yoong swallowes eies, the old swallow restoreth againe 
their sight, with the application (they sale) of a little Celondine. Xan- 
thus the author of histories reporteth, that a yoong dragon being 
dead, was revived by hir dam, with an hearbe called 
BaHm. AnAJuba saith, that a man in Arabia 
being dead was revived by the 
, vertue of another 


of Witchcraft. chap. 9. 247 

The ninth Chapter. 303- 

The former matter prooved by majiie examples of the living atid 

the dead. 

IJND as we see in stones, herbs, &c : strange operation and 
naturall love and dissention : so doo we read, that in the 

bodie of a man, there be as strange properties and vertues This com- 

naturall. I have heard by credible report, and I have rience can 

read many grave authors constantlie afifirme, that the wound of a man J"^'''''^- 
murthered reneweth bleeding ; at the presence of a deere freend, or 
of a mortall enimie. Diverse also write, that if one passe by a mur- 
thered bodie (though unknowne) he shalbe striken with feare, and 
feele in him selfe some alteration by nature. Also that a woman, 
above the age of fiftie yeares, being bound hand and foote, hir clothes 
being upon hir, and laid downe softlie into the water, sinketh not in 
a long time ; some sale, not at all. By which experiment they were J- Wierus. 
woont to trie witches, as well as by Ferruvi candens : which was, 
to hold hot iron in their hands, and by not burning to be 
tried. Howbeit, Plutarch saith, that Pyrhus his great toe had Plutarch, in 
in it such naturall or rather divine vertue, that no fier could '"' '^ ^' 
burne it. 

And Albertus saith, and manie other also repeat the same storie, 
saieng,/ that there were two such children borne in Ger manie, as if '^X^"""'^ ' 
that one of them had beene carried by anie house, all the doores right 214. 
against one of his sides would flie open : and that vertue which the 
one had in the left side, the other brother had in the right side. He 
saith further, that manie sawe it, and that it could be referred to 
nothing, but to the proprietie of their bodies. Pompa^iatiiis writeth Pompan. lib. 
that the kings of France doo cure the disease called now the kings 'lap'.'^^"^' 
evill, or queenes evill ; which hath beene alwaies thought, and to this 
daie is supposed to be a miraculous and a peculiar gift, & a speciall 
grace given to the kings and queenes of England. Which some referre 
to the proprietie of their persons, some to the peculiar gift of God, and 
some to the/ efificacie of words. But if the French king use it no 304. 
woorsse than our Princesse doth, God will not be offended thereat : 
for hir maiestie onelie useth godlie and divine praier, with some almes, 
and referreth the cure to God and to the physician. Plutarch wnteth Plutar. in 

^ ^ . znta Catonis. 

that there be certeme men called Psilli, which with their mouthes 
heale the bitings of serpents. Andy. Bap. Neap, saith, that an olive y. Bap. Neap. 
being planted by the hand of a virgine, prospereth ; which if a harlot /„,,, ^agia. i. 
doo, it withereth awaie. Also, if a serpent or viper lie in a hole, it 


13. Booke. 

The discoverie 

maie easilie be pulled out with the left hand, wheras with the right 
hand it cannot be remooved. Although this experiment, and such 
like, are like enough to be false ; yet are they not altogether so 
impious as the miracles said to be done by characters, charmes, &c. 
For manie strange properties remaine in sundrie partes of a living 
creature, which is not universallie dispersed, and indifferentlie spred 
through the whole bodie : as the eie smelleth not, the nose seeth not, 
the eare tasteth not, &;c. 

The tenth Chapter. 

The venom 
or poison of 
an harlot. 



Matth. 13. 
Marke. 6. 
Luke. 4. 
John. 4. 

full natu- 
ral! effects 
in bones 

The bewitching venoine coiiteitied in the bodie of an harlot, how hir 
eie, hir toong, hir beautie mid behavior bewitcheth some men : 
of bones and homes yeelding great vertne. 

HE vertue conteined within the bodie of an harlot, or 
rather the venome proceeding out of the same maie be 
beheld with great admiration. For hir eie infecteth, 
entiseth, and (if I maie so saie) bewitcheth them manie 
times, which thinke themselves well armed against such maner of 
people. Hir toong, hir gesture, hir behaviour, her beautie, and other 
allurements poison and intoxicate the mind : yea, hir companie in- 
duceth impudencie, corrupteth virginitie, confoundeth and consumeth 
the bodies, goods, and the verie soules of men. And finallie hir 
bodie destroieth and rotteth the verie flesh and bones of mans 
bodie. And this is common, that we woonder not at all thereat, naie 
we have not/ the course of the sunne, the moone, or the starres in so 
great admiration, as the globe, counterfeting their order : which is in 
respect but a bable made by an artificer. So as (I thinke) if Christ 
himselfe had continued long in the execution of miracles, and had left 
that power permanent and common in the church ; they would have 
growne into contempt, and not have beene esteemed, according/ to his 
owne saieng : A prophet is not regarded in his owne countrie. I 
might recite infinite properties, wherewith God hath indued the bodie 
of man, worthie of admiration, and fit for this place. As touching 
other living creatures, God hath likewise (for his glorie, and our be- 
hoofe) bestowed most excellent and miraculous gifts and vertues upon 
their bodies and members, and that in severall and woonderfull wise. 
We see that a bone taken out of a carps head, stancheth bloud, and 
so doth none other part besides of that fish. The bone also in a hares 
foot mitigateth the crampe, as none other bone nor part else of the 

of Witchcraft. chap. n. 249 

hare doth. How pretious is the bone growing out of the forehead of °f'''^'^'^^; 
a unicorne ; if the home, which we see, growe there, which is doubted : 
and of how small accompt are the residue of all his bones ? At the 
excellencie whereof, as also at the noble and innumerable vertues 
of herbs we muse not at all ; bicause it hath pleased God to make 
them common unto us. Which perchance might in some part assist 
Jaiines a.nd Jatiibres, towards the hardning oi Pharaos heart. But of 
such secret and strange operations read Albert De mineral, cap. i. 
II. 17. Also Marsiliiis Fichtus, cap. i. lib. 4. Cardan, de rerum 
varietafe. J. Bap. Neap, de magia naturali. Peucer, Wier, Povipana- 
cius, Fernelius, and others. 

The eleventh Chapter. 

Two notorious woonders and yet not marvelled at. 

THOUGHT good here to insert two most miraculous 
matters, of the one I am Testis ocnlatt(s, an eie witnesse ; 
of the other I am so crediblie and certeinelie informed, 
that I dare and doo beleeve it to be verie true. When 
Maister T. Ratidolph returned out of Russia, after his ambassage 
dispatched, a gentleman of his traine/ brought home a monument of 306. 
great accompt, in nature and in propertie very wonderful!. And bicause 
I am loath to be long in the description of circumstances, I will first 
describe the thing it selfe : which was a peece of earth of a good 
quantitie, and most excellentlie proportioned in nature, having these 
qualities and vertues following. If one had taken a peece of perfect 
Steele, forked and sharpened at the end, and heated it red hot, offer- Strange 


ing therewith to have touched it ; it would have fled with great cele- in a peece 
ritie : and on the other side, it would have pursued gold, either in "f^'*"'^- 
coine or bulloine, with as great violence and speed as it shunned the 
other. No bird in the aire durst approch neere it ; no beast of the 
field but feared it, and naturallie fled from the sight thereof. It would 
be here to dale, and to morrovve twentie miles off, and the next dale 
after in the verie place it was the first dale, and that without the helpe 
of anie other creature. 

Johanfies Fernelius writeth of a strange stone latelie brought out of Strange 
India, which hath in it such a marvellous brightnes, puritie, and fnTst'one: 
shining, that therewith the aire round about is so lightned and the like 

j' ° . qualities in 

cleared, that one may see to read thereby in the darknes of night, other stons : 
It will not be conteined in a close roome, but requireth an open and 194 fg^" '^^" 

K K 


The discoverie 

196, 197. 
198, 199, 



* Being the 
7 booke of 
this disco- 
verie : See 
tag. 133, 134, 
i35> 136, 
137. 138, 
160, &c. 
Where dis- 
course is 
made of o- 
racles, &c. 

Look here- 
after in this 
booke for 

free place. It would not willing/lie rest or stale here belowe on the 
earth, but alvvaies laboureth to ascend up into the aire. If one presse 
it downe with his hand, it resisteth, and striketh verie sharpelie. It 
is beautifull to behold, without either spot or blemish, and yet verie 
unplesant to taste or feele. If anie part thereof be taken awaie, it is 
never a whit diminished, the forme thereof being inconstant, and at 
everie moment mutable. These two things last rehearsed are strange, 
and so long woondered at, as the mysterie and moralitie thereof 
remaineth undiscovered : but when I have disclosed the matter, and 
told you that by the lumpe of earth a man is ment, and some of his 
qualities described ; and that that which was conteined in the farre 
fetcht stone, was fier, or rather flame : the doubt is resolved, and 
the miracle ended. And yet (I confesse) there is in these two 
creatures conteined more miraculous matter, than in all the load- 
stones and diamonds in the world. And hereby is to be noted, 
that even a part of this art, which is called naturall or witching 
magicke, consisteth as well in the deceipt of words, as in the/ 
sleight of hand : wherein plaine lieng is avoided with a figurative 
speech, in the which, either the words themselves, or their interpreta- 
tion have a double or doubtfull meaning, according to that which hath 
beene said before in the title* Ob or Pytho : and shall be more at 
large hereafter in this treatise manifested. 

The twelfe Chapter. 

0/ illusions, confederacies, and legie^'demaine, and how they may 
be well or ill used. 

ANIE writers have beene abused as well by untrue reports, 
as by illusion, and practises of confederacie and legier- 
demaine, &c : sometimes imputing unto words that which 
resteth in the nature of the thing ; and sometimes to the 
nature of the thing, that which proceedeth of fraud and deception of 
sight. But when these experiments growe to superstition or impietie, 
they are either to be forsaken as vaine, or denied as false. Howbeit, 
if these things be doone for mirth and recreation, and not to the hurt 
of our neighbour, nor to the abusing or prophaning of Gods name, in 
mine opinion they are neither impious nor altogether unlawfull : 
though herein or hereby a naturall thing be made to seeme super- 
naturall. Such are the miracles wrought by jugglers, consisting in 
fine and nimble conveiance, called legierdemaine : as when they seeme 

pag. 321. 

of Witchcraft. chap. 13. 251 

to cast awaie, or to deliver to another that which they reteine still in divers con- 

, . , , ... 1 ■ r celts of 

their ovvne hands ; or conveie otherwise : or seeme to eate a knife, or juggling 
some such other thing, when indeed they bestowe the same secretlie afiarg"\e- 
into their bosoms or laps. Another point of juggling is, when they ginning at 
thrust a knife through the braines and head of a chicken or pullet, 
and seeme to cure the same with words : which would live and doo 
well, though never a word were spoken. Some of these toies 
also consist in arythmeticall devises, partlie in experiments of 
naturall magike, and partlie in private as also in publike con- 
federacie./ / 

The xiii. Chapter. 30S. 217. 

Of private confederacie, and of Brandons pigeon. 

|RIVATE confederacie I meane, when one (by a speciall 
plot laid by himselfe, without anie compact made with 
others) persuadeth the beholders, that he will suddenlie 
and in their presence doo some miraculous feat, which 
he hath alredie accomplished privilie. As for example, he will shew 
you a card, or anie other like thing : and will saie further unto 
you ; Behold and see what a marke it hath, and then burneth it ; 
and nevertheles fetcheth another like card so marked out of some 
bodies pocket, or out of some corner where he himselfe before had 
placed it ; to the woonder and astonishment of simple beholders, 
which conceive not that kind of illusion, but expect miracles and 
strange works. 

What woondering and admiration was there at Brandon the Example 
juggler, who painted on a wall the picture of a dove, and seeing a Ws woon- 
pigeon sitting on the top of a house, said to the king ; Lo now '^'^'■■ 
your Grace shall see what a juggler can doo, if he be his craftes 
maister ; and then pricked the picture with a knife so hard and so 
often, and with so efifectuall words, as the pigeon fell downe from 
the top of the house starke dead. I need not write anie further circum- 
stance to shew how the matter was taken, what woondering was 
thereat, how he was prohibited to use that feat anie further, least 
he should emploie it in anie other kind of murther ; as though he, 
whose picture so ever he had pricked, must needs have died, and so 
the life of all men in the hands of a juggler : as is now supposed to 
be in the hands and willes of witches. This storie is, untill the dale 
of the writing hereof, in fresh remembrance, & of the most part 
beleeved as canonicall, as are all the fables of witches : but when you 


15- Bookc. 

The discovcrie 

This I have 
upon crows 
and pies. 

This might 
be done by 
a I on fede- 
rate, who 
standing at 
some win- 
dow in a 
steeple, or 
other fit 
place, and 
holding the 
pigeon by 
the leg in a 
string, after 
a signe gi- 
ven by his 
downe the 
pigeon, and 
so the 
woonder is 

are taught the feate or sleight (the secrecie and sorcerie of the matter 
being bewraied, and discovered) you will thinke it a mockerie, and a 
simple illusion. To interpret unto you the revelation of this 
mysterie ; so it is, that the poore pigeon was before in the hands of 
jog. the juggler,/ into whome he had thrust a dramme of Nux vomica., or 
some other such poison, which to the nature of the bird was so ex- 
treame a venome, as after the receipt thereof it could not live above 
the space of halfe an houre, and being let lose after the medicine 
ministred, she alwaies resorted to the top of the next house : which 
she will the rather doo, if there be anie pigeons alreadie sitting there, 
and (as it is alreadie said) after a short space falleth downe, either 
Starke dead, or greatlie astonnied. But in the meane time the juggler 
useth words of art, partlie to protract the time, and partlie to gaine 
credit and admiration of the beholders. If this or the like feate should 
be done by an old woman, everie bodie would crie out for fier and 
faggot to burne the witch./ 

218. The xiiii. Chapter. 

Of pttblike confederacies and whereof it consistefk. 

JUBLIKE confederacie is, when there is before hand a 
compact made betwixt diverse persons ; the one to be 
principall, the rest to be assistants in working of mira- 
cles, or rather in cousening and abusing the beholders. 
As when I tell you in the presence of a multitude what you have 
thought or doone, or shall doo or thinke, when you and I were 
thereupon agreed before. And if this be cunninglie and closelie 
handled, it will induce great admiration to the beholders ; 
speciallie when they are before amazed and abused 
by some experiments of naturall magike, arythmeticall 
conclusions, or legierdemaine. Such were, for the 
most part, the conclusions and devises of 
Feates : wherein doubt you not, but 
fannes and fainbrex were 
expert, active, and 

of Witchcraft. cuap. 15. 253 

The XV. Chapter. 

How men have beetle abused with words of eqtiivocatwn, with siindrie 
examples thereof. 

[|OME have taught, and others have written certeine ex- 
periments ; in the expressing whereof they have used 
such words of equivocation, as wherby manie have beene 
overtaken and abused through/ rash credulitie : so as 310. 
sometimes (I saie) they have reported, taught, and written that which 
their capacitie tooke hold upon, contrarie to the truth and 
sincere meaning of the author. It is a common jest among the water ■'^Jesta- 

° JO mong \va- 

men of the Thames, to shew the parish church of Stone to the passen- teimen 
gers, calling the same by the name of the lanterne oiKent ; affirming, stone"'*^ 
and that not untrulie, that the said church is as light (meaning in church m 

' & \ G Kent as 

weight and not in brightnes) at midnight, as at noonedaie. Where- light at 
upon some credulous person is made beleeve, and will not sticke to ^s'at"mid- 
afifirme and sweare, that in the same church is such continuall light, '^^'s- 
that anie man may see to read there at all times of the night without 
a candle. 

An excellent philosopher, whome (for reverence unto his fame and 
learning) I will forbeare to name, was overtaken by his hostesse at 
Dover ; who merrilie told him, that if he could reteine and keepe in 
his mouth certeine pibbles (lieng at the shore side) he should not per- 
breake untill he came to Calice, how rough and tempestuous so ever 
the seas were. Which when he had tried, and being not forced by 
sicknes to vomit, nor to lose his stones, as by vomiting he must needs 
doo, he thought his hostesse had discovered unto him an excellent 
secret, nothing doubting of hir amphibologicall speech : and therefore 
thought it a worthie note to be recorded among miraculous and 
medicinable stones ; and inserted it accordinglie into his booke, 
among other experiments collected with great industrie, learning, 
travell, and judgement. All these toies helpe a subtill cousener/ to 219. 
gaine credit with the multitude. Yea, to further their estimation, 
manie will whisper prophesies of their owne invention into the eares of 
such as are not of quickest capacitie ; as to tell what weather, &c : shall 
followe. Which if it fall out true, then boast they and triumph, A slender 
as though they had gotten some notable conquest ; if not, they thecredlt^*^ 
denie the matter, forget it, excuse it, or shift it off; as that of'^eir 

° ' ' . cunning. 

they told another the contrarie in earnest, and spake that but m 
jest. All these helps might Pharaos jugglers have, to mainteine 


13- Booke. 

The discoverie 

their cousenages and illusions, towards the '^hardening of Pharaos 

Hereunto belong all maner of charmes, periapts, amulets, charac- 
ters, and such other superstitions, both popish and prophane : where- 
311. by (if that were true, which either papists, conjurors, or wit/ches 
undertake to doo) we might dailie see the verie miracles wrought 
indeed, which Pharaos magicians seemed to performe. Howbeit, 
bicause by all those devises or cousenages, there cannot be made so 
much as a nit, so as Jannes and Jainbres could have no helpe that 
waie, I will speake thereof in place more convenient. 

The xvi. Chapter. 

The incon- 
of holding 
that what- 
soever pas- 
seth our ca- 
pacitie, is 
divine, su- 
ral!, &c. 


How some are abused with naturall inagike, and sundrie examples 
thereof when illusion is added thereunto, of facobs pied sheepe, 
and of a blacke Moore. 

UT as these notable and wonderfull experiments and con- 
clusions that are found out in nature it selfe (through 
wisedome, learning, and Industrie) doo greatlie oppose 
and astonnish the capacitie of man : so (I sale) when 
deceipt and illusion is annexed thereunto, then is the wit, the faith, & 
constancie of man searched and tried. For if we shall yeeld that to 
be divine, supernaturall, and miraculous, which we cannot compre- 
hend ; a witch, a papist, a conjuror, a cousener, and a juggler may 
make us beleeve they are gods : or else with more impietie we shall 
ascribe such power and omnipotencie unto them, or unto the divell, as 
onelie and properlie apperteineth to God. As for example. By con- 
federacie or cousenage (as before I have said) I may seeme to manifest 
the secret thoughts of the hart, which (as we learne in Gods booke) 
none knoweth or searcheth, but God himselfe alone. And therfore, 
whosoever beleeveth that I can doo as I may seeme to doo, maketh 
a god of me, and is an idolater. In which respect, whensoever we 
heare papist, witch, conjuror, or cousener, take upon him moi^e than 
lieth in humane power to performe, we may know & boldlie sale it is 
a knacke of knaverie ; and no miracle at all. And further we may 
know, that when we understand it, it will not be woorth the knowing. 
And at the discoverie of these miraculous toies, we shall leave to 
wonder at them, and beginne to wonder at our selves, that could be so 
abused with/ babies. Howbeit, such things as God hath laid up 
secretlie in nature are to be weighed with great admiration, and to be 

of Witchcraft. chap. 17. 255 

searched out with such industrie, as may become a christian man : 

I meane, so as neither God, nor/ our neighbour be offended thereby, 220. 

which respect doubtlesse y^wwiji' a.r\d Jambres never had. We find in 

the scriptures diverse naturall and secret experiments practised ; as 

namehe that of Jacobs for pied sheepe : which are confirmed by pi'o- 

phane authors, and not oneHe verified in lambs and sheepe, but in 

horsses, pecocks, connies, &c. We read also of a woman that brought 

foorth a yoong blacke Moore, by meanes of an old blacke Moore who J- P"/- '^"f 

was m hir house at the tmie of her conception, whome she beheld in ral. mag. 

phantasie, as is supposed : howbeit, a gelous husband will not be 

satisfied with such phantasticall imaginations. For in truth a blacke 

Moore never faileth to beget blacke children, of what colour soever 

the other be : Et sic e cotitra. 

The xvii. Chapter. 

The opinion of ivitchmongers, that divels can create bodies, and of 
Pharaos magiciafis.. 

|T is affirmed hy James Sprenger and Henrie Institor, in 
M. Mai. who cite Albert In lib. de anifnalib. for their M.MaUf.p. 
purpose, that divels and witches also can truelie make '■ ''• '°' 
living creatures as well as God ; though not at an instant, 
yet verie suddenlie. Howbeit, all such as are rightlie informed in 
Gods word, shall manifestlie perceive and confesse the contrarie, as john. i, 3. 
hath beene by scriptures alreadie prooved, and may be confirmed by Coioss. 1,16. 
places infinite. And therefore I saie Jannes and /atnbres, though 
sathan and also Belzebiib had assisted them, could never have made 
the serpent or the frogs of nothing, nor yet have changed the waters 
with words. Neverthelesse, all the learned expositors of that place 
affirme, that they made a shew of creation, «S:c : exhibiting by cunning 
a resemblance of some of those miracles, which GOD wrought by the 
hand oi Moses. Yea S. Atigustine and manie other hold, that 
they made by art (and that trulie) the serpents, &c./ 

But that they may by art approch somewhat neerer 313- 

to those actions, than hath beene yet declared, 

shall and may appeere by these and 

manie other conclusions, 

if they be 



13- Booke. 

The discoverie 

The xviii. Chapter. 


To produce 
anie fowle 
out of an eg, 
without the 
helpe of 
the hen. 

* The mo- 
ther of mar- 

Two kind 
of todes, 
natural! & 

How to produce or make i/wnsters by art viagike^ and why Pharaos 
magicians could not 7nake lice. 

TRATO, Deniocritiis, Empedocles, and of late, Jo. Bap. 
N'eap. teach by what meanes monsters may be produced, 
both from beast and also from fowle. Aristotle himselfe 
teacheth to make a chicken have foure legs, and as manie 
wings, onlie by a doubled yolked eg : whereby also a serpent may be 
made to have manie legs. Or any thing that produceth egs, may 
likewise be made double membred, or dismembred : & the viler 
creature the sooner brought to monstrous deformitie, which in more 
221. noble creatures is more hardlie/ brought to passe. There are also 
prettie experiments of an eg, to produce anie fowle, without the 
naturall helpe of the hen : the which is brought to passe, if the eg be 
laid in the powder of the hens doong, dried and mingled with some of 
the hens fethers, & stirred everie fourth houre. You may also pro- 
duce (as they saie) the most venomous, noisome, and dangerous 
serpent, called a cockatrice, by melting a little arsenicke, and the 
poison of serpents, or some other strong venome, and drowning an eg 
therein, which there must remaine certeine dales ; and if the eg be 
set upright, the operation will be the better. This may also be 
doone, if the eg be laid in doong, which of all other things giveth the 
most singular and naturall heate : and as J. Bap. Neap, saith is 
*Mirabilitim rerum parens ; who also writeth, that Crines fccmincE 
jnenstruoscB are turned into serpents within short space : and he 
further saith, that basill being beaten, and set out in a moist place, 
betwixt a couple of tiles, dooth ingender scorpions. The ashes of a 
ducke, being put betweene two dishes, and set in a moist place, dooth 
ingender a huge tode : Quod etiajn efficit sanguis menstruosus. Manie 
J14. writers conclude, that there be two maner of todes, the/ one bred by 
naturall course and order of generation, the other growing of them- 
selves, which are called temporarie, being onlie ingendred of shewers 
and dust : and (as J. Bap. Neap, saith) they are easie to be made. 
Plutarch and Heraclides doo saie, that they have seene these to 
descend in raine, so as they have lien and cralled on the tops of 
houses, &c. Also Aelianus dooth saie, that he sawe frogs and todes, 
whereof the heads & shoulders were alive, & became flesh ; the 
hinder parts being but earth, & so cralled on two feete, the other 
being not yet fashioned or fullie framed. And Jlfacj-obius reporteth, 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap, ic 


that in Aegypt, mice growe of earth and shewers ; as also frogs, todes, 
and serpents in other places. They sale that Daiimatus Hispamis 
could make them when & as manie as he listed. He is no good 
angler, that knoweth not how soone the entrales of a beast, when they 
are buried, will engender maggots (which in a civiler terme are called 
gentles) a good bait for small fishes. Whosoever knoweth the order 
of preserving silkewormes, may perceive a like conclusion : bicause 
in the winter, that is a dead seed, which in the summer is a livelie 
creature. Such and greater experiments might be knowne io Jannes 
and Jambres, and serve well to their purpose, especiallie with such 
excuses, delaies, and cunning, as they could joine therewithall. But 
to proceed, and come a little neerer to their feats, and to shew you a 
knacke beyond their cunning ; I can assure you that of the fat of a 
man or a woman, lice are in verie short space ingendered : and yet I 
sale, Pharaos magicians could not make them, with all the cunning 
they had. Whereby you may perceive, that God indeed performed 
the other actions, to indurate P/iarao, though he thought his magicians 
did with no lesse dexteritie than Moses worke miracles and woonders. 
But some of the interpretors of that place excuse their ignorance in 
that matter, thus ; The divell (sale they) can make no creature under 
the quantitie of a barlie come, and lice being so little cannot therefore 
be created by them. As though he that can make the greater, could 
not make the lesse. A verie grosse absurditie. And as though 
that he which hath power over great, had not the like over 
small./ / 

of the in- 
wards of a 
beast are 
good for 

Giles. Alley . 
See the 
poore mans 

The xix. Chapter. 

j/j. 222. 

That great matters may be wrought by this art, when princes esteeme 
and niainteine it : of divers woonderftdl experimoits, and of 
strange conchisiotis in glasses, of the art perspective, &r'c. 

OWBEIT, these are but trifles in respect of other experi- 
ments to this effect ; speciallie when great princes 
mainteine & give countenance to students in those 
magicall arts, which in these countries and in this age is 
rather prohibited than allowed, by reason of the abuse commonlie 
coupled therewith ; which in truth is it that mooveth admiration and 
estimation of miraculous workings. As for example. If I afifirme, 
that with certeine charmes and popish praiers I can set an horsse or 
an asses head upon a mans shoulders, I shall not be beleeved ; or if 
I doo it, I shall be thought a witch. And yet if/. Bap. Neap, experi- 



13. Booke. 

The discoverie 

full experi- 

To set an 
horsses or 
an asses 
head on a 
mans neck 
and shoul- 

things to 
be doone 
by perspec- 
tive glasses. 

ments be true, it is no difficult matter to make it seeme so : and the 
charme of a witch or papist joined with the experiment, will also make 
the woonder seeme to proceed thereof. The words used in such case 
are unccrteine, and to be recited at the pleasure of the witch or cou- 
sener. But the conclusion is this : Cut off the head of a horsse or an 
asse (before they be dead) otherwise the vertue or strength thereof 
will be the lesse effectuall, and make an earthern vessell of fit 
capacitie to conteine the same, and let it be filled with the oile and 
fat therof ; cover it close, and dawbe it over with lome : let it 
boile over a soft fier three dales continuallie, that the flesh boiled 
may run into oile, so as the bare bones may be scene : beate the 
haire into powder, and mingle the same with the oile ; and annoint 
the heads of the standers by, and they shall seeme to have horsses or 
asses heads. If beasts heads be annointed with the like oile made of 
a mans head, they shall seeme to have mens faces, as diverse authors 
soberlie affirme. If a lampe be annointed heerewith, everie thing shall 
seeme most monstrous. It is also written, that if that which is called 

316. Spernia in anie beast be bur/ned, and anie bodies face therewithal! 
annointed, he shall seeme to have the like face as the beast had. 
But if you beate arsenicke verie fine, and boile it with a little sulphur 
in a covered pot, and kindle it with a new candle, the standers by will 
seeme to be hedlesse. Aqua composita and salt being fiered in the 
night, and all other lights extinguished, make the standers by seeme 
as dead. All these things might be verie well perceived and knowne, 
and also practised by J amies and Jambres. But the woonderous 
devises, and miraculous sights and conceipts made and conteined in 
glasse, doo farre exceed all other ; whereto the art perspective is verie 
necessarie. For it sheweth the illusions of them, whose experiments 
be seene in diverse sorts of glasses ; as in the hallowe, the plaine, the 
embossed, the columnarie, the pyramidate or piked, the turbinall, 
the bounched, the round, the cornerd, the inversed, the eversed, the 
massie, the regular, the irregular, the coloured and cleare glasses : 
for you may have glasses so made, as what image or favour soever 
you print in your imagination, you shall thinke you see the same 
therein. Others are so framed, as therein one may see what others 

223. doo/ in places far distant ; others, wherby you shall see men hanging 
in the aire ; others, whereby you may perceive men flieng in the 
aire ; others, wherin you may see one comming, & another going ; 
others, where one image shall seeme to be one hundred, &c. There 
be glasses also, wherein one man may see another mans image, and 
not his owne ; others, to make manie similitudes ; others, to make none 
at all. Others, contrarie to the use of all glasses, make the right side 
turne to the right, and the left side to the left ; others, that burne before 

of Witchcraft. 



and behind; others, that represent not the images received within them, 
but cast them farre ofif in the aire, appearing Uke aierie images, and 
by the collection of sunne beames, with great force setteth fier (verie 
farre off) in everie thing that may be burned. There be cleare glasses, 
that make great things seeme little, things farre off to be at hand ; 
and that which is neere, to be far off ; such things as are over us, to 
seeme under us ; and those that are under us, to be above us. There are 
some glasses also, that represent things in diverse colours, & them 
most gorgeous, speciallie any white thing. Finally, the thing most 
worthie of admiration concerning these glasses, is, that the lesser 
glass dooth lessen/ the shape : but how big so ever it be, it maketh the 
shape no bigger than it is. And therfore Atigustine thinketh some 
hidden mysterie to be therein. Vitellhis, and J. Bap. Neap, write 
largelie hereof. These I have for the most part seene, and have the 
receipt how to make them : which, if desire of brevitie had not for- 
bidden me, I would here have set downe. But I thinke not but 
Pharaos magicians had better experience than I for those and such 
like devises. And (as Poiiipanacius saith) it is most true, that some 
for these feats have beene accounted saints, some other witches. And 
therefore I sale, that the pope maketh rich witches, saints ; and 
burneth the poore witches. 

these glas- 
ses remem- 
ber that 
the eiesight 
is deceived : 
for Noyi est 
in speculo res 
guiE specula- 
tur in eo. 


Rash opini- 
on can ne- 
ver judge 

The XX, Chapter. 

A comparison betwixt Pharaos magicians and our witches, and how 
their cunning consisted in jtcggling knacks. 

JHUS you see that it hath pleased GOD to shew unto men 
that seeke for knowledge, such cunning in finding out, 
compounding, and framing of strange and secret things, 
as thereby he seemeth to have bestowed upon man, some 
part of his divinitie. Howbeit, God (of nothing, with his word) hath 
created all things, and dooth at his will, beyond the power and also 
the reach of man, accomplish whatsoever he list. And such miracles 
in times past he wrought by the hands of his prophets, as here he did 
by Moses in the presence of Pharao, which Jannes and Janibres 
apishlie followed. But to affirme that they by themselves, or by all 
the divels in hell, could doo indeed as Moses did by the power of the 
Holie-ghost, is woorsse than infidelitie. If anie object and sale, that 
our witches can doo such feats with words and charms, as Pharaos 
magicians did by their art, I denie it ; and all the world will never be 

An apish 
in Jannes 
and lam- 
bres of 

2 6o 

13. Booke. 

TJie discoverie 

Jo. Calvhii-, 
lib. institiii. i. 
cap. 8. 224. 

Clc. rccog. 3. 

Erast. in dis- 
putat. dc 

Actions un- 

possib'.e to 

divels : Ergo 

to witches 



[* Matt. 5, 36] 

Jamb, de my- 

able to shew it. That which they did, was openlie done ; as our 
witches and conjurors never doo anie/ thing: so as these cannot doo 
as they did. And yet (as Calvine saith of them) they were but 
j/tS". jugglers. Neither could they doo, as manie/ suppose. For as 
elements saith ; These magicians did rather seeme to doo these 
woonders, than worke them indeed. And if they made but prestigious 
shewes of things, I saie it was more than our witches can doo. For 
witchcrafts (as Erastus himselfe confesseth in drift of argument) are 
but old wives fables. If the magicians serpent had beene a verie 
serpent, it must needs have beene transformed out of the rod. And 
therein had beene a double worke of God ; to wit, the qualifieng and 
extinguishment of one substance, and the creation of another. Which 
are actions beyond the divels power, for he can neither make a bodie 
to be no bodie, nor yet no bodie to be a bodie ; as to make something 
nothing, and nothing something ; and contrarie things, one : naie, 
they cannot make one haire either white or blacke.* If Pharaos 
magicians had made verie frogs upon a sudden, whie could they not 
drive them awaie againe? It they could not hurt the frogs, whie 
should we thinke that they could make them ? Or that our witches, 
which cannot doo so much as counterfet them, can kill cattell and other 
creatures with words or wishes ? And therefore I saie with Javiblichiis, 
Quce fascinati iinaginaimir., prceter iniaginametita nulla habent 
actio7iis £r= essentice ve?'itate7n ; Such things as we being bewitched 
doo imagine, have no truth at all either of action or essence, beside 
the bare imagination. 

The xxi. Chapter. 

were not 
raaisters of 
their owne 


That the serpents and frogs were tritlie presented, and the water 
poisoned indeed by Jannes and Janibres, 0/ false prophets, and of 
their 7niracles, of Balams asse. 

RUELIE I thinke there were no inconvenience granted, 
though I should admit that the serpent and frogs were 
truelie presented, and the water truelie poisoned hyfatutes 
and fanibrcs ; not that they could execute such miracles of 
themselves, or by their familiars or divels : but that God, by the hands 
of those counterfet couseners, contrarie to their owne expectations, over- 
tooke them, and compelled them in their ridiculous wickednes to be/ 
instruments of his will and vengeance, upon their maister Pharao : 
so as by their hands God shewed some miracles, which he himselfe 

of Witchc7'aft. 

Chap. 21. 


wrought : as appeareth in Exodus. For God did put the spirit of 
truth into Baalams mouth, who was hiered to cursse his people. 
And ahhough he were a corrupt and false prophet, and went about a 
mischeevous enterprise ; yet God made him an instrument (against 
his will) to the confusion of the wicked. Which if it pleased God 
to doo here, as a speciall worke, whereby to shew his omnipotencie, 
to the confirmation of his peoples faith, in the doctrine of their 
Messias delivered unto them by the prophet Moses, then was it 
miraculous and extraordinarie, and not to be looked for now. And 
(as some suppose) there were then a consort or crew of false prophets, 
which could also foretell things to come, and worke miracles. I 
answer, it was extraordinarie and miraculous, & that it pleased God 
so/ to trie his people ; but he worketh not so in these dales : for the 
working of miracles is ceased. Likewise in this case it might well 
stand with Gods glorie, to use the hands of PJiaraos magicians, 
towards the hardening of their maisters hart ; and to make their 
illusions and ridiculous conceipts to become effectuall. For God had 
promised and determined to harden the heart of Pharao. As for the 
miracles which Moses did, they mollified it so, as he alwaies relented 
upon the sight of the same. For unto the greatnesse of his miracles 
were added such modestie and patience, as might have mooved even 
a heart of Steele or flint. But Pharaos frowardnes alwaies grew upon 
the magicians actions : the like example, or the resemblance whereof, 
we find not againe in the scriptures. And though there were such 
people in those daies suffered and used by God, for the accomplish- 
ment of his will and secret purpose : yet it foUoweth not, that now, 
when Gods will is wholie revealed unto us in his word, and his sonne 
exhibited (for whome, or rather for the manifestation of whose 
comming all those things were suffered or wrought) such things and 
such people should yet continue. So as I conclude, the cause being 
taken awaie, the thing proceeding thence remaineth not. And to 
assigne our witches and conjurors their roome, is to mocke and 
contemne Gods woonderfuU works ; and to oppose against them 
cousenages, juggling knacks, and things of nought. And therefore, 
as they must/ confesse, that none in these daies can doo as Moses 
did : so it may be answered, that none in these daies can doo as 
Jannes and Jambres did : who, if they had beene false prophets, as 
they were jugglers, had yet beene more privileged to exceed our old 
women or conjurors, in the accomplishing of miracles, or in prophe- 
sieng, &c. For who may be compared with Balaam ? Naie, I dare 
saie, that Balaams asse wrought a greater miracle, and more super- 
naturall, than either the pope or all the conjurors and witches in 
the world can doo at this dale. 

Exod. 10. 

God useth 
the wicked 
as instru- 
ments to 
execute his 
eounsels & 


The con- 
trarie ef- 
fects that 
the mira- 
cles of Mo- 
ses and the 
miracles of 
the Aegyp- 
tian magi- 
cias wroght 
in ihe hart 
of Pharao. 



13. Bookc. 

The discoverie 

Thai the 
art of jug- 
gling is 
more, or 
at least no 
les strange 
in working 
than con- 

To conclude, it is to be avouched (and there be proofes manifest 
enough) that our jugglers approch much neerer to resemble PJiaraos 
magicians, than either witches or conjurors, & can make a more 
livelie shew of working miracles than anie inchantors can doo : for 
these practise to shew that in action, which witches doo in words and 
termes. But that you may thinke I have reason for the maintenance 
of mine opinion in this behalfe, I will surcease by multitude of words 
to amplifie this place, referring you to the tract following of the art 
of juggling, where you shall read strange practises and cunning 
conveiances ; which bicause they cannot so convenientlie be de- 
scribed by phrase of speech, as that they should presentlie sinke into 
the capacitie of you that would be practitioners of the same ; I have 
caused them to be set foorth in forme and figure, that your under- 
standing might be somewhat helped by instrumentall demonstrations. 
And when you have perused that whole discoverie of juggling, 
compare the wonders thereof with the woonders imputed to conjurors 
and witches, (not omitting PJiaraos sorcerers at anie hand in this 
comparison) and I beleeve you will be resolved, that the miracles 
doone in Pharaos sight by them, and the miracles ascribed unto 
witches, conjurors, &c : may be well taken for false miracles, meere 
delusions, &c : and for such actions as are commonlie practised by 
cunning jugglers ; be it either by legierdemaine, confederacie, or 

321. 226. 

The xxii. Chapter. 

In what re- 
spects jug- 
gling is tol- 
lerable and 
also com- 

The art of juggling discovered, and in what points it dooth 
principallie consist. 

I OW because such occasion is ministred, and the matter 
so pertinent to my purpose, and also the life of witch- 
craft and cousenage so manifestlie delivered in the art 
of juggling ; I thought good to discover it, together with 
the rest of the other deceiptfull arts ; being sorie that it falleth out 
to my lot, to laie open the secrets of this mysterie, to the hinderance 
of such poore men as live thereby : whose dooings herein are not 
onlie toUerable, but greatlie commendable, so they abuse not the 
name of God, nor make the people attribute unto them his power ; 
but alwaies acknowledge wherein the art consisteth, so as thereby 
the other unlawfull and impious arts may be by them the rather 
detected and bewraied. 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 23. 

The true art therefore of juggling consisteth in legierdemaine ; to 
wit, the nimble conveiance of the hand, which is especiallie per- 
formed three waies. The first and principall consisteth in hiding and 
conveieng of balles, the second in the alteration of monie, the third 
in the shuffeling of the cards. He that is expert in these may shew 
much pleasure, and manie feats, and hath more cunning than all 
other witches or magicians. All other parts of this art are taught 
when they are discovered : but this part cannot be taught by any 
description or instruction, without great exercise and expense of 
time. And for as much as I professe rather to discover than teach 
these mysteries, it shall suffice to signifie unto you, that the endevor 
and drift of jugglers is onelie to abuse mens eies and judgements. 
Now therefore my meaning is, in words as plaine as I can, to rip up 
certeine proper tricks of that art ; whereof some are pleasant and 
delectable, other some dreadfull and desperate, and all but meere 
delusions, or counterfet actions, as you shall soone see by due obser- 
vation of everie knacke by me heereafter deciphered./ 

The three 
maine or 
of hand 
diioth con- 

The xxiii. Chapter. 


Of the ball, and the inan7ter of legierdemaine therewith, also 
notable feats with one or diverse balles. 

ONCERNING the ball, the plaies & devises thereof are 
infinite, in somuch as if you can by use handle them 
well, you may shewe therewith a hundreth feats. But 
whether you seeme to throw the ball into your left hand, 
or into your mouth, or into a pot, or up into the aier, &c : it is to be 
kept still in your right hand. If you practise first with a leaden 
bullet, you shall the sooner and better doo it with balles of corke. 
The first place at your first learning, where you are to bestow a great 
ball, is in the palme of your hand, with your ringfinger : but a small 
ball is to be placed with your/ thombe, betwixt your ringfinger and 
midlefinger, then are you to practise to doo it betwixt the other 
fingers, then betwixt the forefinger and the thombe, with the forefinger 
and midlefinger jointlie, and therein is the greatest and strangest 
cunning shewed. Lastlie the same small ball is to be practised in 
the palme of the hand, and by use you shall not onelie seeme to put 
anie one ball from you, and yet reteine it in your hand ; but you 
shall keepe foure or five as cleanelie and certeinelie as one. This 
being atteined unto, you shall worke woonderfuU feats : as for 

Great vari- 
etie of plaie 
with the 
balles, &c 


These feats 
are nimbly, 
cleanly, & 
swiftly to 
be convei- 
ed ; SI as the 
eies of the 
raav not 


13- Dooke. 

The discoverie 

the drift. 

dum that 
the juggler 
must set a 
good grace 
on the mat- 
ter : for that 
is verie re- 

» As, Hey, 
fortuna fu- 
rie, nun- 
quam cre- 
do, passe, 
passe, when 
come you 
sirra : See 
tag. 147. 

Laie three or foure balles before you, and as manie small candle- 
sticks, boUes, saltsellers, or saltseller covers, which is the best. 
Then first seeme to put one ball into your left hand, and therwithall 
seeme to hold the same fast : then take one of the candlesticks, 
or anie other thing (having a hollow foot, & not being too great) and 
seeme to put the ball which is thought to be in your left hand, under- 
neath the same, and so under the other candlesticks seeme to bestow 
the other balles : and all this while the beholders will suppose each 
ball to be under each candlesticke : this doone, some charme or 
forme of words is commonlie used. Then take up one candlesticke 
3^3' with one hand, and blow, saieng ; Lo, you see that is/ gone : & so 
likewise looke under ech candlesticke with like grace and words, & 
the beholders will woonder where they are become. But if you, in 
lifting up the candlesticks with your right hand, leave all those three 
or foure balles under one of them (as by use you may easilie doo, 
having turned them all downe into your hand, and holding them fast 
with your little and ringfingers) and take the candlesticke with your 
other fingers, and cast the balles up into the hollownes thereof (for 
so they will not roll so soone awaie) the standers by will be much 
astonied. But it will seeme woonderfuU strange, if also in shewing 
how there remaineth nothing under an other of those candlesticks, 
taken up with your left hand, you leave behind you a great ball, or 
anie other thing, the miracle will be the greater. For first they 
thinke you have pulled awaie all the balles by miracle ; then, that 
you have brought them all togither againe by like meanes, and they 
neither thinke nor looke that anie other thing remaineth behind under 
anie of them. And therefore, after manie other feats doone, returne 
to your candlesticks, remembring where you left the great ball, and 
in no wise touch the same ; but having an other like ball about you, 
seeme to bestow the same in maner and forme aforesaid, under a 
candlesticke which standeth furthest fr5 that where the ball lieth. 
And when you shall with *words or charmes seeme to conveie the 
same ball from under the same candlesticke, and afterward bring it 
under the candlesticke which you touched not, it will (I saie) seeme 
woonderfuU strange. 

To make a little ball swell hi your hand till it be verie great. 

TAke a verie great ball in your left hand, or three indifferent big 
balles ; and shewing one or three little balles, seeme to put 
them into your said left hand, concealing (as you may well doo) the 
other balles which were there in before : then use words, and make 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap 24. 


them seeme to swell, and open your hand, &c. This plaie is to be 
varied a hundreth waies : for as you find them all under one candle- 
sticke, so may you go to a stander by, and take off/ his hat or cap, 
and shew the balles to be there, by conveieng them thereinto, as you 
turne the bottome upward./ 


To consume {or rather to conveie) one or manie balles into 

IF you take one ball, or more, & seeme to put it into your other 
hand, and whilest you use charming words, you conveie them 
out of your right hand into your lap ; it will seeme strange. For 
when you open your left hand immediatlie, the sharpest lookers on 
will saie it is in your other hand, which also then you may open ; & 
when they see nothing there, they are greatlie overtaken. 


How to rap a wag upon the knuckles. 

But I will leave to speake anie more of the ball, for herein I might 
hold you all daie, and yet shall I not be able to teach you to 
use it, nor scarslie to understand what I meane or write concerning 
it : but certeinelie manie are persuaded that it is a spirit or a flie, 
&c. Memorandum^ that alwaies the right hand be kept open and 
streight, onlie keepe the palme from view. And therefore you may 
end with this miracle. ^ Laie one ball upon your shoulder, an other 
on your arme, and the third on the table : which because it is round, 
and will not easilie lie upon the point of your knife, you must bid a cheefeiie 

, . . , '^ . ^ , , ,, , to the moo 

Stander by laie it thereon, saieng that you meane to throwe all those ving of 
three balles into your mouth at once : and holding a knife as a pen an"j^|j|fr'th. 
in your hand, when he is laieng it upon the point of your knife, you 
may easilie with the haft rap him on the fingers, for the other matter 
wilbe hard to doo. 

[* Rom.] 

This feate 

The xxiiii. Chapter. 

Of conveiance of nionie. 

HE conveieng of monie is not much inferior to the ball, The monie 

but much easier to doo. The principall place to keepe must not be 

, , , of too small 

a peece of monie is the palme of your hand, the best nor of too 

peece to keepe is a testor ; but with exercise all will be 'u'^ference 

alike, except the mony be verie small, and then it is to be kept forhinde- 

M M 


11.. Booke. 

T/ie discoverie 

ring of the 



betwixt the fingers, almost at the fingers end, whereas the ball is to 
be kept beelowe neere to the palme./ 

tie if it be 
handled : 
for both the 
eare and 
the eie is 
by this de- 

To cofiveie 7nonie out of one of your hands into the other by 
3^5- legierdemaine. 

First you must hold open your right hand, & lay therin a tester, or 
some big peece of monie : then laie thereupon the top of your 
long left finger, and use words, and upon the sudden slip your right 
hand from your finger wherwith you held downe the testor, and bend- 
ing your hand a verie little, you shall reteine the testor still therein : 
and suddenlie (I sale) drawing your right hand through your left, you 
shall seeme to have left the testor there speciallie when you shut in 
due time your left hand. Which/ that it may more plainelie appeare 
229. to be trulie doone, you may take a knife, and seeme to knocke against 
it, so as it shall make a great sound : but in stead of knocking the 
peece in the left hand (where none is) you shall hold the point of the 
knife fast with the left hand, and knocke against the testor held in 
the other hand, and it will be thought to hit against the mony in the 
left hand. Then use words, and open your hand, and when nothing 
is seene, it will be woondered at how the testor was remooved. 

To convert or transubstantiate monie into cotmters, or counters 
into monie. 

ANother waie to deceive the lookers on, is to doo as before, with 
a testor ; and keeping a counter in the palme of the left hand 
secretlie to seeme to put the testor thereinto ; which being reteined 
still in the right hand, when the left hand is opened, the testor will 
seeme to be transubstantiated into a counter. 

Varietie of 
trickes may 
be shewed 
in juggling 
with mony. 

To put one testor into one hand, and an other into the other hand, 
and with words to bring thejn togither. 

HE that hath once atteined to the facilitie of reteining one peece 
of monie in his right hand, may shew a hundreth pleasant 
conceipts by that meanes, and may reserve two or three as well as 
one. And lo then may you seeme to put one peece into your left 
hand, and reteining it still in your right hand, you may togither 
therewith take up another like peece, and so with words seeme to 
bring both peeces togither./ 

of Witchcraft. chap. 24. 267 

To put one testor into a strangers hafid, and another into 
your owne, and to conveie both into the strangers hand with 

ALso you may take two testers evenlie set togither, and put the 
same in stead of one testor, into a strangers hand, and then 
making as though you did put one testor into your left hand, with 
words you shall make it seeme that you conveie the testor in your 
hand, into the strangers hand : for when you open your said left 
hand, there shall be nothing scene ; and he opening his hand shall 
find two, where he thought was but one. By this devise (I sale) a 
hundreth conceipts may be shewed. 

How to doo the same or the Ukefeate otherwise. 

TO keepe a testor, &c : betwixt your finger, serveth speciallie for 
this and such like purposes. Hold out your hand, and cause 
one to laie a testor upon the palme thereof, then shake the same up 
almost to your fingers ends, and putting your thombe upon it ; you 
shall easilie, with a little practise, conveie the edge betwixt the middle 
and forefinger, whilest you proffer to put it into your other hand you must 
(provided alwaies that the edge appeere not through the fingers on take heed 

, , , • 1 X , • , , • 1 1 / , / , ^ , that you be 230. 

the backside) which being doone, take up/ another testor (which you dose and 
may cause a stander by to laie downe) and put them both together, you'd°scre-^ 
either closelie instead of one into a strangers hand, or keepe them dit the art. 
still in your owne : & (after words spoken) open your hands, and 
there being nothing in one, and both peeces in the other, the behold- 
ers will woonder how they came togither. 

To throwe a peece of motiie awaie, and to find it againe where 
you list. 

YOu may, with the middle or ringfinger of the right hand, conveie 
a testor into the palme of the same hand, «& seeming to cast it 
awaie, keepe it still : which with confederacie will seeme strange ; to Use and ex- 

^ o ' ercise ma- 

wit, when you find it againe, where another hath bestowed the verie keth men 
like peece. But these things without exercise cannot be doone, and p^ctTve." 
therefore I will proceed to shew things to be/ brought to passe by J2y. 
monie, with lesse difficultie ; & yet as strange as the rest : which 
being unknowne are marvellouslie commended, but being knowne, 
are derided, & nothing at all regarded. 


13. Booke. 

The disc over ie 

This feat is 
the stran- 
ger if it be 
doone by 
night ; a 
placed be- 
tweene the 
lookers on 
& the jug- 
gler : for by 
that means 
their eie- 
sight is hin- 
dered from 
the conceit. 
[* =himwardl 

A discove- 
rie of this 

With words to inake a groat or a testor to leape out of a pot, or 
to j-tat alongst upon a table. 

YOu shall see a juggler take a groat or a testor, and throwe it into 
a pot, or laie it in the midst of a table, & with inchanting 
words cause the same to leape out of the pot, or run towards him, 
or from him ward* alongst the table. Which will seeme miraculous, 
untill you knowe that it is doone with a long blacke haire of a womans 
head, fastened to the brim of a groat, by meanes of a little hole 
driven through the same with a Spanish needle. In like sort you 
may use a knife, or anie other small thing : but if you would have it 
go from you, you must have a confederate, by which meanes all 
juggling is graced and amended. 

To make a groat or a testor to si7ike through a table, aiid to vanish 
out of a handkercher verie strangelie. 

Juggler also sometimes will borrow a groat or a testor, &c : and 
marke it before you, and seeme to put the same into the mid- 
dest of a handkercher, and wind it so, as you may the better see and 
feele it. Then will he take you the handkercher, and bid you feele 
whether the groat be there or naie ; and he will also require you to 
put the same under a candlesticke, or some such thing. Then will 
he send for a bason, and holding the same under the boord right 
against the candlesticke, will use certeine words of inchantments ; 
and in short space you shall heare the groat fall into the bason. This 
doone, one takes off the candlesticke, and the juggler taketh the 
handkercher by a tasseil, and shaketh it ; but the monie is gone : 
which seemeth as strange as anie feate whatsoever, but being knowne, 
the miracle is turned to a bable. For it is nothing else, but to sowe 
a groat into the corner of a handkercher, finelie covered with a peece 
of linnen, little bigger than your groat : which corner you must con- 
veie in steed of the groat delivered to you, into the middle of your 
231. handkercher ; leaving the other either in your hand/ or lap, which 
328. afterwards you must/ seeme to pull through the boord, letting it fall 
into a bason, &c. 


A notable tricke to transforme a counter to a groat. 

TAke a groat, or some lesse peece of monie, and grind it verie 
thin at the one side ; and take two counters, and grind them, 
the one at the one side, the other on the other side : glew the smooth 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 25. 


side of the groat to the smooth side of one of the counters, joining 
them so close together as may be, speciallie at the edges, which may 
be so filed, as they shall seeme to be but one peece ; to wit, one side 
a counter, and the other side a groat. Then take a verie little greene 
waxe (for that is softest and therefore best) and laie it so upon the 
smooth side of the other counter, as it doo not much discolour the 
groat : and so will that counter with the groat cleave togither, as 
though they were glewed ; and being filed even with the groat and 
the other counter, it will seeme so like a perfect entire counter, that 
though a stranger handle it, he shall not bewraie it ; then having a 
little touched your forefinger, and the thombe of your right hand 
with soft waxe, take therewith this counterfet counter, and laie it 
downe openlie upon the palme of your left hand, in such sort as an 
auditor laieth downe his counters, wringing the same hard, so as you 
may leave the glewed counter with the groat apparentlie in the palme 
of your left hand ; and the smooth side of the waxed counter will 
sticke fast upon your thombe, by reason of the wax wherwith it is 
smeered, and so may you hide it at your pleasure. Provided alwaies, 
that you laie the waxed side downeward, and the glewed side upward: 
then close your hand, and in or after the closing thereof turne the 
peece, & so in stead of a counter (which they suppose to be in your 
hand) you shall seeme to have a groat, to the astonishment of the 
beholders, if it be well handled./ 

The jug- 
gler must 
have none 
of his trin- 
kets wan- 
ting : besides 
that, it be- 
him to be 
least he 
mistake his 

The XXV. Chapter. 


An excellent feat, to make a two penie peece lie plaine in the palme 
of your hand, and to be passed fro7n thence when yon list. 

|UT a little red wax (not too thin) upon the naile of your 
longest finger, then let a stranger put a two penie peece 
into the palme of your hand, and shut your fist suddenlie, 
and conveie the two penie peece upon the wax, which 
with use you may so accomplish, as no man shall perceive it. Then 
and in the meane time use *words of course, and suddenlie open 
your hand, holding the tippes of your fingers rather lower than 
higher than the palme of your hand, and the beholders will woonder 
where it is become. Then shut your hand suddenlie again, & laie 
a wager whether it be there or no ; and you may either leave it there, 
or take it awaie with you at your pleasure. This (if it be willt 
handled) hath more admiration than any other feat of the hand. 

» As, Ailif, 
casyl, zaze, 
hit mel 
meltat : Sa- 
turnus, Ju- 
piter, Mars, 
Sol, Venus, 
Luna: or 
5uch like, 
[t lor well] 


13 Booke. 

The discoverie 

[* Rom.] Memorandum* this may be best handled, by putting the wax upon 

the two penie peece, but then must you laie it in your hand your 

232. To con7icie a testor out of ones hand that holdeth it fast. 

STicke a little wax upon your thombe, and take a stander by by 
the finger, shewing him the testor, and telling him you will put 
the same into his hand : then wring it downe hard with your waxed 
thombe, and using many words looke him in the face, & as soone as 
you perceive him to looke in your face, or fro your hand, suddenlie 
take awaie your thombe, & close his hand, and so will it seeme to 
him that the testor remaineth : even as if you wring a testor upon 
ones forehead, it will seeme to sticke, when it is taken awaie, espe- 
ciallie if it be wet. Then cause him to hold his hand still, and with 
speed put into another mans hand (or into your owne) two testors 
jjo. in stead of one, and use words of course, wher/by you shall make 
not onelie the beholders, but the holders beleeve, when they open 
their hands, that by inchantment you have brought both togither. 

In these 
knacks of 
cie Feats 
had the 
name, whi- 
lest he li- 

To throw e a peece of monie into a deepe pond, and to fetch it againe 
from whence yotc list. 

THere be a marvellous number of feats to be doone with monie, 
but if you will worke by private confederacie, as to marke a 
shilling, or anie other thing, and throwe the same into a river or deepe 
pond, and having hid a shilling before with like marks in some other 
secret place ; bid some go presentlie & fetch it, making them beleeve, 
that it is the verie same which you threw into the river : the beholders 
will marvell much at it. And of such feats there may be doone a 
marvellous number ; but manie more by publike confederacie, 
whereby one may tell another how much monie he hath in his pursse, 
and a hundreth like toies, and all with monie. 

A knacke 
more mer- 
rie than 

To conveie one shilling being in one hand into another, holding 
your armes abroad like a rood. 

Evermore it is necessarie to mingle some merie toies among your 
grave miracles, as in this case of monie, to take a shilling in 
each hand, and holding your armes abroad, to laie a wager that you 
will put them both into one hand, without bringing them anie whit 
neerer togither. The wager being made, hold your armes abroad 

of Witchc7'aft. 

Chap. 26. 


like a rood, and turning about with your bodie, laie the shilling out 
of one of your hands upon the table, and turning to the other side 
take it up with the other hand : and so you shall win your wager. 

How to rap a wag on the knuckles. 

DEliver one peece of monie with the left hand to one, and to a 
second person another, and offer him that you would rap on 
the fingers the third ; for he (though he be ungratious and subtill) 
seeing the other receive monie, will not lightlie refuse it : and when 
he offereth to take it, you may rap him on the fingers with a knife, 
or somewhat else held in the right/ hand, saieng that you knew by your 233 
familiar, that he ment to have kept it from you./ 

Another to 
the same 
raid in pag. 

The xxvi. Chapter. 

To transforme ante one small tiling into anie other forme by 
folding of paper. 

AKE a sheete of paper, or a handkercher, and fold or 
double the same, so as one side be a little longer than 
an other : then put a counter betweene the two sides or 
leaves of the paper or handkercher, up to the middle of 
the top of the fold, holding the same so as it be not perceived, and 
laie a groat on the outside thereof, right against the counter, and fold 
it downe to the end of the longer side : and when you unfold it 
againe, the groat will be where the counter was, and the counter 
where the groat was ; so as some will suppose that you have transub- 
stantiated the monie into a counter, and with this manie feats may 
be doone. 

The like or rather stranger than it may be done, with two papers 
three inches square a peece, divided by two folds into three equall 
parts at either side, so as each folded paper remaine one inch square: 
then glew the backsides of the two papers together as they are folded, 
& not as they are open, & so shall both papers seeme to be but one ; 
& which side soever you open, it shall appeare to be the same, if you 
hide handsomelie the bottome, as you may well doo with your middle 
finger, so as if you have a groat in the one and a counter in the other, 
you (having shewed but one) may by turning the paper seeme to 
transubstantiate it. This may be best performed, by putting it under 
a candlesticke, or a hat, &c : and with -'words seeme to doo the feat. 


* Such as 
you shall 
find in pag. 
323. & 329- 
in the mar- 
ginal notes 
or some 
terms of 
your owne 


13- Booke. 

The discoverie 

The xxvii. Chapter. 

Of cards, with good cautions how to avoid cottsenage therein: 
speciall rules to conveie and handle the cards, and the maner and 
order how to accotnplish all difficult and strange things wrought 
with cards. 


Of dice 
plaie & the 
like un- 
mark these 
two olde 
verses : Lu- 
dens taxillis 
bene respice 
quid sit in 234. 
illis, Mors tua 
fors tua. res 
tua spes tua 
fendet in il- 
lis: and re- 


||AVING now bestowed some waste monie among you, I 
will set you to cards ; by which kind of witchcraft a 
great number of people have juggled awaie not onelie 
their monie, but also their lands,/ their health, their 
time, and their honestie. I dare not (as I could) shew the lewd 
juggling that chetors practise, least it minister some offense to the 
well disposed, to the simple hurt and losses, and to the wicked 
occasion of evill dooing. But I would wish all gamesters to beware, 
not onlie with what cards and dice they plaie, but speciallie with 
whome & where they exercise gaming. And to let dice passe (as 
whereby a man male be inevitablie cousened) one that is skilfull to 
make and use Bumcards, may undoo a hundreth wealthie men that 
are given to gaming : but if he have a confederate present, either of/ 
the plaiers or standers by, the mischiefe cannot be avoided. If you 
plaie among strangers, beware of him that seemes simple or drunken ; 
for under their habit the most speciall couseners are presented, & 
while you thinke by their simplicitie and imperfections to beguile 
them (and therof perchance are persuaded by their confederats, your 
verie freends as you thinke) you your selfe will be most of all over- 
taken. Beware also of bettors by, and lookers on, and namelie of 
them that bet on your side : for whilest they looke in your game 
without suspicion, they discover it by signes to your adversaries, with 
whome they bet, and yet are their confederates. 

But in shewing feats, and juggling with cards, the principall point 
consisteth in shuffling them ninjblie, and alwaies keeping one certeine 
card either in the bottome, or in some knowne place of the stocke, 
foure or five cards from it. Hereby you shall seeme to worke woon- 
ders ; for it will be easie for you to see or spie one card, which 
though you be perceived to doo, it will not be suspected, if you 
shuffle them well afterwards. And this note I must give you, that in 
reserving the bottome card, you must alwaies (whilest you shuffle) 
keepe him a little before or a little behind all the cards lieng under- 
neath him, bestowing him (I sale) either a little beyond his fellowes 
before, right over the forefinger, or else behind the rest, so as the little 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 27. 


finger of the left hand may meete with it : which is the easier, the 
readier, and the better waie. In the beginning of your shuffling, shuffle 
as thicke as you can ; and in the end throw upon the stocke the nether 
card (with so manie mo at the least as you would have preserved for 
anie purpose) a little before or behind the rest. Provided alwaies, that 
your forefinger, if the packe be laied before, or the little finger, if the 
packe lie be/hind, creepe up to meete with the bottome card, and not lie 333. 
betwixt the cards : and when you feele it, you may there hold it, untill 
you have shuffled over the cards againe, still leaving your kept card be- 
low. Being perfect herein, you may doo almost what you list with the 
cards. By this meanes, what packe soever you make, though it 
consist of eight, twelve, or twentie cards, you may keepe them still 
together unsevered next to the nether card, and yet shuffle them often 
to satisfie the curious beholders. As for example, and for brevities 
sake, to shew you diverse feats under one. 

How to deliver outfoure aces, and to convert them into 
foure knaves. 

MAke a packe of these eight cards ; to wit, foure knaves and 
foure aces : and although all the eight cards must lie immedi- 
atlie together, yet must ech knave and ace be evenlie severed, and 
the same eight cards must lie also in the lowest place of the bunch. 
Then shuffle them so, as alwaies at the second shuffling, or at least 
wise at the end of your shuffling the said packe, and of the packe one 
ace may lie nethermost, or so as you may know where he goeth and 
lieth : and alwaies (I saie) let your foresaid packe with three or foure 
cardsmorelie unseparablie together immediatlie upon and with that ace. 
Then using some speech or other devise, and putting your hands with 
the cards to the edge of the table to hide the action, let out privilie a 
peece of the second card, which is one of the knaves, holding/ foorth 
the stocke in both your hands, and shewing to the standers by the 
nether card (which is the ace or kept card) covering also the head or 
peece of the knave (which is the next card) with your foure fingers, 
draw out the same knave, laieng it downe on the table : then shuffle 
againe, keeping your packe whole, and so have you two aces lieng 
together in the bottome. And therfore, to reforme that disordered 
card, as also for a grace and countenance to that action, take off the 
uppermost card of the bunch, and thrust it into the middest of the 
cards ; and then take awaie the nethermost card, which is one of your 
said aces, and bestow him likewise. Then may you begin as before, 
shewing an other ace, and in steed thereof, laie downe an other knave: 
and so foorth, untill in steed of foure aces you/ have laied downe foure 

N N 

You must 
be well ad- 
vised in the 
shuffling of 
the bunch, 
least you 
your selfe. 



2 74 i3- Booke. TJic discoverie 

knaves. The beholders all this while thinking that there lie foure 
aces on the table, are greatlie abused, and will marvell at the trans- 

How to tell one 7vhat card he seeth in the bottome, when the 
same card is shiifflcd into the stocke. 

WHen you have seene a card privilie, or as though you marked it 
not, laie the same undermost, and shuffle the cards as before 
you are taught, till your card lie againe below in the bottome. Then 
shew the same to the beholders, willing them to remember it : then 
shuffle the cards, or let anie other shuffle them ; for you know the 
card alreadie, and therefore may at anie time tell them what card they 
^ , saw : which* neverthelesse would be done with great circumstance and 

* For that .,...,. 

will drawe shew of difficultie. 

the action 
into the 
greater ad- 

'""■^*'°"- An other tvaie to doo the same, haviiig yonr sclfe indeed never 

seene the card. 

IF you can see no card, or be suspected to have seene that which 
you meane to shew, then let a stander by first shuffle, and after- 
wards take you the cards into your hands, and (having shewed and 
not seene the bottome card) shuffle againe, and keepe the same card, 
as before you are taught ; and either make shift then to see it when 
their suspicion is past, which male be done by letting some cards fall, 
or else laie downe all the cards in heaps, remembring where you laid 
your bottome card. Then spie how manie cards lie in some one 
heape, and laie the heape where your bottome card is upon that 
heape, and all the other heapes upon the same : and so, if there were 
five cards in the heape wheron you laied your card, then the same 
must be the sixt card, which now you may throw out, or looke upon 
without suspicion : and tell them the card they saw. 

To tell one luiiJtoitt confederacie what card lie thinketh. 

LAie three cards on a table, a little waie distant, and bid a stander 
by be true and not waver, but thinke one of them three, and by 
thought. his eie you shall assuredlie perceive which he both seeth and thinketh. 

335. And you shall doo the like, if you cast downe a whole/ paire of cards 
236. with the faces upward,/ wherof there will be few or none plainlie 
perceived, and they also coate cards. But as you cast them downe 
suddenlie, so must you take them up presentlie, marking both his eie 
and the card whereon he looketh. 

of WitcJicraft. 

Chap. 28. 


The xxviii. Chapter. 

HoiiJ to tell what card ante man tliinketh, how to conveie the sa/ne 
into a kernell of a nut or cherts tone, &^c: and the same again e 
into ones pocket : hoiu to make one draive the same or anie card 
yon list, and all under one devise. 

AKE a nut, or a cheristone, & burne a hole through the 
side of the top of the shell, and also through the kernell 
(if you will) with a hot bodkin, or boare it with a nail ; 
and with the eie of a needle pull out some of the kernell, 
so as the same may be as wide as the hole of the shell. Then write 
the number or name of a card in a peece of fine paper one inch or 
halfe an inch in length, and halfe so much in bredth, and roll it up 
hard : then put it into a nut, or cheristone, and close the hole with a 
little red waxe, and rub the same with a litle dust, and it will not be 
perceived, if the nut or cheristone be browne or old. Then let 
your confederate thinke that card which you have in your nut, &c : 
and either conveie the same nut or cheristone into some bodies 
pocket, or laie it in some strange place : then make one drawe the 
same out of the stocke held in your hand, which by use you may 
well doo. But sale not ; I will make you perforce draw such a 
card ; but require some stander by to draw a card, saieng that it 
skils not what card he draw. And if your hand serve you to use 
the cards well, you shall prefer unto him, and he shall receive (even 
though he snatch at an other) the verie card which you kept, and 
your confederate thought, and is written in the nut, and hidden in 
the pocket, &c. You must (while you hold the stocke in your hands, 
tossing the cards to and fro) remember alwaies to keepe your card 
in your eie, and not to loose the sight thereof. Which feate, till 
you be perfect in, you may/ have the same privilie marked ; and when 
you perceive his hand readie to draw, put it a little out towards his 
hand, nimblie turning over the cards, as though you numbred them, 
holding the same more loose and open than the rest, in no wise suffer- 
ing him to draw anie other : which if he should doo, you must let three 
or foure fall, that you may beginne againe. II This will seeme most 
strange, if your said paper be inclosed in a button, and by confederacie 
sowed upon the doublet or cote of anie bodie. This tricke they com- 
monlie end with a nut full of inke, in which case some wag or unhappie 
boie is to be required to thinke a card ; and having so doone, let the 
nut be delivered him to cracke, which he will not refuse to doo, if he 
have seene the other feate plaied before./ 

Tricks with 
cards, &c : 
which must 
be doone 
with confe- 


A iiierrie 
the like 
you shall 
find in pag. 
324, & ?30. 


13 Booke. 

TJie discoverie 


The xxix. Chapter. 

Fast and 
loose with a 


Of fast or loose, hoiu to ktiit a hard knot upon a handkercher, and 
to tindoo the sajne with words, 

I HE Aegyptia7is )\xg<^v[\% witchcraft or sortilegie standeth 
much in fast or loose, whereof though I have written 
somwhat generalHe alreadie, yet having such oportunitie 
I will here shew some of their particular feats ; not 
treating of their common tricks which is so tedious, nor of their for- 
tune telling which is so impious ; and yet both of them meere 
cousenages. IT Make one plaine loose knot, with the two corner 
ends of a handkercher, and seeming to draw the same veriehard, hold 
fast the bodie of the said handkercher (neere to the knot) with your 
right hand, pulling the contrarie end with the left hand, which is the 
corner of that which you hold. Then close up handsomlie the knot, 
which will be yet somewhat loose, and pull the handkercher so with 
your right hand, as the left hand end may be neere to the knot : then 
will it seeme a true and a firme knot. And to make it appeare more 
assuredlie to be so indeed, let a stranger pull at the end which you hold 
in your left hand, whilest you hold fast the other in your right 
hand : and then holding the knot with your forefinger & thombe, 
& the nether part of your handkercher with your other fingers,/ 
as you hold a bridle when you would with one hand slip up the knot 
and lengthen your reines. This doone, turne your handkercher over 
the knot with the left hand, in dooing whereof you must suddenlie 
slip out the end or corner, putting up the knot of your handkercher 
with your forefinger and thombe, as you would put up the foresaid 
knot of your bridle. Then deliver the same (covered and wrapt in 
the middest of your handkercher) to one, to hold fast, and so after 
some words used, and wagers laied, take the handkercher and shake 
it, and it will be loose. 

Fasl or lose 
with whip- 
coids and 

A notable feate of fast or loose j nainelie, to pull three beads tofies 
from off a cord, while you hold fast the e7ids thereof without 
remooving of your hand. 

TAke two little whipcords of two foote long a peece, double 
them equallie, so as there may appeare foure ends. Then take 
three great headstones, the hole of one of them beeing bigger than 
the rest ; and put one headstone upon the cie or bowt of the one 

of Witchcraft. 

Chap. 30. 


cord, and an other on the other cord. Then take the stone with 
the greatest hole, and let both the bowts be hidden therein: which 
may Ue the better doone, if you put the eie of the one into the eie 
or bowt of the other. Then pull the middle bead upon the same, 
being doubled over his fellow, and so will the beads seeme to be 
put over the two cords without partition. For holding fast in each 
band the two ends of the two cords, you may tosse them as you 
list, and make it seeme manifest to the beholders, which may not see 
how you have doone it, that the beadstons are put upon the two 
cords without anie fraud. Then must you seeme to adde more 
effectuall binding of those headstones to the string, and make one/ 
halfe of a knot with one of the ends of each side ; which is for no 238. 
other purpose, but that when the headstones be taken awaie, the This con- 
cords may be scene in the case which the beholders suppose them musu^e 
to be in before. For when you have made your halfe knot (which ciose'ie 

, , ^ , doone : hrgo 

m anie wise you may not double to make a perfect knot) you must it must be 

deliver into the hands of some stander by those two cords ; namelie, "g°s wofke. 

two ends evenlie set in one hand, and two in the other, and then 

with a wager, &c : beginne to pull off your headstones, &c: which if 

you handle nimblie, and in the end cause him to pull his two ends, 

the two cords will/ shew to be placed plainelie, and the headstones jjiJ. 

to have come through the cords. But these things are so hard and 

long to be described, that I will leave them ; whereas I could shew 

great varietie. 

The XXX. Chapter. 

Juggliftg knacks by confederacies and how to know whether one 
cast crosse or pile by the ringing. 

AIE a wager with your confederate (who must seeme 
simple, or obstinatlie opposed against you) that standing 
behind a doore, you will (by the sound or ringing of 
the monie) tell him whether he cast crosse or pile: so 
as when you are gone, and he hath fillipped the monie before the 
witnesses who are to be cousened, he must sale ; What is it, if it 
be crosse ; or What ist, if it be pile : or some other such signe, as 
you are agreed upon, and so you need not faile to gesse rightlie. 
By this meanes (if you have anie invention) you may seeme to doo 
a hundreth miracles, and to discover the secrets of a rnans thoughts, 
or words spoken a far off. 

What is it ? 
What ist ? 
signes of 


13. Bookc. 

The discoverie 

To make a shoale of goslings draiue a timber log. 

TO make a shoale of goslings, or (as they saie) a gaggle of geese 
to seeme to drawe a timber log, is doone by that verie meanes 
that is used, when a cat dooth drawe a foole through a pond or 
river : but handled somewhat further off from the beholders. 

ftate of c5- 



To make a pot or anie such thing standing fast on the aipboord^ 
to fall doiune thense by vertue of words. 

LEt a cupboord be so placed, as your confederate may hold a 
blacke thred without in the court, behind some window of that 
roome ; and at a certeine lowd word spoken by you, he may pull 
the same thred, being woond about the pot, &c. And this was the 
feate oi Eleazar, which, fosephus reporteth to be such a miracle./ 

To make one danse naked. 

MAke a poore boie confederate with you, so as after charmes, 
&c : spoken by you, he uncloth himselfe, and stand naked, 
seeming (whilest he undres/seth him) to shake, stampe, and crie, still 
hastening to be unclothed, till he be starke naked: or if you can procure 
none to go so far, let him onelie beginne to stampe and shake, &c: 
and to uncloth him, and then you may (for the reverence of the com- 
panie) seeme to release him. 

* As, Droch 
myioch, & 

betu ba- 
roch assma- 
aroth, rou- 
see faroun- 
see, hey 
passe passe, 
&c : or such 
like strange 

Pope and 
Tailor co- 
[«■ ? then] 

To transforme or alter the colotir of 07ies cap or hat. 

TAke a confederates hat, and use certeine *words over it, and 
deliver it to him againe, and let him seeme to be wroth, and 
cast it backe to you againe, affirming that his was a good new blacke 
hat, but this is an old blew hat, &c : and then you may seeme to 
countercharme it, and redeliver it, to his satisfaction. 

How to tell where a stollen horsse is become. 

BY meanes of confederacie, Steeveft Tailor and one Pope abused 
divers countrie people. For Steeven Tailor would hide awaie his 
neighbours horsses, &c: and send them* to Pope, (whom he before had 
told where they were) promising to send the parties untohim, whomehe 
described and made knowne by divers signes : so as this Pope would 
tell them at their first entrance unto the doore. Wherefore they came, 
and would saie that their horsses were stollen, but the theefe should 

of Witchcraft. 



be forced to bring backe the horsses, &c : and leave them within one 
mile south and by west, &c: of his house, even as the plot was laid, and 
the packe made before by Steeven and him. This Pope is said of some 
to be a witch, of others he is accompted a conjuror ; but commonlie 
called a wise man, which is all one with a soothsaier or witch./ 

The xxxi. Chapter. 


Boxes to alter one grame into another, or to consuine the graine or 
come to notldng. 

HERE be divers juggling boxes with false bottoms, wherein 
manie false feates are wrought. First they have a box 
covered or rather footed alike at each end, the bottome 
of the one end being no deeper than as it may conteine 
one lane of corne or pepper glewed thereupon. Then use they to put 
into the hollow end thereof some other kind of graine, ground or un- 
ground ; then doo they cover it, and put it under a hat or candle- 
sticke : and either in putting it therinto, or pulling it thence, they 
turne the box, and open the contrarie end, wherein is shewed a con- 
trarie graine : or else they shew the glewed end first (which end they 
suddenlie thrust into a boll or bag of such graine as is glewed alreadie 
thereupon) and secondlie the emptie box./ 

Note the 
maner of 
this con- 

H01V to conveie {with words or chartnes) the corne conteined in 
one box into an other. 


THere is another box fashioned like a bell, wherinto they doo put 
so much, and such corne or spice as the foresaid hollow box can 
conteine. Then they stop or cover the same with a peece of lether, 
as broad* as a tester, which being thrust up hard towards the midle [*=thick] 
part or waste of the said bell, will sticke fast, & beare up the corne. 
And if the edge of the leather be wet, it will hold the better. Then 
take they the other box dipped (as is aforesaid) in corne, and set downe 
the same upon the table, the emptie end upward, saieng that they will 
conveie the graine therein into the other box or bell : which being 
set downe somewhat hard upon the table, the leather and the corne 
therein will fall downe, so as the said bell being taken up from the out it coyer 

, ,, , ,• 1 1 T , 1 -11 u & hide the 

table, you shall see the corne lieng thereon, and the stopple will be leather, &c. 
hidden therwith, & covered : & when you uncover the other box, 
nothing shall remaine therein. But presentlie the corne must be 
swept downe with one hand into the other, or into your lap or hat. 

You must 
take heed 
that when 
the corne 


13. Rooke. 

The discoverie 


* See the 12 
booke of 
this disco- 
verie, in the 
title Habar, 
cap. 4. pag. 
220, 221. 

Manie feats maie be done with this box, as to put therein a tode, 
affirming the same to have beene so turned from corne, &c: and then 
manie beholders will; suppose the same to be the jugglers divell, 
whereby his feats and miracles are wrought. But in truth, there is 
more cunning witchcraft used in transferring of corne after this sort, 
than is in the transferring of one mans corne in the grasse into an 
other mans feeld : which* the lawe of the twelve tables dooth so 
forceablie condemne : for the'one is a cousening slight, the other is a 
false lie. 

Of an other boxe to convert ivheat into flow er with words, St'c. 

THere is an other boxe usuall among jugglers, with a bottome in 
the middle thereof, made for the like purposes. One other also 
like a tun, wherin is shewed great varietie of stuffe, as well of liquors 
as spices, and all by means of an other little tun within the same, 
wherein and whereon liquors and spices are shewed. But this would 
aske too long a time of descripton. 

These are 
such sleights 
that even a 
may doo 
them : and 
vet prettie, 

Of diverse petie juggling knacks. 

THere are manie other beggerlie feats able to beguile the simple, 
as to make an ote stir by spetting thereon, as though it 
came to passe by words. Item to deliver meale, pepper, ginger, or 
anie powder out of the mouth after the eating of bread, &c: which is 
doone by reteining anie of those things stuffed in a little paper or 
bladder conveied into your mouth, and grinding the same with your 
teeth. ^ Item, a rish through a peece of a trencher, having three 
holes, and at the one side the rish appearing out in the second, at the 
other side in the third hole